Browsing by Subject "Japan"

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  • Ala-Krekola, Wilhelmina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Tämän pro-gradu tutkielman tarkastelun keskiössä on ”2.5D teatterina” tunnettu japanilaisen populaarikulttuurin ilmiö. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on esitellä ilmiön historiaa ja pääpiirteitä sekä avata lukijalle sen asemaa japanilaisen populaarikulttuurin piirissä nykypäivänä. Aiheen esittelyn lisäksi tässä pro-gradussa toteutettu tutkimus keskittyy pohtimaan millaisia yhtäläisyyksiä ja eroavaisuuksia ilmiöllä on kahden muun japanilaisen populaarikulttuuri-ilmiön, mangan ja animen, ilmaisukeinojen kanssa. Tutkielma käsittelee kysymystä siitä miksi yleisö haluaa kokea samat tarinat yhä uudelleen ja uudelleen erilaisten adaptaatioiden muodossa, sekä pyrkii selvittämän miten kyseiset narratiivit tunnetiloineen ilmaistaan kolmessa hyvin erilaisen taiteenlajin muodossa. Näitä kysymyksiä lähestytään tutkielmassa ristianalysoimalla kaksi alkuperäisessä Kuroshitsuji-mangassa nähtyä keskeistä kohtausta kolmessa eri medialajissa printistä animaatioon ja teatteritaiteeseen. Pro-gradussa käytetty aineisto koostuu vuosien 2015–2016 aikana kenttätyöskentelyn avulla kerrytetystä materiaalista sisältäen muun muassa osallistuvaa havainnointia sekä haastatteluja 2.5D teatterin alan ammattilasten kanssa. Analyysiaineistoon puolestaan sisältyy manga-pokkareita, anime-jaksoja sekä filmatisoitu teatteriesitys. Kenttätyöskentely on toteutettu japaniksi ja kaikki analyysiaineisto on myös koostettu alkuperäiskielisestä materiaalista. Tutkielmaa tukevana lähdeaineistona käytetään japanilaiseen populaarikulttuuriin liittyvää kirjallisuutta. Tutkimuksen teoriaosuudessa käsitellään mangan, animen ja teatterin yksilöllisiä ilmaisullisia konventioita joiden avulla kukin taiteenlaji toteuttaa oman versionsa samasta perustavanlaatuisesta tekstistä. Näiden keinojen avulla gradussa toteutetaan poikkimediaalinen analyysi jonka tarkoituksena on demonstroida eri taiteenlajien ilmaisullisia eroavaisuuksia. Media-analyysin pohjalta saatujen tulosten pohjalta käy ilmi, että printissä, animaatiossa ja esittävän taiteen muodossa ilmaistuna samaan narratiiviin pohjautuva teos toteutetaan pitkälti kunkin taiteenlajin omin keinoin alkuperäistekstiä vaihtelevassa määrin kunnioittavasti muovaten. Mangassa keskeisenä ilmaisun keinona toimii taiteilijan piirrosjälki ja kyky hyödyntää taiteenlajille ominaisia visuaalisen kerronnan tyylejä kuten erilaisia ikoneja, paneeleja sekä kuvakulmia. Animaatiossa puolestaan ilmaisun keskiöön sijoittuu teknisten keinojen lisäksi myös ääni- ja musiikkisuunnittelu. Teatterissa sen sijaan pääasiallinen narratiivinen ja emotionaalinen ilmaisu painottuu teknisten ratkaisujen ohella näyttelijäsuorituksiin, sekä yleisön ja esiintyjän välillä vallitsevaan yhtäläisyyden ja läsnäolon tunteeseen. Yhteistä kaikille formaateille on tavoite pyrkiä vuorovaikutukseen lukijan, katsojan tai yleisön kanssa muodostamalla kognitiivisesti palkitseva yllätyksellisyyttä ja tuttuuden tunnetta yhdistävä kokemus.
