Browsing by Subject "KINASE"

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  • Sajanti, Antti; Lyne, Sean B.; Girard, Romuald; Frantzen, Janek; Rantamaki, Tomi; Heino, Iiro; Cao, Ying; Diniz, Cassiano; Umemori, Juzoh; Li, Yan; Takala, Riikka; Posti, Jussi P.; Roine, Susanna; Koskimäki, Fredrika; Rahi, Melissa; Rinne, Jaakko; Castren, Eero; Koskimäki, Janne (2020)
    P75 neurotrophic receptor (p75NTR) is an important receptor for the role of neurotrophins in modulating brain plasticity and apoptosis. The current understanding of the role of p75NTR in cellular adaptation following pathological insults remains blurred, which makes p75NTR's related signaling networks an interesting and challenging initial point of investigation. We identified p75NTR and related genes through extensive data mining of a PubMed literature search including published works related to p75NTR from the past 20 years. Bioinformatic network and pathway analyses of identified genes (n=235) were performed using ReactomeFIViz in Cytoscape based on the highly reliable Reactome functional interaction network algorithm. This approach merges interactions extracted from human curated pathways with predicted interactions from machine learning. Genome-wide pathway analysis showed total of 16 enriched hierarchical clusters. A total of 278 enriched single pathways were also identified (p
  • Pilsworth, Jessica A.; Cochrane, Dawn R.; Neilson, Samantha J.; Moussavi, Bahar H.; Lai, Daniel; Munzur, Asli D.; Senz, Janine; Wang, Yi Kan; Zareian, Sina; Bashashati, Ali; Wong, Adele; Keul, Jacqueline; Staebler, Annette; van Meurs, Hannah S.; Horlings, Hugo M.; Kommoss, Stefan; Kommoss, Friedrich; Oliva, Esther; Färkkilä, Anniina E. M.; Gilks, Blake; Huntsman, David G. (2021)
    Adult-type granulosa cell tumors (aGCTs) account for 90% of malignant ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors and 2-5% of all ovarian cancers. These tumors are usually diagnosed at an early stage and are treated with surgery. However, one-third of patients relapse between 4 and 8 years after initial diagnosis, and there are currently no effective treatments other than surgery for these relapsed patients. As the majority of aGCTs (>95%) harbor a somatic mutation in FOXL2 (c.C402G; p.C134W), the aim of this study was to identify genetic mutations besides FOXL2 C402G in aGCTs that could explain the clinical diversity of this disease. Whole-genome sequencing of 10 aGCTs and their matched normal blood was performed to identify somatic mutations. From this analysis, a custom amplicon-based panel was designed to sequence 39 genes of interest in a validation cohort of 83 aGCTs collected internationally. KMT2D inactivating mutations were present in 10 of 93 aGCTs (10.8%), and the frequency of these mutations was similar between primary and recurrent aGCTs. Inactivating mutations, including a splice site mutation in candidate tumor suppressor WNK2 and nonsense mutations in PIK3R1 and NLRC5, were identified at a low frequency in our cohort. Missense mutations were identified in cell cycle-related genes TP53, CDKN2D, and CDK1. From these data, we conclude that aGCTs are comparatively a homogeneous group of tumors that arise from a limited set of genetic events and are characterized by the FOXL2 C402G mutation. Secondary mutations occur in a subset of patients but do not explain the diverse clinical behavior of this disease. As the FOXL2 C402G mutation remains the main driver of this disease, progress in the development of therapeutics for aGCT would likely come from understanding the functional consequences of the FOXL2 C402G mutation.
