Browsing by Subject "Ischemic stroke"

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  • Palm, Frederick; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Aigner, Annette; Becher, Heiko; Buggle, Florian; Bauer, Matthias F.; Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar; Safer, Anton; Urbanek, Christian; Grau, Armin J. (2016)
    Background and aims: Infectious diseases contribute to stroke risk, and are associated with socioeconomic status (SES). We tested the hypotheses that the aggregate burden of infections increases the risk of ischemic stroke (IS) and partly explains the association between low SES and ischemic stroke. Methods: In a case-control study with 470 ischemic stroke patients and 809 age- and sex-matched controls, randomly selected from the population, antibodies against the periodontal microbial agents Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, against Chlamydia pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (IgA and IgG), and CagA-positive Helicobacter pylori (IgG) were assessed. Results: IgA seropositivity to two microbial agents was significantly associated with IS after adjustment for SES (OR 1.45 95% CI 1.01-2.08), but not in the fully adjusted model (OR 1.32 95% CI 0.86-2.02). By trend, cumulative IgA seropositivity was associated with stroke due to large vessel disease (LVD) after full adjustment (OR 1.88, 95% CI 0.96e3.69). Disadvantageous childhood SES was associated with higher cumulative seropositivity in univariable analyses, however, its strong impact on stroke risk was not influenced by seroepidemiological data in the multivariable model. The strong association between adulthood SES and stroke was rendered nonsignificant when factors of dental care were adjusted for. Conclusions: Infectious burden assessed with five microbial agents did not independently contribute to ischemic stroke consistently, but may contribute to stroke due to LVD. High infectious burden may not explain the association between childhood SES and stroke risk. Lifestyle factors that include dental negligence may contribute to the association between disadvantageous adulthood SES and stroke. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Bensch, Frank; Varjonen, Elina A.; Pyhältö, Tuomo T.; Koskinen, Seppo K. (2019)
    Purpose BCVI may lead to ischemic stroke, disability, and death, while being often initially clinically silent. Screening criteria for BCVI based on clinical findings and trauma mechanism have improved detection, with Denver criteria being most common. Up to 30% of patients do not meet BCVI screening criteria. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of augmented Denver criteria on detection, and to determine the relative risk for ischemic stroke. Methods Denver screening criteria were augmented by any high-energy trauma of the cervical spine, thorax, abdomen, or pelvis. All acute blunt trauma WBCT including CT angiography (CTA) over a period of 38 months were reviewed retrospectively by two Fellowship-trained radiologists, as well as any cerebral imaging after the initial trauma. Results 1544 WBCT studies included 374 CTA (m/f = 271/103; mean age 41.5 years). Most common mechanisms of injury were MVA (51.5%) and fall from a height (22.3%). We found 72 BCVI in 56 patients (15.0%), with 13 (23.2%) multiple lesions. The ICA was affected in 49 (68.1%) and the vertebral artery in 23 (31.9%) of cases. The most common injury level was C2, with Biffl grades I and II most common in ICA, and II and IV in VA. Interobserver agreement was substantial (Kappa = 0.674). Of 215 patients imaged, 16.1% with BCVI and 1.9% of the remaining cases had cerebral ischemic stroke (p <.0001; OR = 9.77; 95% CI 3.3-28.7). Eleven percent of patients with BCVI would not have met standard screening criteria. Conclusions The increase in detection rate for BCVI justifies more liberal screening protocols.
  • Suomalainen, Olli P.; Abou Elseoud, Ahmed; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Tiainen, Marjaana; Forss, Nina; Curtze, Sami (2021)
    Introduction: Patients with small core infarction and salvageable penumbra are likely to benefit from endovascular treatment (EVT). As computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTP) is not always available 24/7 for patient selection, many patients are transferred to stroke centers for CTP. We compared automatically measured infarct core volume (NCCTcore) from the non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) with ischemic core volume (CTPcore) from CTP and the outcome of EVT to clarify if NCCTcore measurement alone is sufficient to identify patients that benefit from transfer to stroke centers for EVT. Patients and methods: We included all consecutive stroke-code patients imaged with both NCCT and CTP at Helsinki University Hospital during 9/2016-01/2018. NCCTcore and CTPcore volumes were automatically calculated from the acute NCCT images. Follow-up infarct volume (FIV) was measured from 24 h follow-up NCCT to evaluate efficacy of EVT. To study whether NCCTcore could be used to identify patients eligible to EVT, we subgrouped patients based on NCCTcore volumes (>50 mL and > 70 mL). Results: Out of 1743 patients, baseline NCCTcore, CTPcore and follow-up NCCT was available for 288 patients. Median time from symptom onset to baseline imaging was 74 min (IQR 52-118), and time to follow-up imaging 24.15 h (22.25-26.33). Baseline NCCTcore was 20 mL (10-42), CTPcore 4 mL (0-16), and FIV 5 mL (1-49). Out of 288 patients, 23 had NCCTcore > 70 mL and 26 had CTPcore > 70 mL. NCCTcore and CTPcore performed similarly well in predicting large FIV (>70 ml). Conclusion: NCCTcore is a promising tool to identify patients that are not eligible to EVT due to large ischemic cores at baseline imaging.
