Browsing by Subject "JOINT"

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  • Kuhlefelt, Marina; Laine, Pekka; Thoren, Hanna (2016)
    Objective. A prospective study to clarify the impact of forward bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) on temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). Study Design. We examined and interviewed patients with BSSO before and at 1 year after surgery to evaluate the changes in TMD symptoms. A well-known TMD index, which incorporated two complementary subindices-the objective functional Helkimo dysfunction index (Di) and the subjective symptomatic anamnestic index (Ai)-was used. Patients with a forward movement of the mandible and osteosynthesis with titanic miniplates were included. Results. Forty patients (26 females and 14 males, mean age of study population 36.9 years) retrognathia completed the study. There was no change in TMD symptoms in 24 patients (60%), as measured by the Di, and 26 (65%), as measured by the Ai. Twelve patients improved (30%), according to the Di scores and 10 (25%) according to the Ai scores. Four patients had more TMD symptoms at follow-up (10%), as measured by both Di and Ai. Conclusions. Surgery for orthognathia is a predictable treatment for improving aesthetics and occlusion but less predictable for alleviating TMD symptoms in patients with retrognathia. TMD symptoms should therefore be treated independently.
  • Leppänen, Mari; Parkkari, Jari; Vasankari, Tommi; Äyrämo, Sami; Kulmala, Juha-Pekka; Krosshaug, Tron; Kannus, Pekka; Pasanen, Kati (2021)
    Background: Studies investigating biomechanical risk factors for knee injuries in sport-specific tasks are needed. Purpose: To investigate the association between change of direction (COD) biomechanics in a 180-degree pivot turn and knee injury risk among youth team sport players. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 258 female and male basketball and floorball players (age range, 12-21 years) participated in the baseline COD test and follow-up. Complete data were obtained from 489 player-legs. Injuries, practice, and game exposure were registered for 12 months. The COD test consisted of a quick ball pass before and after a high-speed 180-degree pivot turn on the force plates. The following variables were analyzed: peak vertical ground-reaction force (N/kg); peak trunk lateral flexion angle (degree); peak knee flexion angle (degree); peak knee valgus angle (degree); peak knee flexion moment (N.m/kg); peak knee abduction moment (N.m/kg); and peak knee internal and external rotation moments (N.m/kg). Legs were analyzed separately and the mean of 3 trials was used in the analysis. Main outcome measure was a new acute noncontact knee injury. Results: A total of 18 new noncontact knee injuries were registered (0.3 injuries/1000 hours of exposure). Female players sustained 14 knee injuries and male players 4. A higher rate of knee injuries was observed in female players compared with male players (incidence rate ratio, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.1-21.7). Of all knee injuries, 8 were anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, all in female players. Female players displayed significantly larger peak knee valgus angles compared with male players (mean for female and male players, respectively: 13.9 degrees +/- 9.4 degrees and 2.0 degrees +/- 8.5 degrees). No significant associations between biomechanical variables and knee injury risk were found. Conclusion: Female players were at increased risk of knee and ACL injury compared with male players. Female players performed the 180-degree pivot turn with significantly larger knee valgus compared with male players. However, none of the investigated variables was associated with knee injury risk in youth basketball and floorball players.
