Browsing by Subject "JEJUNI"

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  • Skarp, C. P. A.; Hanninen, M-L; Rautelin, Hilpi I (2016)
    The incidence of human infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coil, the main bacterial agents of gastrointestinal disease, has been increasing worldwide. Here, we review the role of poultry as a source and reservoir for Campylobacter. Contamination and subsequent colonization of broiler flocks at the farm level often lead to transmission of Campylobacter along the poultry production chain and contamination of poultry meat at retail. Yet Cainpylobacter prevalence in poultry, as well as the contamination level of poultry products, vary greatly between different countries so there are differences in the intervention strategies that need to be applied. Temporal patterns in poultry do not always coincide with those found in human infections. Studies in rural and urban areas have revealed differences in Campylobacter infections attributed to poultry, as poultry seems to be the predominant reservoir in urban, but not necessarily in rural, settings. Furthermore, foreign travel is considered a major risk factor in acquiring the disease, especially for individuals living in the northern European countries. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing Campylobacter colonization in poultry and focused at the farm level have been successful in reducing the number of Campylobacter cases in several countries. Increasing farm biosecurity and education of consumers are likely to limit the risk of infection. Overall, poultry is an important reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis, although the contribution of other sources, reservoirs and transmission warrants more research. Clinical Microbiology and Infection (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
  • Skarp-de Haan, Caroline P. A.; Culebro, Alejandra; Schott, Thomas; Revez, Joana; Schweda, Elke K. H.; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Rossi, Mirko (2014)
  • Kampmann, C.; Dicksved, J.; Engstrand, L.; Rautelin, H. (2016)
    In mice, specific species composition of gut microbiota enhances susceptibility to Campylobacter jejuni but little is known about the specific composition of the human gut microbiota in providing protection from infections caused by enteropathogens. Healthy adult individuals, who travelled in groups from Sweden to destinations with an estimated high risk for acquisition of Campylobacter infection, were enrolled. Faecal samples, collected before travelling and after returning home, were cultured for bacterial enteropathogens, and analysed for Campylobacter by PCR and for the species composition of the microbiota by 16S amplicon massive parallel sequencing. The microbiota compositions were compared between persons who became infected during their travel and those who did not. A total of 63 participants completed the study; 14 became infected with Campylobacter, two with Salmonella and 47 remained negative for the enteropathogens tested. After exclusion of samples taken after antimicrobial treatment, 49 individuals were included in the final analyses. Intra-individual stability of the microbiota was demonstrated for samples taken before travelling. The original diversity of the faecal microbiota was significantly lower among individuals who later became infected compared with those who remained uninfected. The relative abundances of bacteria belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae, and more specifically its two genera Dorea and Coprococcus, were significantly higher among those who remained uninfected. The travel-related infection did not significantly modify the faecal microbiota composition. Species composition of human gut microbiota is important for colonization resistance to Campylobacter infection. Especially individuals with a lower diversity are more susceptible to Campylobacter infection. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
  • Nilsson, Anna; Tervahartiala, Taina; Lennebratt, David; Lannergård, Anders; Sorsa, Timo; Rautelin, Hilpi (2018)
    Campylobacters are major enteropathogens worldwide with a substantial financial burden. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic metalloendopeptidases with ability to modify immune response and shown to be upregulated in patients with several tissue destructive diseases, including infections. We measured here serum concentrations of MMP-8 and MMP-9 together with their regulators myeloperoxidase (MPO), human neutrophil elastase (HNE), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 in 80 Campylobacter and 25 Salmonella patients as well as in 27 healthy controls. Paired serum samples were available for 73 and 23 patients, respectively. When the initial serum samples were compared to those from controls, both Campylobacter and Salmonella patients showed elevated concentrations of all biomarkers tested (p 0.037). In the follow-up samples, collected about 25 days afterwards, MMP-8 levels of Campylobacter patients had already turned to normal but all the other biomarkers still showed elevated, although from the initial levels significantly dropped, levels. For the follow-up samples of Salmonella patients, only MMP-9 and MPO levels were at a significantly higher level than in controls. It remains to be studied if the systematically enhanced neutrophil-derived proteolytic and oxidative stress, induced by Campylobacter infection as shown here and persisting for several weeks, is important for the development of late sequelae.