  • Puumalainen, Anne; Elonheimo, Outi; Brommets, Mats (2020)
    Objectives: Most stroke care expenses are in hospital costs. Given the previously reported inaccuracy of conventional costing, the purpose of this study was to provide an accurate analysis of inpatient costs of stroke care in an acute care hospital. Materials and methods: We used activity-based costing (ABC) for calculating the costs of ischemic stroke patients. We collected the activity data at the Helsinki University Central Hospital. Persons involved in patient care logged their activities on survey forms for one week. The costs of activities were calculated based on information about salaries, material prices, and other costs obtained from hospital accounting data. We calculated costs per inpatient days and episodes, analyzed cost structure, made a distinction in cost for stroke subtypes according to the Oxford and TOAST classification schemes, and compared cost per inpatient episode with the diagnoses-related group (DRG) -price of the hospital. Results: The sample comprised 196 inpatient days of 41 patients. By using the ABC, the mean and median costs of an inpatient day were 346 (sic) and 268 (sic), and of an inpatient episode 3322 (sic) and 2573 (sic), respectively. Average costs differed considerably by stroke subtype. The first inpatient day was the most expensive. Working time costs comprised 63% of the average inpatient day cost, with nursing constituting the largest proportion. The mean cost of an inpatient episode was 21% lower with ABC than with DRG pricing. Conclusion: We demonstrate that there are differences in cost estimates depending on the methods used. ABC revealed differences among patients having the same diagnosis. The cost of an episode was lower than the DRG price of the hospital. Choosing an optimal costing method is essential for both reimbursements of hospitals and health policy decision-making.
  • Tanislav, Christian; Grittner, Ulrike; Misselwitz, Bjoern; Jungehuelsing, Gerhard Jan; Enzinger, Christian; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Putaala, Jukka; Kaps, Manfred; Kropp, Peter; Rolfs, Arndt; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Fazekas, Franz; Kolodny, Edwin; Norrving, Bo (2014)
  • Kortelainen, Simon (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Background and purpose: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, but studies on the cost-effectiveness of intensive care are lacking. We aimed to evaluate the one-year costs and outcomes of patients with AIS treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients admitted to an academic ICU with AIS between 2003 and 2013. True healthcare expenditure was obtained up to one year after admission. Patient outcome was 12-month functional outcome and mortality. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of favorable outcomes and linear regression analysis to assess factors associated with costs. We calculated the effective cost per survivor (ECPS) and effective cost per favorable outcome (ECPFO). Results: The study population comprised 154 patients. ICU admission was mostly due to decreased consciousness level (47%) and need for respiratory support (40%). There were 68 (44%) one year survivors, of which 27 (18%) had a favorable outcome. High age (odds ratio [OR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91–0.98) and high hospital admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87–0.97) were independent predictors of poor outcomes. Increased age had a cost ratio of 0.98 (95% CI 0.97–0.99) per added year. The ECPS and ECPFO were 115,628€ and 291,210€ respectively. Conclusions: Treatment of AIS in the ICU appears costly, and the outcome is often poor. Further research is required to improve the cost-effectiveness of ICU care for AIS patients.