  • Munukka, M.; Waller, B.; Rantalainen, T.; Hakkinen, A.; Nieminen, M. T.; Lammentausta, E.; Kujala, U. M.; Paloneva, J.; Sipila, S.; Peuna, A.; Kautiainen, H.; Selanne, H.; Kiviranta, I.; Heinonen, A. (2016)
    Objective: To study the efficacy of aquatic resistance training on biochemical composition of tibiofemoral cartilage in postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design: Eighty seven volunteer postmenopausal women, aged 60-68 years, with mild knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grades I/II and knee pain) were recruited and randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 43) and control (n = 44) group. The intervention group participated in 48 supervised aquatic resistance training sessions over 16 weeks while the control group maintained usual level of physical activity. The biochemical composition of the medial and lateral tibiofemoral cartilage was estimated using single-slice transverse relaxation time (T2) mapping and delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC index). Secondary outcomes were cardiorespiratory fitness, isometric knee extension and flexion force and knee injury and OA outcome (KOOS) questionnaire. Results: After 4-months aquatic training, there was a significant decrease in both T2 -1.2 ms (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.3 to -0.1, P = 0.021) and dGEMRIC index -23 ms (-43 to -3, P = 0.016) in the training group compared to controls in the full thickness posterior region of interest (ROI) of the medial femoral cartilage. Cardiorespiratory fitness significantly improved in the intervention group by 9.8% (P = 0.010). Conclusions: Our results suggest that, in postmenopausal women with mild knee OA, the integrity of the collagen-interstitial water environment (T2) of the tibiofemoral cartilage may be responsive to low shear and compressive forces during aquatic resistance training. More research is required to understand the exact nature of acute responses in dGEMRIC index to this type of loading. Further, aquatic resistance training improves cardiorespiratory fitness. (C) 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Ibounig, Thomas; Simons, T. A. (2016)
    Background and Aims: Quadriceps and patella tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries often resulting from minor trauma typically consisting of an eccentric contraction of the quadriceps muscle. Since rupture of a healthy tendon is very rare, such injuries usually represent the end stage of a long process of chronic tendon degeneration and overuse. This review aims to give an overview of the current understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnostic principles, and recommended treatment protocols as supported by the literature and institutional experience. Material and Methods: A non-systematic review of the current literature on the subject was conducted and reflected against the current practice in our level 1 trauma center. Results and Conclusion: Risk factors for patella and quadriceps tendon rupture include increasing age, repetitive micro-trauma, genetic predisposition, and systemic diseases, as well as certain medications. Diagnosis is based on history and clinical findings, but can be complemented by ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. Accurate diagnosis at an early stage is of utmost importance since delay in surgical repair of over 3weeks results in significantly poorer outcomes. Operative treatment of acute ruptures yields good clinical results with low complication rates. Use of longitudinal transpatellar drill holes is the operative method of choice in the majority of acute cases. In chronic ruptures, tendon augmentation with auto- or allograft should be considered. Postoperative treatment protocols in the literature range from early mobilization with full weight bearing to cast immobilization for up to 12weeks. Respecting the biology of tendon healing, we advocate the use of a removable knee splint or orthotic with protected full weight bearing and limited passive mobilization for 6weeks.
  • Mikkola, Lea; Holopainen, Saila; Pessa-Morikawa, Tiina; Lappalainen, Anu K.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Iivanainen, Antti (2019)
    Background Hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis continue to be prevalent problems in veterinary and human medicine. Canine hip dysplasia is particularly problematic as it massively affects several large-sized breeds and can cause a severe impairment of the quality of life. In Finland, the complex condition is categorized to five classes from normal to severe dysplasia, but the categorization includes several sub-traits: congruity of the joint, Norberg angle, subluxation degree of the joint, shape and depth of the acetabulum, and osteoarthritis. Hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis have been proposed to have separate genetic etiologies. Results Using Federation Cynologique Internationale -standardized ventrodorsal radiographs, German shepherds were rigorously phenotyped for osteoarthritis, and for joint incongruity by Norberg angle and femoral head center position in relation to dorsal acetabular edge. The affected dogs were categorized into mild, moderate and severe dysplastic phenotypes using official hip scores. Three different genome-wide significant loci were uncovered. The strongest candidate genes for hip joint incongruity were noggin (NOG), a bone and joint developmental gene on chromosome 9, and nanos C2HC-type zinc finger 1 (NANOS1), a regulator of matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) on chromosome 28. Osteoarthritis mapped to a long intergenic region on chromosome 1, between genes encoding for NADPH oxidase 3 (NOX3), an intriguing candidate for articular cartilage degradation, and AT-rich interactive domain 1B (ARID1B) that has been previously linked to joint laxity. Conclusions Our findings highlight the complexity of canine hip dysplasia phenotypes. In particular, the results of this study point to the potential involvement of specific and partially distinct loci and genes or pathways in the development of incongruity, mild dysplasia, moderate-to-severe dysplasia and osteoarthritis of canine hip joints. Further studies should unravel the unique and common mechanisms for the various sub-traits.