  • Olkkola, Satu; Rossi, Mirko; Jaakkonen, Anniina; Simola, Maria; Tikkanen, Jouni; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Tuominen, Pirkko; Huitu, Otso; Niemimaa, Jukka; Henttonen, Heikki; Kivistö, Rauni (2021)
    Small mammals are known to carry Campylobacter spp.; however, little is known about the genotypes and their role in human infections. We studied intestinal content from small wild mammals collected in their natural habitats in Finland in 2010-2017, and in close proximity to 40 pig or cattle farms in 2017. The animals were trapped using traditional Finnish metal snap traps. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from the intestinal content using direct plating on mCCDA. A total of 19% of the captured wild animals (n = 577) and 41% of the pooled farm samples (n = 227) were positive for C. jejuni, which was the only Campylobacter species identified. The highest prevalence occurred in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus) which carried Campylobacter spp. in 66.3 and 63.9% of the farm samples and 41.5 and 24.4% of individual animals trapped from natural habitats, respectively. Interestingly, all house mouse (Mus musculus) and shrew (Sorex spp.) samples were negative for Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni isolates (n = 145) were further characterized by whole-genome sequencing. Core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) clustering showed that mouse and vole strains were separated from the rest of the C. jejuni population (636 and 671 allelic differences, 94 and 99% of core loci, respectively). Very little or no alleles were shared with C. jejuni genomes described earlier from livestock or human isolates. FastANI results further indicated that C. jejuni strains from voles are likely to represent a new previously undescribed species or subspecies of Campylobacter. Core-genome phylogeny showed that there was no difference between isolates originating from the farm and wild captured animals. Instead, the phylogeny followed the host species-association. There was some evidence (one strain each) of livestock-associated C. jejuni occurring in a farm-caught A. flavicollis and a brown rat (Rattus norvegicus), indicating that although small mammals may not be the original reservoir of Campylobacter colonizing livestock, they may sporadically carry C. jejuni strains occurring mainly in livestock and be associated with disease in humans.
  • Culebro, Alejandra; Machado, Miguel P.; Carrico, Joao Andre; Rossi, Mirko (2018)
    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Additionally, C. jejuni is the most common bacterial etiological agent in the autoimmune Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). Ganglioside mimicry by C. jejuni lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is the triggering factor of the disease. LOS-associated genes involved in the synthesis and transfer of sialic acid (glycosyltranferases belonging to family GT-42) are essential in C. jejuni to synthesize ganglioside-like LOS. Despite being isolated from GBS patients, scarce genetic evidence supports C. coli role in the disease. In this study, through data mining and bioinformatics analysis, C. coli is shown to possess a larger GT-42 glycosyltransferase repertoire than C. jejuni. Although GT-42 glycosyltransferases are widely distributed in C. coli population, only a fraction of C. coli strains (1%) are very likely able to express ganglioside mimics. Even though the activity of C. coli specific GT-42 enzymes and their role in shaping the bacterial population are yet to be explored, evidence presented herein suggest that loss of function of some LOS-associated genes occurred during agriculture niche adaptation.
  • Wysok, Beata; Wojtacka, Joanna; Kivistö, Rauni (2020)
    The aim of this study was to determine the pathogenic markers associated with Campylobacter infection in humans. A total of 104 Campylobacter isolates obtained from poultry and humans were examined for the presence of nine virulence genes and their ability to adhere to, invade and produce cytotoxin were defined using HeLa cells. The diversity of the Campylobacter spp. isolates was studied based on sequencing of the SVR-region of flaA gene. Altogether 45 flaA-SVR alleles were identified among 104 Campylobacter isolates of poultry and human origin. All Campylobacter isolates possessed flaA, cadF and racR genes involved in adherence. Accordingly, all poultry and human isolates exhibited adherence towards HeLa cells at mean levels of 0.95% and 0.82% of starting viable inoculum, respectively. The genes involved in invasion (iam and pldA) and cytotoxin production (cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) were also widely distributed among the human and poultry Campylobacter isolates. Significantly higher invasiveness was observed for poultry isolates (mean level of 0.002% of starting bacterial inoculum) compared to human isolates (0.0005%). Interestingly the iam gene, associated with invasion, was more common in human (100%) than poultry (84%) isolates, and the poultry isolates lacking the iam gene showed a marked reduction in their ability to invade HeLa cells. Moreover, virB11 was present in 22% of the poultry and 70.4% of the human isolates. Strains lacking virB11 showed a slight reduction in invasion, however in the absence of iam even the poultry isolates containing virB11 were unable to invade HeLa cells. The mean cytotoxicity of Campylobacter isolates from poultry and human was 26.7% and 38.7%, respectively. Strains missing both the cdtB and cdtC genes were non-cytotoxic compared to strains containing all three cdtABC genes, which were the most cytotoxic among the C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from both sources. No cytotoxic effect was observed in only 4% of poultry and 5.6% of human isolates.