  • Timonen, Meri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of this thesis is to research Japan-U.S. Security Treaty protests in 1960 in global context. The Anpo-protests were selected as research topic because not much research was found of the protests. Anpo-protests begun in 1959 and ended in late 1960. The main motive was to oppose revision of U.S.-Japan Security Treaty but eventually protests led to resignation of the prime minister Kishi Nobusuke. The protests were the largest in Japanese history and left their legacy to Japanese political history and civil society. Scholars have researched Anpo-protests to some extent. However, the Anpo-protests have not been analysed in Worldwide context of Cold war which is why transnational history got selected as primary theoretical framework for this thesis. This thesis uses the Japan Times as the primary source. The Japan Times is Japan’s oldest English language newspaper firstly published in 1897. As for main method theory-guided content analysis was used. Analysis was carried out with coding in which Atlas.ti software was used. Theory of historical study of images got selected as second theoretical framework after transnational history because this thesis aims to construct comprehensive image of the Anpo-protests from the lens of the Japan Times. The research question asks how the Anpo-protests are portrayed in the Japan Times. The goal of the research question is to find out whether the Anpo-protests were portrayed as transnational in the Japan Times. This thesis is interested if the Anpo-protests had transnational influences. The results of the analysis indicate that the Japan Times is mainly interested certain issues, such as who are protesting, why they are protesting and how the protests are carried out. The codes that appear most frequently are communism, students and protests techniques. During the analysis over 1200 codes were reduced into 16 categories which were evolved further into themes. The themes are social unity of Japanese people, legitimacy and transnationalism. Social unity represents how people who were breaking the cohesion of society are judged on the newspaper. Legitimacy deals with the issue of what is legal and what is not. Transnationalism pays interests on transnational influences of the Anpo-protests such as peace activism, communism and democratic ideals. All themes express change in Japanese society. Results explain how the conception of peace, democracy, authority, violence and social unity changed due the Anpo-protests. The results indicate that Anpo-protests were portrayed transnationally to some extent on the Japan Times. Thus, Anpo-protests may have had some transnational connections. Broader analysis would offer more reliable results and thus this thesis serves only as a brief outlook to the Anpo-protests. However, this thesis offers valuable information of the Japan Times itself and of the major change in Japanese society that has often left without notice. Anpo-protests itself served as transnational influence on other protests which evolved later in the 1960s.
  • Sinkkonen, Elina; Elovainio, Marko (2020)
    People's threat perceptions play a role in influencing foreign policies towards perceived adversary countries. Earlier research has identified multiple components shaping mass-level threat perceptions including military power, adversary country's perceived intentions, and national identities. On the individual level, education, use of media, and interest in politics have been shown to influence threat perceptions. However, most studies on perceptions of security threats fail to include both contextual and individual-level explanatory factors and to consider that different national threats may be constructed differently. This research bridges formation of threat perceptions on the individual level to wider societal processes and provides an empirical perspective to understanding threat perceptions among the educated section of the Chinese population. To analyze threat perceptions, students from leading Chinese universities (N = 771) took part in a survey in the autumn of 2011 and spring of 2012. Respondents who followed conventional media were more likely to perceive both the United States and Japan as threatening, and the effect of media consumption was particularly strong with regards to perceived threat from Japan. In addition, each threat perception was significantly associated with threat-specific explanatory factors. Potential explanatory factors of threat perceptions were explored with linear regression models.
  • Karikoski, Aki Tapani (2007)
    Corporate governance in Japan has been the subject matter of a great volume of literature. The majority of discussion in the literature focuses on the reasons for the existence of the Japanese system and whether it is an efficient alternative compared with corporate governance in Anglo-Saxon countries. The purpose of this thesis paper is, firstly, to specify the unique characteristics of the Japanese corporate governance system, and secondly, provide a theoretical explanation for cross-shareholding, a widely adopted mechanism in Japan. The study can be divided into two parts: the first part reviews the literature on corporate governance in Japan focusing especially on the keiretsu corporate groups. I describe the evolution of corporate groups in Japan and define the main characteristics of the groups. I also analyze the present situation and evaluate the effects the globalization of the world business environment might have on the keiretsu institution. The objective of this part is to give better understanding about the background of the Japanese corporate governance system reasons for its unique characteristics. The paper also suggests a possible direction for future changes, indicating that, due to economic reason, Japan is moving eventually towards a more universal corporate governance system. In the second part, I present two models where the impact of cross-shareholding is studied. The results of the models give one possible explanation for the declining trend of cross-shareholding in Japan - the divergence of interest between the shareholder and management under slow economic growth.