  • Vaananen, Tuija; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Kautiainen, Hannu; Nieminen, Riina; Mottonen, Timo; Hannonen, Pekka; Korpela, Markku; Kauppi, Markku J.; Laiho, Kari; Kaipiainen-Seppanen, Oili; Luosujarvi, Riitta; Uusitalo, Tea; Uutela, Toini; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta; Moilanen, Eeva; NEO-RACo Study Grp (2017)
    Objective YKL-40, a chitinase-like glycoprotein associated with inflammation and tissue remodeling, is produced by joint tissues and recognized as a candidate auto-antigen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the present study, we investigated YKL-40 as a potential biomarker of disease activity in patients with early RA at baseline and during intensive treatment aiming for early remission. Methods Ninety-nine patients with early DMARD-naive RA participated in the NEO-RACo study. For the first four weeks, the patients were treated with the combination of sulphasalazine, methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine and low dose prednisolone (FIN-RACo DMARD combination), and subsequently randomized to receive placebo or infliximab added on the treatment for further 22 weeks. Disease activity was evaluated using the 28-joint disease activity score and plasma YKL-40 concentrations were measured by immunoassay. Results At the baseline, plasma YKL-40 concentration was 57 +/- 37 ( mean +/- SD) ng/ml. YKL-40 was significantly associated with the disease activity score, interleukin-6 and erythrocyte sedimentation rate both at the baseline and during the 26 weeks' treatment. The csDMARD combination decreased YKL-40 levels already during the first four weeks of treatment, and there was no further reduction when the tumour necrosis factor-alpha antagonist infliximab was added on the combination treatment. Conclusions High YKL-40 levels were found to be associated with disease activity in early DMARD-naive RA and during intensive treat-to-target therapy. The present results suggest YKL-40 as a useful biomarker of disease activity in RA to be used to steer treatment towards remission.
  • Mattila, Simo; Waris, Eero (2019)
    Background and purpose - Revision surgery after trapeziometacarpal arthroplasty is sometimes required. Varying revision rates and outcomes have been reported in rather small patient series. Data on risk factors for revision surgery, on the final outcome of revision, and possible factors affecting the outcome of revision are also limited. We evaluated these factors in 50 patients.Patients and methods - From 1,142 trapeziometacarpal arthroplasties performed during a 10-year period, 50 patients with 65 revision surgeries were retrospectively identified and invited to participate in a follow-up study involving subjective, objective, and radiologic evaluation. The revision rate, risk factors for revision, and factors affecting the outcome of revision were analyzed.Results - The revision rate was 5%. Scaphometacarpal impingement was the most common reason for revision surgery. Patient age ≤ 55 years was a risk factor with a revision rate of 9% in this age group, whereas an operation on both thumbs during the follow-up period was a negative risk factor for revision surgery. There was no difference in revision risk between ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition with or without a bone tunnel. 9 patients had multiple revision procedures and their final outcome did not differ significantly from patients revised only once. Most of the patients felt subjectively that they had benefited from revision surgery and the subjective outcome measures (QuickDash and pain VAS) and the Conolly score were in the same range as previously described for revision trapeziometacarpal arthroplasty.Interpretation ? Age ≤ 55 years is a risk factor for revision surgery. The type of primary surgery does not affect the risk of revision surgery and multiple revision procedures do not result in worse outcomes than cases revised only once. Mechanical pain caused by contact between the metacarpal and scaphoid is the most common indication for revision surgery. In general, patients seem to benefit from revision surgery for trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis.
  • Liukkonen, Mimmi K.; Mononen, Mika E.; Klets, Olesya; Arokoski, Jari P.; Saarakkala, Simo; Korhonen, Rami K. (2017)
    Economic costs of osteoarthritis (OA) are considerable. However, there are no clinical tools to predict the progression of OA or guide patients to a correct treatment for preventing OA. We tested the ability of our cartilage degeneration algorithm to predict the subject-specific development of OA and separate groups with different OA levels. The algorithm was able to predict OA progression similarly with the experimental follow-up data and separate subjects with radiographical OA (Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade 2 and 3) from healthy subjects (KL0). Maximum degeneration and degenerated volumes within cartilage were significantly higher (p <0.05) in OA compared to healthy subjects, KL3 group showing the highest degeneration values. Presented algorithm shows a great potential to predict subjectspecific progression of knee OA and has a clinical potential by simulating the effect of interventions on the progression of OA, thus helping decision making in an attempt to delay or prevent further OA symptoms.