  • Acciarresi, Monica; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Falocci, Nicola; Caso, Valeria; Becattini, Cecilia; Marcheselli, Simona; Rueckert, Christina; Pezzini, Alessandro; Morotti, Andrea; Costa, Paolo; Padovani, Alessandro; Csiba, Laszlo; Szabo, Lilla; Sohn, Sung-Il; Tassinari, Tiziana; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H.; Michel, Patrik; Cordier, Maria; Vanacker, Peter; Remillard, Suzette; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; D'Amore, Cataldo; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Orlandi, Giovanni; Chiti, Alberto; Gialdini, Gino; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Masotti, Luca; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Martini, Giuseppe; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrissoula; Corea, Francesco; Del Sette, Massimo; Ageno, Walter; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Pieroni, Alessio; Toni, Danilo; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Kepplinger, Jessica; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gerber, Johannes; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Lees, Kennedy R. (2017)
    Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate for a possible association between both prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score and the severity of stroke at presentation, as well as disability and mortality at 90 days, in patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: This prospective study enrolled consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, AF, and assessment of prestroke CHA2DS2-VASc score. Severity of stroke was assessed on admission using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (severe stroke: NIHSS >= 10). Disability and mortality at 90 days were assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS <3 or >= 3). Multiple logistic regression was used to correlate prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc and severity of stroke, as well as disability and mortality at 90 days. Results: Of the 1020 patients included in the analysis, 606 patients had an admission NIHSS score lower and 414 patients higher than 10. At 90 days, 510 patients had mRS >= 3. A linear correlation was found between the prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score and severity of stroke (P = .001). On multivariate analysis, CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score correlated with severity of stroke (P = .041) and adverse functional outcome (mRS = 3) (P = .001). A logistic regression with the receiver operating characteristic graph procedure (C-statistics) evidenced an area under the curve of .60 (P = .0001) for severe stroke. Furthermore, a correlation was found between prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score and lesion size. Conclusions: In patients with AF, in addition to the risk of stroke, a high CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score was independently associated with both stroke severity at onset and disability and mortality at 90 days.
  • Palm, Frederick; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Safer, Anton; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo; Urbanek, Christian; Becher, Heiko; Grau, Armin J. (2018)
    Background and aims: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) may contribute to cerebral damage in acute ischemic stroke. We tested the hypothesis that levels of MPO, MMP-8 and the ratio between MMP-8 and its regulator, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1), are increased in acute ischemic stroke and its etiologic subgroups and they correlate with stroke severity. Methods: In a cross-sectional case-control study, serum concentrations of MMP-8, MPO and TIMP-1 were assessed within 24 h after admission in 470 first-ever ischemic stroke patients and 809 age-and sex-matched controls, randomly selected from the population. Odds ratios (OR) per decade of log transformed dependent variables were calculated and adjusted for age, sex and vascular risk factors. Results: Levels of MMP-8 (OR 4.9; 95% CI 3.4-7.2), MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio (3.0; 2.2-4.1) and MPO (6.6; 4.0-11.0) were independently associated with ischemic stroke. MMP-8 levels differed between etiologic stroke subgroups (p = 0.019, ANOVA), with higher levels in cardioembolic stroke and stroke due to large vessel disease, and lower levels in microangiopathic stroke. MMP-8, MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio and MPO (p <0.001) concentrations showed positive associations with stroke severity independent of stroke etiology. Conclusions: Concentrations of serum neutrophil markers are increased after ischemic stroke and associate with stroke severity and etiology. The value of these biomarkers in diagnostics and prognostics is worth being evaluated. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Phan, Thanh G.; Clissold, Benjamin; Ly, John; Ma, Henry; Moran, Chris; Srikanth, Velandai; VISTA-Acute Collaboration; Kaste, Markku (2016)
    Background: There is increasing interest in the use of administrative data (incorporating comorbidity index) and stroke severity score to predict ischemic stroke mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal timing for the collection of stroke severity data and the minimum clinical dataset to be included in models of stroke mortality. To address these issues, we chose the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA), which contains National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and at 24 hours, as well as outcome at 90 days. Methods: VISTA was searched for patients who had baseline and 24-hour NIHSS. Improvement in regression models was performed by the net reclassification improvement (NRI) method. Results: The clinical data among 5206 patients were mean age, 69 +/- 13; comorbidity index, 3.3 +/- .9; median NIHSS at baseline, 12 (interquartile range [IQR] 8-17); NIHSS at 24 hours, 9 (IQR 8-15); and death at 90 days in 15%. The baseline model consists of age, gender, and comorbidity index. Adding the baseline NIHSS to model 1 improved the NRI by 0.671 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.595-0.747) [or 67.1% correct reclassification between model 1 and model 2]. Adding the 24 hour NIHSS term to model 1 (model 3) improved the NRI by 0.929 (95% CI 0.857-1.000) for model 3 versus model 1. Adding the variable thrombolysis to model 3 (model 4) improve NRI by 0.1 (95% CI 0.023-0.178) [model 4 versus model 3]. Conclusion: The optimal model for the prediction of mortality was achieved by adding the 24-hour NIHSS and thrombolysis to the baseline model.