  • Kangas, Hanna-Liisa; Ollikka, K.; Ahola, J.; Kim, Y. (Elsevier Science, 2021)
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 150: 111356
    Smart energy transition includes a widespread deployment of clean energy technologies and intelligent energy management with information and communication technologies (ICTs). In this paper, the smart energy transition is studied from the viewpoint of the technology convergence of renewable energy sources (RESs) and ICTs. Two important, fast-growing and weather-dependent renewable energy generation technologies: wind power and solar PV (photovoltaic) are studied. This paper provides technology convergence analyses of RES and ICT inventions based on international patent data. Digitalisation is changing the whole of society, and according to the results, this transition can also be seen in the studied renewable energy generation technologies. The digitalisation of RES production covers technologies that control, manage and optimise electricity production in different intelligent ways. Differences between wind power and solar PV technologies are found: in the case of wind power, the development from virtually no ICT solutions to partial technology convergence with the ICT sector is straightforward. However, in the case of solar PV, the development of basic technologies has been even faster than the development of the solar PV ICT solutions, which may indicate the immature nature of solar PV technologies during the studied years. The digitalisation of the renewable energy sector poses challenges for RES companies in following and predicting ICT development and opportunities for innovations and collaborations with ICT companies. This conclusion can also be expanded to society and policy levels because focusing on only a narrow field when planning innovation policy instruments can negatively impact the country's competitiveness.
  • Yamazaki, Wataru (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The legacies of WWI often have central position in shaping national memory and in many occasions create national myth that shapes historical understanding in certain ways. The issues often trigger heated debate on how to interpret history in national and transnational context. Such is true for Finland. The history of the historiography of Finnish participation in WWII is a process of national interpretations being challenged from outside, notably researchers from Anglophone regions. The debate surrounding such challenges made from external perspectives are still topic of debate in the current context and calls for deconstructing the national myth to incorporate national history into European context are made. While the details of the Anglophone challenges are found in previous literature, how other researchers outside of Finland explained Finnish history of WWII are not well documented. To expand the landscape of the Finnish history research in other regions, this research will focus on the history writing of Japanese historians on Finnish WWII history. The literature that will be analysed are those published in Japan between 1951 and 2017, which includes works aimed at academic and public audience. Analysis will be made using conceptual history approach to understand the text “as they were written” through comparing them with the context within which it was written. The context includes both historiography of the Finnish WWII in available literature in English by Finnish and Anglophone authors, as well as Japanese sociopolitical and historiographical context of seiyōshi (Western History). Through the analysis, several findings were identified. Key findings include the shift in the nomenclature of the wars from wartime names, Soviet Finnish War, to translation of Finnish names, shift in the “problem space” of the Finnish history in Japanese literature, both of which originates to the clarification of the niche by the contributions from early historians. Another feature was relatively quick presentation and acceptance of Anglophone interpretations regarding the origins of the wars, though with variations between historians. This is most likely due to external perspective they share with those from Anglophone regions. The central finding of this research was the very strong emphasis on the small state in virtually all Japanese literature. While the notions appear in Finnish and Anglophone literature, the genre trope of the Western History research resonates strongly in the literature, especially the notions to “learn from the Occident”.
  • Raussi, Leevi (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This thesis focuses on the localization of Japanese rhythm games in the United States and Europe. While the Western Guitar Hero and Rock Band rhythm game series enjoyed huge popularity among people around 2005–2010, the few Japanese rhythm games that were localized in the West during this period were, in general, not able to break through to mass appeal. This study’s aim is to shed light on the reasons why only few Japanese rhythm games have managed to get popular in the West. Concentrating on music used in these rhythm games localized from Japan, the study analyzes seven rhythm games’ localization strategy in regards to their decisions to either change the songs used in a game or to keep the original soundtrack unchanged. The study divides the used localization strategies into three categories: 1) fully localized, 2) partially localized, 3) not localized. The successfulness of the used localization strategy is then evaluated in relation to whether the rhythm game has received sequel localizations in the West. The second part of the study consists of analyses of three surveys aimed at the following three demographics: 1) Japanese Taiko no Tatsujin players, 2) Finnish digital game players, 3) Finnish anime/manga fans. The objectives of the three surveys were to get an understanding of people’s reasons to play rhythm games and what kind of music respondents wanted to be used in rhythm games. The study finds that the most successful localizations of Japanese rhythm games used lesser amount of localization for the rhythm game’s song list. The results from the two Finnish surveys also support this view. The three surveys also indicate that the music used in a rhythm game plays a key factor with original music composed specifically for the game gathering strong support across all three surveys. The thesis concludes with arguing that while the used music might not be the sole reason that decides the fate of a localized rhythm game, its importance should not be disregarded.