  • Liu, Xiaonan; Salokas, Kari; Tamene, Fitsum; Jiu, Yaming; Weldatsadik, Rigbe G.; öhman, Tiina; Varjosalo, Markku (2018)
    Protein-protein interactions govern almost all cellular functions. These complex networks of stable and transient associations can be mapped by affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) and complementary proximity-based labeling methods such as BioID. To exploit the advantages of both strategies, we here design and optimize an integrated approach combining AP-MS and BioID in a single construct, which we term MAC-tag. We systematically apply the MAC-tag approach to 18 subcellular and 3 sub-organelle localization markers, generating a molecular context database, which can be used to define a protein's molecular location. In addition, we show that combining the AP-MS and BioID results makes it possible to obtain interaction distances within a protein complex. Taken together, our integrated strategy enables the comprehensive mapping of the physical and functional interactions of proteins, defining their molecular context and improving our understanding of the cellular interactome.
  • Leino, Teppo O.; Turku, Ainoleena; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari Tapani; Kukkonen, Jyrki P.; Xhaard, Henri; Wallén, Erik A. A. (2018)
    A library of 70 000 synthetically accessible azulene-based compounds was virtually screened at the OX2 receptor. Based on the results, a series of azulene derivatives was synthesized and the binding to and activation of both orexin receptor subtypes were assessed. Two most promising binders were determined to have inhibition constants in the 3-9 mu M range and two other compounds showed weak OX2 receptor agonism. Furthermore, three compounds exhibited a concentration-dependent potentiation of the response to orexin-A at the OX1 but not the OX2 receptors. Altogether this data opens new approaches for further development of antagonists, agonists, and potentiators of orexin response based on the azulene scaffold. (C) 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Donner, Iikki; Katainen, Riku; Kaasinen, Eevi; Aavikko, Mervi; Sipilä, Lauri J.; Pukkala, Eero; Aaltonen, Lauri A. (2019)
    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma with a poor prognosis: the 5-year survival rate is approximately 30%. Somatic driver mutations have been found in TET2, IDH2, DNMT3A, RHOA, FYN, PLCG1, and CD28, whereas germline susceptibility to AITL has to our knowledge not been studied. The homogenous Finnish population is well suited for studies on genetic predisposition. Here, we performed an exome-wide rare variant analysis in 23 AITL patients. No germline mutations were found in the driver genes, implying that they are not frequently involved in genetic AITL predisposition. Potentially pathogenic variants present in at least two patients and showing significant (p
  • Pham, Dan Duc; Bruelle, Celine; Do, Hai Thi; Pajanoja, Ceren; Jin, Congyu; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Eriksson-Rosenberg, Ove; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lalowski, Maciej; Lindholm, Dan (2019)
    Lipid-induced toxicity is part of several human diseases, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Fatty liver is characterized by the expression of different growth and tissue factors. The neurotrophin, nerve growth factor (NGF) and its pro-form, pro-NGF, are present in fatty liver together with p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). Stimulation of human Huh7 hepatocyte cells with NGF and pro-NGF induced Sterol-regulator-element-binding protein-2 (SREBP2) activation and increased Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR) expression. We observed that phosphorylation of caspase-2 by p38 MAPK was essential for this regulation involving a caspase-3-mediated cleavage of SREBP2. RNA sequencing showed that several genes involved in lipid metabolism were altered in p75NTR-deficient mouse liver. The same lipogenic genes were downregulated in p75NTR gene-engineered human Huh7 cells and reciprocally upregulated by stimulation of p75NTRs. In the knock-out mice the serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were reduced, suggesting a physiological role of p75NTRs in whole-body lipid metabolism. Taken together, this study shows that p75NTR signaling influences a network of genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and hepatocyte cells. Modulation of p75NTR signaling may be a target to consider in various metabolic disorders accompanied by increased lipid accumulation.
