Browsing by Subject "JOB DEMANDS"

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  • Nislin, Mari; Pesonen, Henri (2019)
    In this article, we sought to determine the extent to which pre-service and in-service teachers' self-perceived competence is associated with sense of belonging and well-being during special education teacher studies, as well as determine whether there are differences among these factors between pre-service and in-service teachers. These are areas in which there is currently a shortage of research. Our data were collected using a survey with close-ended questions. The respondents consisted of 58 in-service and 29 pre-service teachers, aged 21-56 years. Data were analysed utilising quantitative methods. The findings revealed that the respondents demonstrated generally high levels of engagement and low to moderate levels of burnout. The results further indicated that the respondents reported themselves to be most competent when dealing with children of drug-related family abuse and less competent in working with children with severe disabilities. Although well-being and self-perceived competence were associated, we could not find any association between these factors and the sense of belonging. Given the theoretical and empirical evidence, a deeper understanding of the factors relating to teachers' ability to encounter diverse needs is unquestionably needed. The key findings are discussed in detail, and practical implications for teacher education are given.
  • Oksanen, Atte; Oksa, Reetta; Savela, Nina; Mantere, Eerik; Savolainen, Iina; Kaakinen, Markus (2021)
    The global crisis caused by the outbreak of a novel coronavirus and the associated disease (COVID-19) has changed working conditions due to social-distancing policies. Many workers started to use new technologies at work, including social media applications. In this longitudinal study, we investigated the potential stress effects of social media communication (SMC) at work. Based on our integrative theoretical model, we expected that SMC at work would burden some workers, but those who were accustomed to SMC at work would be better off when the crisis started. We collected a nationally representative sample of Finnish workers before (N = 1308) and during (N = 1081) the COVID-19 crisis. Outcome measures included technostress and work exhaustion. Multilevel linear mixed-effects regression models investigated formal and informal SMC at work. Covariates included cyberbullying at work, social media usage, personality, occupational status, and sociodemographic factors. Results showed that formal SMC increased and predicted higher technostress. However, technostress and work exhaustion decreased among workers already accustomed to using SMC at work before the crisis. The results indicate a disparity in workers' resilience during remote work and highlight a need for organizational level support.
  • Vehviläinen, Sanna; Löfström, Erika; Nevgi, Anne (2018)
    This article deals with the demands that plagiarism places on academic communities, and with the resources staff possess in dealing with these demands. It is suggested that plagiarism ought to be placed in the context of network of intertwining communities (scholarly, pedagogical and administrative), to which participants are engaged to a different extent. The relationship to the ethical issue of plagiarism is related to the subject’s engagement in these communities. The article examines the way teachers deal with plagiarism from the point of view of work engagement and work-related wellbeing. In particular, we analyse job demands created by episodes of dealing with plagiarism as well as job resources teachers possess that aid them in coping with these demands. We used thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews of teachers in two universities. Our results show that the demands fall on five thematic categories: 1. rupture in the personal pedagogical relationship, 2. challenge on the supervisory “gatekeeping” responsibility; 3. a breach of the “everyday normality”; 4. ambivalence in explaining plagiarism and 5. the strain of performing the act of accusation. A key job demand in dealing with plagiarism is that teachers must balance both rule-ethical and care-ethical orientations in their reactions and actions. The resources teachers draw upon when dealing with these demands are: 1) dialogue and reflection in collegial dialogue 2) support from superiors and administration 3) shared protocols, procedures and plagiarism detection software. Our analysis shows that there are various demands that make dealing with plagiarism a strenuous task, but university environments also provide teachers with resources to cope with them.
  • Airaksinen, Jaakko Matias; Jokela, Markus Mikael; Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Koskenvuo, Markku Juhani; Kawachi, Ichiro; Betty, G. David; Kivimäki, Mika Juhani (2017)
    Work disability affects quality of life, earnings, and opportunities to contribute to society. Work characteristics, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors have been associated with the risk of work disability, but few multifactorial algorithms exist to identify individuals at risk of future work disability. We developed and validated a parsimonious multifactorial score for the prediction of work disability using individual-level data from 65,775 public-sector employees (development cohort) and 13,527 employed adults from a general population sample (validation cohort), both linked to records of work disability. Candidate predictors for work disability included sociodemographic (3 items), health status and lifestyle (38 items), and work-related (43 items) variables. A parsimonious model, explaining > 99% of the variance of the full model, comprised 8 predictors: age, self-rated health, number of sickness absences in previous year, socioeconomic position, chronic illnesses, sleep problems, body mass index, and smoking. Discriminative ability of a score including these predictors was high: C-index 0.84 in the development and 0.83 in the validation cohort. The corresponding C-indices for a score constructed from work-related predictors (age, sex, socioeconomic position, job strain) were 0.79 and 0.78, respectively. It is possible to identify reliably individuals at high risk of work disability by using a rapidly-administered prediction score.