  • Tanaka, Shigeru (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1981)
  • Hamberg, Ninni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Overwork has been a major part of Japanese work culture ever since the second world war. Currently the diminishing working population and growing economic pressure have led to a situation where workers are required to commit their days and lives to work for companies to bloom. If overwork is temporary and controlled, it may be justified. However, there are cases in Japan where excessive overwork has become a norm inside the company. This may cause not only serious health problems and reduced working capacity but even death. This master’s thesis examines how two cases of overwork suicides (karōjisatsu) were dealt in two Japanese newspapers, Asahi Shimbun and Yomiuri Shimbun. The newspaper articles were based on two court decisions in which employees of Dentsu Inc. (Dentsu) killed themselves due to over work. In 1991 Ichiro Oshima hanged himself at his home, and in 2015 Matsuri Takahashi killed herself by jumping out of dormitory window. There were several similarities between the cases: both employees were only 24-year-old and they had been working for Dentsu only for approximately a year. Both of them had worked hundreds of hours over time. In Oshima’s case, the Supreme Court of Japan found in 2000 that he had died due to mental problems which were caused by the excessive overwork. The court deemed Dentsu to be responsible for his death as the company knew about his situation but chose not to do anything about it. In Takahashi’s case the Summary Court of Tokyo found that her death was caused by unreasonable overwork and found that this was caused by Dentsu’s actions. This paper starts with an introduction to the phenomenon, terminology, and presents some features of Japanese work culture. The next section explains the methodology of the research, which is qualitative analysis of the documents with features from case study. This is followed by presenting the gathered materials. The materials consist of 16 Japanese articles which were published on the date or the following day of the court decisions. In the analysis the goal is to find out what themes the newspapers reported from the cases, were they critical towards it, and whether they had any original comments or arguments regarding how these kinds of incidents could be prevented. Interest is also in whether the values of Japanese citizens can be read from the articles. Based on the analysis of the articles there were not many suggestions regarding what kind of changes could be made to the existing situation. The articles were mainly descriptive although some of them did have critical aspects about society’s role in the issue. Asahi Shimbun had more empathy on the victim’s side while Yomiuri Shimbun was more neutral. The articles brought up some problematic themes such as that working time is not controlled by the management, but it is left to the employees themselves. There were also statements from the bereaved parents of the victims and also some comments from experts and other Dentsu’s employees. Overall, based on these articles it is not possible to draw a clear picture regarding how the ordinary citizens in Japan feel about this issue. There is a need for further research because karōjisatsu is a serious problem which needs to be solved. At the moment there is plenty of research from medical and psychological perspective but not much research from the sociological, cultural and legal perspective. Comparative study between different countries could be fruitful.