  • Cuesta-Mateos, Carlo; Fuentes, Patricia; Schrader, Alexandra; Juarez-Sanchez, Raquel; Loscertales, Javier; Mateu-Albero, Tamara; Vega-Piris, Lorena; Espartero-Santos, Marina; Marcos-Jimenez, Ana; Sanchez-Lopez, Blanca Andrea; Perez-Garcia, Yaiza; Jungherz, Dennis; Oberbeck, Sebastian; Wahnschaffe, Linus; Kreutzman, Anna; Andersson, Emma I.; Mustjoki, Satu; Faber, Edgar; Urzainqui, Ana; Fresno, Manuel; Stamatakis, Kostantino; Alfranca, Arantzazu; Terron, Fernando; Herling, Marco; Toribio, Maria Luisa; Munoz-Calleja, Cecilia (2020)
    T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a poor prognostic disease with very limited options of efficient therapies. Most patients are refractory to chemotherapies and despite high response rates after alemtuzumab, virtually all patients relapse. Therefore, there is an unmet medical need for novel therapies in T-PLL. As the chemokine receptor CCR7 is a molecule expressed in a wide range of malignancies and relevant in many tumor processes, the present study addressed the biologic role of this receptor in T-PLL. Furthermore, we elucidated the mechanisms of action mediated by an anti-CCR7 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and evaluated whether its anti-tumor activity would warrant development towards clinical applications in T-PLL. Our results demonstrate that CCR7 is a prognostic biomarker for overall survival in T-PLL patients and a functional receptor involved in the migration, invasion, and survival of leukemic cells. Targeting CCR7 with a mAb inhibited ligand-mediated signaling pathways and induced tumor cell killing in primary samples. In addition, directing antibodies against CCR7 was highly effective in T-cell leukemia xenograft models. Together, these findings make CCR7 an attractive molecule for novel mAb-based therapeutic applications in T-PLL, a disease where recent drug screen efforts and studies addressing new compounds have focused on chemotherapy or small molecules.
  • Gorvin, C.M.; Hannan, F.M.; Cranston, T.; Valta, Helena; Mäkitie, Outi; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Thakker, R.V. (2018)
    G-protein subunit -11 (G(11)) couples the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated intracellular calcium (Ca-i(2+)) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, which in the parathyroid glands and kidneys regulates parathyroid hormone release and urinary calcium excretion, respectively. Heterozygous germline loss-of-function G(11) mutations cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 2 (FHH2), for which effective therapies are currently not available. Here, we report a novel heterozygous G(11) germline mutation, Phe220Ser, which was associated with hypercalcemia in a family with FHH2. Homology modeling showed the wild-type (WT) Phe220 nonpolar residue to form part of a cluster of hydrophobic residues within a highly conserved cleft region of G(11), which binds to and activates PLC; and predicted that substitution of Phe220 with the mutant Ser220 polar hydrophilic residue would disrupt PLC-mediated signaling. In vitro studies involving transient transfection of WT and mutant G(11) proteins into HEK293 cells, which express the CaSR, showed the mutant Ser220 G(11) protein to impair CaSR-mediated Ca-i(2+) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) MAPK signaling, consistent with diminished activation of PLC. Furthermore, engineered mutagenesis studies demonstrated that loss of hydrophobicity within the G(11) cleft region also impaired signaling by PLC. The loss-of-function associated with the Ser220 G(11) mutant was rectified by treatment of cells with cinacalcet, which is a CaSR-positive allosteric modulator. Furthermore, in vivo administration of cinacalcet to the proband harboring the Phe220Ser G(11) mutation, normalized serum ionized calcium concentrations. Thus, our studies, which report a novel G(11) germline mutation (Phe220Ser) in a family with FHH2, reveal the importance of the G(11) hydrophobic cleft region for CaSR-mediated activation of PLC, and show that allosteric CaSR modulation can rectify the loss-of-function Phe220Ser mutation and ameliorate the hypercalcemia associated with FHH2. (c) 2017 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.
