Browsing by Subject "JAPANESE"

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  • Türk, Helen; Lippus, Pärtel; Simko, Juraj (2017)
    The three-way quantity system is a well-known phonological feature of Estonian. In a number of studies it has been shown that quantity is realized in a disyllabic foot by the stressed-to-unstressed syllable rhyme duration ratio and also by pitch movement as the secondary cue. The stressed syllable rhyme duration is achieved by combining the length of the vowel and the coda consonant, which enables minimal septets of CVCV-sequences based on segmental duration. In this study we analyze articulatory (EMA) recordings from four native Estonian speakers producing all possible quantity combinations of intervocalic bilabial stops in two vocalic contexts (/alpha-i/ vs. /i-alpha/). The analysis shows that kinematic characteristics (gesture duration, spatial extent, and peak velocity) are primarily affected by quantity on the segmental level: Phonologically longer segments are produced by longer and larger lip closing gestures and, in reverse, shorter and smaller lip opening movements. Tongue transition gesture is consistently lengthened and slowed down by increasing consonant quantity. In general, both kinematic characteristics and intergestural coordination are influenced by non-linear interactions between segmental quantity levels as well as vocalic context.
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Hansson, Linda Magnusson; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Stenholm, Sari; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika (2019)
    Background Although long working hours have been shown to be associated with the onset of cardiometabolic diseases, the clinical risk factor profile associated with long working hours remains unclear. We compared the clinical risk profile between people who worked long hours and those who reported being never exposed to long hours. Methods A cross-sectional study in 22 health screening centres in France was based on a random population-based sample of 75 709 participants aged 18-69 at study inception in 2012-2016 (the CONSTANCES study). The data included survey responses on working hours (never, former or current exposure to long working hours), covariates and standardised biomedical examinations including anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure and standard blood-based biomarkers. Results Among men, long working hours were associated with higher anthropometric markers (Body Mass Index, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio), adverse lipid levels, higher glucose, creatinine, white blood cells and higher alanine transaminase (adjusted mean differences in the standardised scale between the exposed and unexposed 0.02-0.12). The largest differences were found for Body Mass Index and waist circumference. A dose-response pattern with increasing years of working long hours was found for anthropometric markers, total cholesterol, glucose and gamma-glutamyltransferase. Among women, long working hours were associated with Body Mass Index and white blood cells. Conclusion In this study, men who worked long hours had slightly worse cardiometabolic and inflammatory profile than those who did not work long hours, especially with regard to anthropometric markers. In women, the corresponding associations were weak or absent.
  • Kauppi, P; Lindblad-Toh, K; Sevon, P; Toivonen, H T T; Rioux, J D; Villapakkam, A; Laitinen, L A; Hudson, T J; Kere, J; Laitinen, T (2001)
  • Kovanen, Leena; Donner, Kati; Partonen, Timo (2015)
    SIRT1 polymorphisms have previously been associated with depressive and anxiety disorders. We aimed at confirming these earlier findings and extending the analyses to seasonal variations in mood and behavior. Three tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to capture the common variation in the SIRT1 gene. 5910 individuals (with blood sample, diagnostic interview, self-report of on seasonal changes in mood and behavior) were selected from a representative Finnish nationwide population-based sample. Logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze the associations between the SNPs and depressive and anxiety disorders, metabolic syndrome (EGIR criteria) and its components, and health examination measurements, Homeostasis Model Assessments, and diagnoses of type 2 and type 1 diabetes. SIRT1 rs2273773 showed evidence of association with seasonal variation in weight (C-allele, OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.76-0.95, p = 0.005). In addition, our study gave further support for the association of SIRT1 gene with depressive disorders (rs3758391) and diastolic blood pressure (rs2273773).