  • Sibakov, Tuomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In this work I examine how imōto-moe, a recent trend in Japanese animation and manga in which incestual connotations and relationships between brothers and sisters is shown, contributes to the sexualization of girls in the Japanese society. This is done by analysing four different series from 2010s, in which incest is a major theme. The analysis is done using visual analysis.The study concludes that although the series can show sexualization of drawn underage girls, reading the works as if they would posit either real or fictional little sisters as sexual targets. Instead, the analysis suggests that following the narrative, the works should be read as fictional underage girls expressing a pure feelings and sexuality, unspoiled by adult corruption.To understand moe, it is necessary to understand the history of Japanese animation. Much of the genres, themes and styles in manga and anime are due to Tezuka Osamu, the “god of manga” and “god of animation”. From the 1950s, Tezuka was influenced by Disney and other western animators at the time. His stories and themes had intellectual and philosophical depth that the western counterparts did not have. The works also touched themes that the western animation steered away from, including sexuality, which was not compartmentalized in a similar fashion in Japan as it was in the Western world. His works not only created new genres by themselves, but the constant combination by future generations created thethematic complexity that can be seen in manga and anime today.Tezuka also had a role in underage girl sexualization: his girl characters were an inspiration for the sexuality of little girls, both real and fictional, in the 70s. The western works of Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita and Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland drew attention to the cuteness of little girls. In combination, sexualized versions of Tezuka’s characters were drawn, at first as a parody. In the 80s there was a boom of drawn girls in sexually compromised situations, or loliconart. Duringthe 80s, the focus shifted away from connotations to real girl imagery and drawn rape imagery towards less violent forms.In 1989, a dubious connection was drawn between otaku, fans of popular culture, including loliconimagery, and a serial killer of small children. The moral panic that followed slowed the spread of loliconin the 90s.Meanwhilein the 90s, an idea of moebegan to form: if fictional little girls are not corrupted by adult sexuality, the girls cause feelings of affection in the viewer. The viewers are affected by moe via isolated, but recognizable tropes, such as cat ears and tail, a speech habit, or twin tails. A part of this research is to examine how well imōto-fits under the loliconcriteria, and undermoe: the characters are sexualized: they are showing having sexual thoughts and expressing sexual activity. After the examination, I conclude that, at least in the works examined, imōto-moe fits under the latter category: the male partners are passive and follow the girl’s lead, the ages are very close, and many of the series emphasize the virtual aspect: to enjoy little sisters, they have to be two-dimensional, outside the laws of reality.
  • Tsokkinen, Riku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study employs an exploratory look into the immigration policy in the contemporary Japan, in the light of an ongoing demographic transition. As the native Japanese population ages, the government officials have turned their attention towards foreign labor to fill the labor deficits in several working sectors. The scrutiny in the study focuses on examining the immigration policy environment and the government operations in increasing the international labor mobility in Japan. The exploratory approach in the study reflects the aspirations of the study to act as a groundwork for further research of the topic by creating hypotheses of the matters examined. Through the use of an analytical framework and a rational logic model based on policy analysis, the study analyzes the Japanese governments immigration policy plan from 2015 and the implemented policies until second quarter of 2019. The examined material is comprised of official publications from the Japanese Ministry of Justice. The results of the study show a set of distinguishable tendencies of the immigration policy in the second decade of the 21st century; a clear preference for highly skilled foreign labor over less skilled one, reluctance of major reforms in opening the labor market for foreign labor, lack of centralized support for multicultural coexistence, preferential treatment for Japanese descendants, and the election of time-limited measures to tackle labor deficits. The study concludes, that even after the realization of the demographic change and the labor deficits by the Japanese officials, the opening of the labor market for the foreign labor remains constricted. Of the immigration policies, the trainee programs show major potential in attracting the low and medium skilled labor, the type of labor most required, and the further revision of the program could promote it to be a cornerstone for increasing the international labor mobility in Japan.
  • Hietala, Mona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Regional mascots in Japan are utilized in several different ways from place branding, tourism marketing and business to administrative soft power functions. With the Japanese tourism industry relying heavily on domestic travel, regional mascots are parts of campaigns designed to market rural travel locations to domestic audiences. Predating the use of mascots, these campaigns have long marketed rural destinations as imagined homeplaces utilizing the culturally bound nostalgic imagery of hometown, furusato. The concept of homeplace is intimately connected to the locally observable phenomenon of indulgent interdependence in Japan, amae. This study aims to find nostalgic triggers identifiable in the framework of furusato and amae in regional mascots and their campaigns through qualitative representational analysis. Nostalgia is conceptualized as an emotional response containing a mixture of positive and negative feelings for things no longer available. In addition to personal nostalgia, nostalgia can be experienced towards a collectively shared cultural past or a historical time, in which case the nostalgic experience is simulated. In advertising texts, nostalgic triggers provide a means for greater consumer involvement. In the Japanese cultural context, nostalgic experience is often connected to the sense of homelessness and yearning for homeplace. While personal nostalgia for furusato is possible, the majority of nostalgic experience can be categorized as collective or historical. Things like local specialty products, events and activities may serve as nostalgic triggers. Amae ties in with furusato through the collective nature of village life and interdependence, whereas cute culture connects with amae through feelings of comfort and indulgence. Character culture enables affective consumption and escape into simulated worlds. The representation analysis utilized follows the constructionist approach to representation and meaning making, where reality is constituted from meaning making processes. This approach allows the search of denotative and connotative connections between mascot campaign content and furusato imagery. The analysis focuses on four regional mascots and their campaigns. The material introduced includes design, promotional activities, products and content produced for the characters. Content analysed is multimodal including audiovisual material, websites, blogs and social media channels. The representations in the campaigns are found to constitute locations as imagined homeplaces and communities. Similarly, the analysis discovered possibilities for nostalgia through experiences of amae. Nostalgic triggers identified through the analysis evoke either personal, collective or historical nostalgia. Notions of tradition, home, childhood, nature, festival culture, cuisine and local specialties are identified as powerful nostalgic triggers in the Japanese cultural context. As the outcome of nostalgic feeling cannot be guaranteed, further study is recommended for the confirmation of the occurrence of nostalgic reactions to these triggers from a larger sample of material.