  • Come, Christophe; Cvrljevic, Anna; Khan, Mohd Moin; Treise, Irina; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Au-Yeung, Byron; Sittig, Eleonora; Laajala, Teemu Daniel; Chen, Yiling; Oeder, Sebastian; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Horsch, Marion; Aittokallio, Tero; Busch, Dirk H.; Ollert, Markus W.; Neff, Frauke; Beckers, Johannes; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Fuchs, Helmut; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Chen, Zhi; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Westermarck, Jukka (2016)
    The oncoprotein Cancerous Inhibitor of Protein Phosphatase 2A ( CIP2A) is overexpressed in most malignancies and is an obvious candidate target protein for future cancer therapies. However, the physiological importance of CIP2A-mediated PP2A inhibition is largely unknown. As PP2A regulates immune responses, we investigated the role of CIP2A in normal immune system development and during immune response in vivo. We show that CIP2A-deficient mice (CIP2A(HOZ)) present a normal immune system development and function in unchallenged conditions. However when challenged with Listeria monocytogenes, CIP2A(HOZ) mice display an impaired adaptive immune response that is combined with decreased frequency of both CD4(+) T-cells and CD8(+) effector T-cells. Importantly, the cell autonomous effect of CIP2A deficiency for T-cell activation was confirmed. Induction of CIP2A expression during T-cell activation was dependent on Zap70 activity. Thus, we reveal CIP2A as a hitherto unrecognized mediator of T-cell activation during adaptive immune response. These results also reveal CIP2A(HOZ) as a possible novel mouse model for studying the role of PP2A activity in immune regulation. On the other hand, the results also indicate that CIP2A targeting cancer therapies would not cause serious immunological side-effects.
  • Srinivasan, Vignesh; Bruelle, Celine; Scifo, Enzo; Pham, Dan Duc; Soliymani, Rabah; Lalowski, Maciej; Lindholm, Dan Bj (2020)
    USP14 is a deubiquitinating enzyme associated with the proteasome that is important for protein degradation. Here we show that upon proteasomal inhibition or expression of the mutant W58A38 USP14, association of USP14 with the 19S regulatory particle is disrupted. MS-based interactomics revealed an interaction of USP14 with the chaperone, HSC70 in neuroblastoma cells. Proteasome inhibition enhanced binding of USP14 to HSC70, but also to XBP1u and IRE1α proteins, demonstrating a role in the unfolded protein response. Striatal neurons expressing mutant huntingtin exhibited reduced USP14 and HSC70 levels, whilst inhibition of HSC70 downregulated USP14. Furthermore, proteasome inhibition or the use of mutant W58A-USP14 facilitated the interaction of USP14 with the autophagy protein, GABARAP. Functionally, overexpression of W58A-USP14 increased GABARAP positive autophagosomes in striatal neurons and this was abrogated using the HSC70 inhibitor, VER-155008. Modulation of the USP14-HSC70 axis by various drugs may represent a potential therapeutic target in HD to beneficially influence multiple proteostasis pathways
  • Roering, Pia; Siddiqui, Arafat; Heuser, Vanina D.; Potdar, Swapnil; Mikkonen, Piia; Oikkonen, Jaana; Li, Yilin; Pikkusaari, Sanna; Wennerberg, Krister; Hynninen, Johanna; Grenman, Seija; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Auranen, Annika; Carpen, Olli; Kaipio, Katja (2022)
    ObjectiveA major challenge in the treatment of platinum-resistant high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is lack of effective therapies. Much of ongoing research on drug candidates relies on HGSOC cell lines that are poorly documented. The goal of this study was to screen for effective, state-of-the-art drug candidates using primary HGSOC cells. In addition, our aim was to dissect the inhibitory activities of Wee1 inhibitor adavosertib on primary and conventional HGSOC cell lines. MethodsA comprehensive drug sensitivity and resistance testing (DSRT) on 306 drug compounds was performed on three patient-derived genetically unique HGSOC cell lines and two commonly used ovarian cancer cell lines. The effect of adavosertib on the cell lines was tested in several assays, including cell-cycle analysis, apoptosis induction, proliferation, wound healing, DNA damage, and effect on nuclear integrity. ResultsSeveral compounds exerted cytotoxic activity toward all cell lines, when tested in both adherent and spheroid conditions. In further cytotoxicity tests, adavosertib exerted the most consistent cytotoxic activity. Adavosertib affected cell-cycle control in patient-derived and conventional HGSOC cells, inducing G2/M accumulation and reducing cyclin B1 levels. It induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation and migration in all cell lines. Furthermore, the DNA damage marker gamma H2AX and the number of abnormal cell nuclei were clearly increased following adavosertib treatment. Based on the homologous recombination (HR) signature and functional HR assays of the cell lines, the effects of adavosertib were independent of the cells' HR status. ConclusionOur study indicates that Wee1 inhibitor adavosertib affects several critical functions related to proliferation, cell cycle and division, apoptosis, and invasion. Importantly, the effects are consistent in all tested cell lines, including primary HGSOC cells, and independent of the HR status of the cells. Wee1 inhibition may thus provide treatment opportunities especially for patients, whose cancer has acquired resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy or PARP inhibitors.