  • Fromm, Annette; Thomassen, Lars; Naess, Halvor; Meijer, Rudy; Eide, Geir Egil; Krakenes, Jostein; Vedeler, Christian A.; Gerdts, Eva; Larsen, Terje H.; Kuiper, Karel K-J; Laxdal, Elin; Russell, David; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike (2013)
  • Hägg-Holmberg, Stefanie; Dahlström, Emma H; Forsblom, Carol M; Harjutsalo, Valma; Liebkind, Ron; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Groop, Per-Henrik; Thorn, Lena M (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Hypertension is one of the strongest risk factors for stroke in the general population, while systolic blood pressure has been shown to independently increase the risk of stroke in type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between different blood pressure variables and risk of stroke in type 1 diabetes, and to explore potential nonlinearity of this relationship. Methods We included 4105 individuals with type 1 diabetes without stroke at baseline, participating in the nationwide Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. Mean age at baseline was 37.4 ± 11.9 years, median duration of diabetes 20.9 (interquartile range 11.5–30.4) years, and 52% were men. Office systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Based on these pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated. Strokes were classified based on medical and autopsy records, as well as neuroimaging. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to study how the different blood pressure variables affected the risk of stroke and its subtypes. Results During median follow-up time of 11.9 (9.21–13.9) years, 202 (5%) individuals suffered an incident stroke; 145 (72%) were ischemic and 57 (28%) hemorrhagic. SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP all independently increased the risk of any stroke. SBP, PP, and MAP increased the risk of ischemic stroke, while SBP, DBP, and MAP increased the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. SBP was strongly associated with stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.20 (1.11–1.29)/10 mmHg. When variables were modeled using restricted cubic splines, the risk of stroke increased linearly for SBP, MAP, and PP, and non-linearly for DBP. Conclusions The different blood pressure variables are all independently associated with increased risk of stroke in individuals with type 1 diabetes. The risk of stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke increases linearly at blood pressure levels less than the current recommended treatment guidelines.
  • Finndiane Study Grp; Hägg-Holmberg, Stefanie; Dahlström, Emma H.; Forsblom, Carol M.; Harjutsalo, Valma; Liebkind, Ron; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Groop, Per-Henrik; Thorn, Lena M. (2019)
    Background: Hypertension is one of the strongest risk factors for stroke in the general population, while systolic blood pressure has been shown to independently increase the risk of stroke in type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between different blood pressure variables and risk of stroke in type 1 diabetes, and to explore potential nonlinearity of this relationship. Methods: We included 4105 individuals with type 1 diabetes without stroke at baseline, participating in the nationwide Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. Mean age at baseline was 37.411.9years, median duration of diabetes 20.9 (interquartile range 11.5-30.4) years, and 52% were men. Office systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Based on these pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated. Strokes were classified based on medical and autopsy records, as well as neuroimaging. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to study how the different blood pressure variables affected the risk of stroke and its subtypes.ResultsDuring median follow-up time of 11.9 (9.21-13.9) years, 202 (5%) individuals suffered an incident stroke; 145 (72%) were ischemic and 57 (28%) hemorrhagic. SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP all independently increased the risk of any stroke. SBP, PP, and MAP increased the risk of ischemic stroke, while SBP, DBP, and MAP increased the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. SBP was strongly associated with stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.20 (1.11-1.29)/10mmHg. When variables were modeled using restricted cubic splines, the risk of stroke increased linearly for SBP, MAP, and PP, and non-linearly for DBP. Conclusions: The different blood pressure variables are all independently associated with increased risk of stroke in individuals with type 1 diabetes. The risk of stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke increases linearly at blood pressure levels less than the current recommended treatment guidelines.
  • Cervical Artery Dissection Ischemi (2018)
    We investigated whether university education is more likely in cervical artery dissection (CeAD)-patients than in age- and sex-matched patients with ischemic stroke (IS) due to other causes (non-CeAD-IS-patients). Patients from the Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients study with documented self-reported profession before onset of IS due to CeAD (n = 715) or non-CeAD causes (n = 631) were analyzed. In the reported profession, the absence or presence of university education was assessed. Professions could be rated as academic or non-academic in 518 CeAD and 456 non-CeAD patients. Clinical outcome at 3 months was defined as excellent if modified Rankin Scale was 0-1. University education was more frequent in CeAD-patients (100 of 518, 19.3%) than in non-CeAD-IS-patients (61 of 456, 13.4%, p = 0.008). CeAD-patients with and without university education differed significantly with regard to smoking (39 vs. 57%, p = 0.001) and excellent outcome (80 vs. 66%, p = 0.004). In logistic regression analysis, university education was associated with excellent outcome in CeAD-patients (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.37-5.38) independent of other outcome predictors such as age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.84-0.99), NIHSS (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.76-0.84) and local signs (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.37-5.57). We observed a higher rate of university education in patients with CeAD compared with non-CeAD patients in our study population. University education was associated with favorable outcome in CeAD-patients. The mechanism behind this association remains unclear.