  • Tuomas, Anna Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This thesis aimed to examine Japan’s lawmaking process that lead to the passage of the PKO law, also known as the peacekeeping law of 1992. The focus was on the government discussions that occurred during the period from September 1991 to June 1992. The issues revolving around the topic were extremely controversial. The root of the problem lies in Japan’s history, and the country’s international standing. This thesis is built on political discourse analysis. The primary objective is to aid in an understanding of the reasons behind the PKO law's creation. Most of the materials cited are government discussions about the law including the explanation of purpose, question rounds, committee reports, and plenary sessions in the House of Councillors and the House of Representatives. The analysis was focused on the expressed views shared by the speakers in the Diet on a micro level, while at the same time showing the effects of the proposed bill on a macro level. Also included were questions about the role played by the leading party, the Liberal Democratic Party, who was the main instigator in the law drafting process. The main questions can be limited to two: Was there a shift in the country's politics as it relates to the issues surrounding the bill's contents? What was the reason that the government strove so hard to pass this bill into law? Through the years, Japan’s foreign policy can be said to be evasive on some points, but with taking part in the peacekeeping operations, there was a slight shift in politics. Japan’s foreign policy was already UN-centered, so participating in the PKO operations was not that massive of a change. Overall, the result of the Gulf Crisis gave the Liberal Democratic Party a reason to make a push for the passing of the PKO bill, and some saw the dispatch of the Self-Defense Forces as the party's last significant effort to redefine Japan as a normal state. In June of 1992 the passed PKO law turned out to be a compromised law. What can be seen from the overall discussions in both houses was that they centered in the perceived unconstitutionality of the bill as well as the use of the army and possible use of force. In some public hearings lawyers and legal advisors stated that they were against the law. Despite this, the opposition, however, did not take into an account changing public opinion, and the government was able to pass the law successfully. Discussion of the bill, in Japan as well abroad, presented a variety of reactions, at the center of them was fear of dispatching the Self-Defense Forces. In conclusion, the army and the peacekeeping operations were two separate matters, and the passing of the bill was a chance for the country to be more active in an international setting.
  • Niskanen, Eija (2020)
    The article discusses the role of localization in anime, using Japanese animated Tv series of Moomin as an example.
  • Handa, Ryoichi (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
  • Helenius, Elina (2000)
    Why does the U.S.-Japan security relationship still exist, even after the Soviet threat, which originally initiated this arrangement, has disappeared? To be able to analyse Japan's motives to stay in the alliance, the different parties to the security debate will be defined. The study shows that the arguments presented by the Japanese Government tend to be more realist in their ideology while the opinions of the Japanese public can be classified as mainly idealist or pacifist. To reveal the friction between the political elite and the general public, the study explains what security policies the Japanese Government has implemented after the Cold War, and how the public has reacted to these policies. The study also analyses how the Government has tried to legitimize some unpopular defense policies and whether this process has been sufficient. The hypothesis is that some of the original reasons to enter the alliance after the Second World War still exist and motivate Japan to stay in the alliance. The results show that the Japanese Government has decided for Japan to stay in the alliance because the security environment surrounding Japan is still seen as a threat to national security. By maintaining the alliance, Japan can balance mainly against the regional power of China. In addition to balancing against power alone, Japan also balances against threats posed by both China and North Korea. Balancing against treats rather than power alone, is one of the key hypotheses of Stephen M. Walt whose theories have guided the structure of this study. The results also show that the Government has not paid enough attention to the public opinion, which has caused problems in legitimizing its defense policies. After the Government has implemented an unpopular policy, the public has usually reacted negatively to it after which the Government has tried to justify its decisions. In the post-Cold War era, the Government needs to clarify its intentions to the public and promote transparency in its defense policies. To avoid potential legitimacy crises, an extensive public discussion about Japan's international role is also needed.