  • Kuusio, Hannamaria; Lamsa, Riikka; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Keskimaki, Ilmo; Elovainio, Marko (2014)
  • Toch-Marquardt, Marlen; Menvielle, Gwenn; Eikemo, Terje A.; Kulhanova, Ivana; Kulik, Margarete C.; Bopp, Matthias; Esnaola, Santiago; Jasilionis, Domantas; Maki, Netta; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Lundberg, Olle; Mackenbach, Johan P.; EURO-GBD-SE Consortium (2014)
  • Rautanen, Pihla; Soini, Tiina; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi (2021)
    The aim of this research was to study the dynamics of fourth graders' perceived social support for schoolwork and to examine how this support contributes to their study engagement. Social support was hypothesised to be positively associated with higher levels of study engagement. Moreover, social support from teachers and guardians was hypothesised to be associated with social support for schoolwork among peers. Differences between genders were studied in relation to perceived social support and study engagement. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypotheses with cross-sectional survey data from 2400 fourth grade students from Finland. They were 10 years of age on average. The results indicate that social support from teachers and among peers has stronger effects on study engagement compared to support from guardians. Moreover, it was found that social support from teachers and guardians is associated with the social support that students share among their peers. Girls were found to be more engaged in studying and to experience more social support from teachers and among peers compared to boys. The perceived social support from teachers was found to be partly determined by the class group to which the student belongs. These results suggest that by providing emotional and informational support for their students, teachers might be able to promote students' study engagement, as well as such peer interaction that further enhances the students' study engagement.
  • Oksa, Reetta; Kaakinen, Markus; Savela, Nina; Ellonen, Noora; Oksanen, Atte (2021)
    Social media enables information sharing and social interaction within organization. This research aims to analyze how both work- and nonwork-related communication with colleagues and the work community on social media is associated with work engagement among Finnish professionals. A total of five Finnish professional organizations (N = 563) and a representative sample of the Finnish working population (N = 1817) contributed to the survey data, which was analyzed with structural equation modeling. We found a direct positive association between work-related communication and work engagement among Finnish working population, and a positive indirect associations between both work- and nonwork-related communication and work engagement via organizational identification and social support. Findings suggest that communication in social media supports work engagement via organizational identification and social support. Organizations should pay more attention to social media communication practices and provide opportunities to build organizational identification and receive social support in social media.
  • Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Upadyaya, Katja (2018)
    Integrating the life-span approach with the Job-Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, this study examined the associations between personal and job demands and resources and work burnout and engagement during the early, mid, and late career stages. A further aim was to include novel job-related demands caused by digitalization, globalization and diversity. We also examined the extent to which work engagement and burnout were associated with general well-being, i.e., life satisfaction and depressive symptoms, among employees in different career stages. Employees (N = 1415) from three large organizations participated in the study via their occupational health services. The research questions were analyzed using structural equation modeling. In line with the life-span approach, the results for personal demands showed that, especially during the early career stage, economic problems were associated with work burnout symptoms, whereas during the late career stage caregiving demands were associated with work burnout and, negatively, with work engagement. In line with the JD-R model, job resources were related to work engagement in all career stages and high resilience buffered against the associations between demands and work engagement and burnout. The results for job demands showed that ICT demands were associated with work burnout during the early career stage and multicultural job demands with work burnout during the middle career stage. Finally, work engagement was associated with life satisfaction and work burnout was associated with depressive symptoms in all career stages. To conclude, an integrative life-span framework can be applied in the context of the demands-resources model.
  • Volanen, Salla-Maarit; Suominen, Sakari; Lahelma, Eero; Koskenvuo, Karoliina; Koskenvuo, Markku; Silventoinen, Karri (2010)
  • Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Hietajärvi, Lauri; Lonka, Kirsti (2019)
    The focus of the current study was to examine teachers’ well-being in terms of work engagement and burnout by using a person-oriented approach. The participants (n = 149, 70.5% female) were subject-matter teachers from 22 schools from metropolitan Helsinki area in Finland. The first aim was to examine the kinds of profiles we can identify based on work burnout and engagement among teachers. The second aim was to study how the identified profiles differed in job-related demands and resources and personal resources in terms of resilience. Based on the demands-resources model, we expected to find profiles that differ in terms of key resources and demands. The sample was acquired as a convenience sample and the data was collected using online self-report questionnaires. The measures were work engagement, work burnout, work demands/resources (workload and control) and resilience as the personal resource. In addition, changes and effects of the economic circumstances were accounted for with two binary variables assessing the effect on class sizes and material resources. We identified two profiles among teachers: engaged (30%) and engaged-burnout (70%) profiles. We found that those in the engaged profile group had more job and personal resources, such as control and resilience, whereas those in the engaged-burnout profile group experienced more work demands, such as workload.