Browsing by Subject "JET-ILW"

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  • Oya, Yasuhisa; Masuzaki, Suguru; Tokitani, Masayuki; Azuma, Keisuke; Oyaidzu, Makoto; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Widdowson, Anna M.; Heinola, Kalle; Jachmich, Stefan; Rubel, Marek; JET Contributors; Ahlgren, Tommy (2018)
    To understand the fuel retention mechanism correlation of surface chemical states and hydrogen isotope retention behavior determined by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and TDS (Thermal desorption spectroscopy), respectively, for JET ITER-Like Wall samples from operational period 2011–2012 were investigated. It was found that the deposition layer was formed on the upper part of the inner vertical divertor area. At the inner plasma strike point region, the original surface materials, W or Mo, were found, indicating to an erosion-dominated region, but deposition of impurities was also found. Higher heat load would induce the formation of metal carbide. At the outer horizontal divertor tile, mixed material layer was formed with iron as an impurity. TDS showed the H and D desorption behavior and the major D desorption temperature for the upper part of the inner vertical tile was located at 370 °C and 530 °C. At the strike point region, the D desorption temperature was clearly shifted toward higher release temperatures, indicating the stabilization of D trapping by higher heat load
  • De Temmerman, Gregory; Heinola, Kalle; Borodin, Dmitriy; Brezinsek, Sebastijan; Doerner, Russell P.; Rubel, Marek; Fortuna-Zalesna, Elzbieta; Linsmeier, Christian; Nishijima, Daisuke; Nordlund, Kai; Probst, Michael; Romazanov, Juri; Safi, Elnaz; Schwarz-Selinger, Thomas; Widdowson, Anna; Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung; Hill, Christian (2021)
    ITER will use beryllium as a plasma-facing material in the main chamber, covering a total surface area of about 620 m(2). Given the importance of beryllium erosion and co-deposition for tritium retention in ITER, significant efforts have been made to understand the behaviour of beryllium under fusion-relevant conditions with high particle and heat loads. This paper provides a comprehensive report on the state of knowledge of beryllium behaviour under fusion-relevant conditions: the erosion mechanisms and their consequences, beryllium migration in JET, fuel retention and dust generation. The paper reviews basic laboratory studies, advanced computer simulations and experience from laboratory plasma experiments in linear simulators of plasma-wall interactions and in controlled fusion devices using beryllium plasma-facing components. A critical assessment of analytical methods and simulation codes used in beryllium studies is given. The overall objective is to review the existing set of data with a broad literature survey and to identify gaps and research needs to broaden the database for ITER.
  • Heinola, K.; Likonen, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Brezinsek, S.; De Temmerman, G.; Jepu, I.; Matthews, G. F.; Pitts, R. A.; Widdowson, A.; JET Contributors (2017)
    The fuel outgassing efficiency from plasma-facing components exposed in JET-ILW has been studied at ITER-relevant baking temperatures. Samples retrieved from the W divertor and Be main chamber were annealed at 350 and 240 degrees C, respectively. Annealing was performed with thermal desoprtion spectrometry (TDS) for 0, 5 and 15 h to study the deuterium removal effectiveness at the nominal baking temperatures. The remained fraction was determined by emptying the samples fully of deuterium by heating W and Be samples up to 1000 and 775 degrees C, respectively. Results showed the deposits in the divertor having an increasing effect to the remaining retention at temperatures above baking. Highest remaining fractions 54 and 87% were observed with deposit thicknesses of 10 and 40 mu m, respectively. Substantially high fractions were obtained in the main chamber samples from the deposit-free erosion zone of the limiter midplane, in which the dominant fuel retention mechanism is via implantation: 15 h annealing resulted in retained deuterium higher than 90%. TDS results from the divertor were simulated with TMAP7 calculations. The spectra were modelled with three deuterium activation energies resulting in good agreement with the experiments.
  • JET Contributors; Tokitani, M.; Miyamoto, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Oya, Y.; Hatano, Y.; Otsuka, T.; Oyaidzu, M.; Kurotaki, H.; Suzuki, T.; Hamaguchi, D.; Isobe, K.; Asakura, N.; Widdowson, A.; Heinola, K.; Rubel, M.; Ahlgren, Tommy (2018)
    Micro/nanoscopic observations on the surface of the divertor tiles used in the first campaign (2011-2012) of the JET tokamak with ITER-like Wall (JET ILW) have been carried out by means of several material analysis techniques. Previous results from the inner divertor were reported for a single poloidal section of the tile numbers 1, 3 and 4, i.e., upper, vertical and horizontal targets, respectively. The formation of the thick stratified mixed-material deposition layer on tiles 1 and 4, and erosion on tile 3 were identified. This study is mostly focused on the outer divertor: tiles 6, 7 and 8. In contrast to the inner tile, remarkable surface modifications have not been observed on the vertical target (tiles 7 and 8) where sputtering erosion and impurity deposition would have been almost balanced. Only a specific part of tile 6 (horizontal target) located near the exhaust channel was covered with a stratified ("geological-like") mixed-material deposition layer which mainly included Be and Ni with the thickness of similar to 2 mu m. Special feature of this mixed layer was that a certain amount of nitrogen (N) was clearly detected in the layer. Since the concentration of N varied with the depth position, it could be depended on the amount of that gas puffed for plasma edge cooling during the JET experimental campaign. In addition to the outer divertor tiles, a very interesting feature of the local erosion and deposition effects is reported in this paper.