  • Yu, Tommi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The current thesis analyses the reasons why Japan and North Korea have never entered into diplomatic relations and examines the prospects and opportunities for the normalization of their bilateral ties. The period of seven decades since Japanese colonial rule over the Korean Peninsula had ceased, has not been sufficient for either side to come up in good terms with history and politics. The existing historical tensions between the two nations and the absence of diplomatic relations has also constituted over the years to be an omnipresent threat to regional stability and security within the Northeast Asian region. This thesis focuses on both sides’ perceptions of conflict and further outlines and analyzes the priorities both Japan and North Korea strongly desire to retain within their bilateral agenda. Interviews carried out in 2010 and 2011 in Japan and North Korea constitute the empirical part of this study. Since all interviews were conducted not in the distant past, their impact on the thesis is significant but not self-sufficient; analysis of academic literature, press and official documents has been necessary to validate or cast aside main arguments in this thesis. The theoretical framework used in the entire study is the negotiation theory and its Integrative Bargaining Approach (IBA) that is also widely known as Interest-Based Bargaining (IBB). The most important feature of this theoretical framework is it provides a rationale for analyzing the Japan-North Korea ties by examination and inclusion of any issues while reducing them to a core of mutual interests, or shared interests with identifiable mutual gains. Normalization of diplomatic relations in the bilateral context of Japan and North Korea translates to practically enabling the two states to communicate with each other, ensuring certainty of diplomatic representation and interactions on more personal level that could transcend further to economic, cultural, socio-political and business realms. Therefore, by recognizing deductive processes in qualitative research, and by utilizing deductive qualitative research, the study suggests that there is a potential for both Japan and North Korea interests to be integrated in such manner, so to create joint value and attain the normalization of diplomatic relations. The qualitative data analysis suggests it has always been omnipresent chronic failure of negotiation efforts, outlining that in the past the parties have not identified shared interests and opportunities to realize mutual gains through trades across multiple issues, which gap this study is aimed to fill in. There are two key findings in this thesis. First, there are identifiable, shared interests and opportunities for realizing mutual gains, which could be used in initiating and nurturing negotiations between Japan and North Korea towards the goal for diplomatic normalization. Second, the IBA/IBB is the theoretical approach, prescribing proper techniques on how to reduce the bulk of multiple conflicts and enable engagement by the two neighboring states that reflects only issues in which they both recognize mutual interests and possible gains.
  • Nevgi, Anne; Tella, Seppo; Nishimura, Shoji (2010)
    The purpose of this study was to explore what salient characteristics can be found in some university teachers’ approaches to teaching in Finland, Japan and India, and in what ways university teachers in Finland, India and Japan use ICTs (information and communication technologies) in their own teaching. Furthermore, this study aimed to investigate what ICT applications these same teachers use in their teaching. The data were collected via an electronic survey and interviews. The participants (N=21) were university teachers from Finland (N=8), Japan (N=10) and India (N=3). Their approaches to teaching were explored by applying the ATI (approaches to teaching inventory) and its modified version focusing on the use of ICTs in teaching. The study reported in this paper was a pilot study, thus the results are based on the limited number of respondents. The ATI and ATI_ICT subscales and ICT inventory applied in this study have been confirmed to be valid. The university teachers in Japan and Finland differed in their approaches to teaching: The Finnish teachers scored higher on the CCSF (conceptual change orientated, student-focused) approach to teaching than the Japanese teachers, while the Japanese teachers scored higher on the ITTF information transmitting, teacher-focused) approach to teaching. Two Indian teachers were classified as having a teacher-focused approach to teaching, while the third was classified as having a student-focused approach to teaching. The teachers’ differences in their use of ICTs related more to their disciplinary status than to their cultural background. approaches to teaching; use of ICT in teaching; Japan; Finland; India