  • Halonen, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Eeva; Kari, Juho; Parmanne, Pinja; Relas, Heikki; Kronstrom, Kai; Luosujärvi, Riitta; Peltomaa, Ritva (2017)
    Intra-articular glucocorticoid injections are the recommended treatment for active arthritis, but accurate positioning of the needle may be challenging. Inexperienced physicians might decide not to inject because an unsuccessful injection impairs clinical outcome and may lead to complications; however, choosing not to inject may impair or delay the best possible treatment. Here, we address this problem by introducing a novel Bioimpedance Probe (BIP) Needle-guidance method that was tested in a clinical study. The BIP Needle was utilized for detection of synovial fluid. It measures real-time bioimpedance spectra and identifies when the needle tip is in contact with the synovial fluid. Injections into 80 joints with active arthritis were performed by an experienced rheumatologist using the BIP Needle. The location of the BIP Needle was ensured by aspiration of synovial fluid, absence of resistance during injection, and/or using real-time ultrasound imaging. Sensitivity and specificity of the device for synovial fluid detection were 86 % (CI 75-93 %) and 85 % (CI 74-92 %), respectively. The BIP Needles showed high spatial resolution and differentiated the synovial fluid from the surrounding tissues. However, lack of synovial fluid, anatomic variability, and intra-articular structures challenged the technology. The BIP Needles provided adequate results in intra-articular injections. Performance of the device was good even in small joints, which may be the most difficult for inexperienced physicians. Further performance improvement can be expected when more data is collected for mathematical models. Overall, this novel method showed potential to be used in real-time needle guidance.
  • Rajantie, Hanna; Snäll, Johanna; Thoren, Hanna (2019)
    Purpose: Facial trauma can lead to temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). The aim of this study was to clarify the occurrence and characteristics of TMD in patients surgically treated for mandibular fractures not involving the mandibular condyle. Materials and Methods: This prospective single-center follow-up study was composed of patients who underwent surgery for non-condylar mandibular fracture. Patients were evaluated at presentation and 6 months after surgery to assess the function of the masticatory system using the Helkimo index. Specifically, this index incorporates 2 complementary subindices: the subjective symptomatic (anamnestic) index (A(i)) and the objective clinical dysfunction index (D-i). The A(i) score was recorded at presentation and 6-month follow-up. The D-i score was recorded at 6-month follow-up. Results: Thirty-one patients completed the study. All patients were men (mean age, 26.2 yr; range, 18 to 47 yr). Four (12.9%) developed severe symptoms of dysfunction during the study period according to the A(i). Clinical findings (D-i) were observed in 25 patients (80.6%), but these were not associated with symptoms of dysfunction. Conclusions: TMD is common 6 months after surgery in patients with non-condylar mandibular fractures. Patients with such fractures should be evaluated for dysfunction during follow-ups and referred for further treatment if necessary. (C) 2019 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • Lont, Tonis; Nieminen, Jyrki; Reito, Aleksi; Pakarinen, Toni-Karri; Pajamäki, Ilari; Eskelinen, Antti; Laitinen, Minna K. (2019)
    Background and purpose Low-energy acetabulum fractures are uncommon, and mostly occur in elderly patients. Determining the optimal operative treatment for such fractures is challenging. Here we investigated whether acutely performed total hip arthroplasty plus posterior column plating (THA) reduced complications and reoperations compared with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in elderly patients with acetabular fractures.Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 59 patients, > 55 years of age, with complex acetabular fractures, caused by low-energy trauma, treated between January 2008 and September 2017. Of these patients, 34 underwent acute THA, and 25 ORIF alone. Patient and implant survival were compared between groups using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox multiple regression. Functional outcomes assessed by Oxford Hip Score (OHS) were compared between the THA patients and those 9 ORIF patients who underwent secondary THA due to posttraumatic hip osteoarthritis (OA) during follow-up.Results Overall patient survival was 90% (95% CI 82-98) at 12 months, and 64% (CI 47-81) at 5 years. Of 25 ORIF patients, 9 required secondary THA due to posttraumatic OA. Large fragments on the weight-bearing acetabular dome upon imaging predicted ORIF failure and secondary THA. The acute THA group and secondary THA group had similar 12-month OHS.Interpretation Acute THA including a reinforcement ring resulted in fewer reoperations than ORIF alone in elderly patients with acetabular fractures. These findings support acute THA as first-line treatment for complex acetabular fractures in elderly patients.