  • Olkkola, Satu; Kovanen, Sara; Roine, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Kivistö, Rauni (2015)
    In recent years, increasing numbers of consumers have become interested in feeding raw food for their pet dogs as opposed to commercial dry food, in the belief of health advantages. However, raw meat and internal organs, possibly contaminated by pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., may pose a risk of transmission of zoonoses to the pet owners. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans but C. upsaliensis has also been associated with human disease. In this study we investigated the effect of different feeding strategies on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Finnish dogs. We further characterized the isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whole-genome (wg) MLST and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Dogs were sampled before and after a feeding period consisting of commercial raw feed or dry pellet feed. Altogether 56% (20/36) of the dogs yielded at least one Campylobacter-positive fecal sample. C. upsaliensis was the major species detected from 39% of the dogs before and 30% after the feeding period. Two C. jejuni isolates were recovered, both from raw-fed dogs after the dietary regimen. The isolates represented the same genotype (ST-1326), suggesting a common infection source. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the feeding strategies and Campylobacter spp. carriage. The global genealogy of MLST types of dog and human C. upsaliensis isolates revealed weakly clonal population structure as most STs were widely dispersed. Major antimicrobial resistance among C. upsaliensis isolates was against streptomycin (STR MIC > 4mg/l). Apart from that, all isolates were highly susceptible against the antimicrobials tested. Mutations were found in the genes rpsL or rpsL and rsmG in streptomycin resistant isolates. In conclusion, increasing trend to feed dogs with raw meat warrants more studies to evaluate the risk associated with raw feeding of pets in transmission of zoonoses to humans.
  • Calland, Jessica K.; Pascoe, Ben; Bayliss, Sion C.; Mourkas, Evangelos; Berthenet, Elvire; Thorpe, Harry A.; Hitchings, Matthew D.; Feil, Edward J.; Corander, Jukka; Blaser, Martin J.; Falush, Daniel; Sheppard, Samuel K. (2021)
    Measuring molecular evolution in bacteria typically requires estimation of the rate at which nucleotide changes accumulate in strains sampled at different times that share a common ancestor. This approach has been useful for dating ecological and evolutionary events that coincide with the emergence of important lineages, such as outbreak strains and obligate human pathogens. However, in multi-host (niche) transmission scenarios, where the pathogen is essentially an opportunistic environmental organism, sampling is often sporadic and rarely reflects the overall population, particularly when concentrated on clinical isolates. This means that approaches that assume recent common ancestry are not applicable. Here we present a new approach to estimate the molecular clock rate in Campylobacter that draws on the popular probability conundrum known as the 'birthday problem'. Using large genomic datasets and comparative genomic approaches, we use isolate pairs that share recent common ancestry to estimate the rate of nucleotide change for the population. Identifying synonymous and non-synonymous nucleotide changes, both within and outside of recombined regions of the genome, we quantify clock-like diversification to estimate synonymous rates of nucleotide change for the common pathogenic bacteria Campylobacter colt (2.4 x 10(-6) s/s/y) and Campylobacter jejuni (3.4 x 10(-6) s/s/y). Finally, using estimated total rates of nucleotide change, we infer the number of effective lineages within the sample time frame-analogous to a shared birthday-and assess the rate of turnover of lineages in our sample set over short evolutionary timescales. This provides a generalizable approach to calibrating rates in populations of environmental bacteria and shows that multiple lineages are maintained, implying that large-scale clonal sweeps may take hundreds of years or more in these species.