Browsing by Subject "KETOGENIC DIET"

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  • Kemppainen, Esko; George, Jack; Garipler, Görkem; Tuomela, Tea; Kiviranta, Essi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Dunn, Cory D.; Jacobs, Howard T. (2016)
    The Drosophila mutant tko(25t) exhibits a deficiency ofmitochondrial protein synthesis, leading to a global insufficiency of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. This entrains an organismal phenotype of developmental delay and sensitivity to seizures induced bymechanical stress. We found that the mutant phenotype is exacerbated in a dose-dependent fashion by high dietary sugar levels. tko(25t) larvae were found to exhibit severe metabolic abnormalities that were further accentuated by high-sugar diet. These include elevated pyruvate and lactate, decreased ATP and NADPH. Dietary pyruvate or lactate supplementation phenocopied the effects of high sugar. Based on tissue-specific rescue, the crucial tissue in which this metabolic crisis initiates is the gut. It is accompanied by down-regulation of the apparatus of cytosolic protein synthesis and secretion at both the RNA and post-translational levels, including a novel regulation of S6 kinase at the protein level.
  • Ignatenko, Olesia; Nikkanen, Joni; Kononov, Alexander; Zamboni, Nicola; Ince-Dunn, Gulayse; Suomalainen Wartiovaara, Anu (2020)
    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome (MDS) is a group of severe, tissue-specific diseases of childhood with unknown pathogenesis. Brain-specific MDS manifests as devastating spongiotic encephalopathy with no curative therapy. Here, we report cell type-specific stress responses and effects of rapamycin treatment and ketogenic diet (KD) in mice with spongiotic encephalopathy mimicking human MDS, as these interventions were reported to improve some mitochondrial disease signs or symptoms. Thesemice with astrocyte-specific knockout of Twnk gene encoding replicative mtDNA helicase Twinkle (TwKO(astro)) show wide-spread cell-autonomous astrocyte activation and mitochondrial integrated stress response (ISRmt) induction with major metabolic remodeling of the brain. Mice with neuronal-specific TwKO show no ISRmt. Both KD and rapamycin lead to rapid deterioration and weight loss of TwKO(astro) and premature trial termination. Although rapamycin had no robust effects on TwKO(astro) brain pathology, KD exacerbated spongiosis, gliosis, and ISRmt. Our evidence emphasizes that mitochondrial disease treatments and stress responses are tissue- and disease specific. Furthermore, rapamycin and KD are deleterious in MDS-linked spongiotic encephalopathy, pointing to a crucial role of diet and metabolism for mitochondrial disease progression.
  • Ahola, Sofia; Auranen, Mari; Isohanni, Pirjo; Niemisalo, Satu; Urho, Niina; Buzkova, Jana; Velagapudi, Vidya; Lundbom, Nina; Hakkarainen, Antti; Muurinen, Tiina; Piirilä, Päivi; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Suomalainen, Anu (2016)
    Mitochondrial myopathy (MM) with progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease in adulthood, for which there is no curative therapy. In mice with MM, ketogenic diet significantly delayed progression of the disease. We asked in this pilot study what effects high-fat, low-carbohydrate modified Atkins diet (mAD) had for PEO/MM patients and control subjects and followed up the effects by clinical, morphological, transcriptomic, and metabolomic analyses. All of our five patients, irrespective of genotype, showed a subacute response after 1.5-2weeks of diet, with progressive muscle pain and leakage of muscle enzymes, leading to premature discontinuation of the diet. Analysis of muscle ultrastructure revealed selective fiber damage, especially in the ragged-red-fibers (RRFs), a MM hallmark. Two years of follow-up showed improvement of muscle strength, suggesting activation of muscle regeneration. Our results indicate that (i) nutrition can modify mitochondrial disease progression, (ii) dietary counseling should be part of MM care, (iii) short mAD is a tool to induce targeted RRF lysis, and (iv) mAD, a common weight-loss method, may induce muscle damage in a population subgroup.
  • Ratia, Nadja; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Auranen, Mari; Saksa, Lauri; Luukkonen, Ritva; Suomalainen, Anu; Piirilä, Päivi (2021)
    Background: Low-carbohydrate diets, including the modified Atkins diet (mAD), are commonly used to promote weight loss, improve exercise performance, and treat refractory epilepsy and inherited metabolism disorders. However, the effects of the high-fat-low-carbohydrate diet on the physiology of healthy subjects still need further study. We evaluated the physiological influence of mAD on cardiopulmonary exercise results in healthy adult subjects. Materials and methods: Ten healthy volunteers followed mAD for four weeks with laboratory follow-up. Cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed before, and at the end of mAD, and venous lactate, ammonia, and blood gases were collected before, during, and after exercise testing. Results and conclusions: Four-week mAD decreased the subjects' mechanical efficiency in the cardiopulmonary exercise test and caused increased ventilation and decreased fraction of expired CO2 in maximal exercise. This evidence suggests that mAD can cause hyperventilation tendency at least in the short term, a possible adverse effect of the diet.