  • Turunen, S. Pauliina; von Nandelstadh, Pernilla; Öhman, Tiina; Gucciardo, Erika; Seashore-Ludlow, Brinton; Martins, Beatriz; Rantanen, Ville; Li, Huini; Höpfner, Katrin; Östling, Päivi; Varjosalo, Markku; Lehti, Kaisa (2019)
    Cancer cells balance with the equilibrium of cell death and growth to expand and metastasize. The activity of mammalian sterile20-like kinases (MST1/2) has been linked to apoptosis and tumor suppression via YAP/Hippo pathway-independent and -dependent mechanisms. Using a kinase substrate screen, we identified here MST1 and MST2 among the top substrates for fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4). In COS-1 cells, MST1 was phosphorylated at Y433 residue in an FGFR4 kinase activity-dependent manner, as assessed by mass spectrometry. Blockade of this phosphorylation by Y433F mutation induced MST1 activation, as indicated by increased threonine phosphorylation of MST1/2, and the downstream substrate MOB1, in FGFR4-overexpressing T47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Importantly, the specific knockdown or short-term inhibition of FGFR4 in endogenous models of human HER2(+) breast cancer cells likewise led to increased MST1/2 activation, in conjunction with enhanced MST1 nuclear localization and generation of N-terminal cleaved and autophosphorylated MST1. Unexpectedly, MST2 was also essential for this MST1/N activation and coincident apoptosis induction, although these two kinases, as well as YAP, were differentially regulated in the breast cancer models analyzed. Moreover, pharmacological FGFR4 inhibition specifically sensitized the HER2(+) MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells, not only to HER2/EGFR and AKT/mTOR inhibitors, but also to clinically relevant apoptosis modulators. In TCGA cohort, FGFR4 overexpression correlated with abysmal HER2(+) breast carcinoma patient outcome. Therefore, our results uncover a clinically relevant, targetable mechanism of FGFR4 oncogenic activity via suppression of the stress-associated MST1/2-induced apoptosis machinery in tumor cells with prominent HER/ERBB and FGFR4 signaling-driven proliferation.
  • Palgi, Mari; Greco, Dario; Lindström, Riitta; Auvinen, Petri; Heino, Tapio I. (2012)
  • Johansson, Karin S. L.; El-Soda, Mohamed; Pagel, Ellen; Meyer, Rhonda C.; Toldsepp, Kadri; Nilsson, Anders K.; Brosche, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes; Uddling, Johan; Andersson, Mats X. (2020)
    Background and Aims The stomatal conductance (g(s)) of most plant species decreases in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration. This response could have a significant impact on plant water use in a future climate. However, the regulation of the CO2 induced stomatal closure response is not fully understood. Moreover, the potential genetic links between short-term (within minutes to hours) and long-term (within weeks to months) responses of g(s) to increased atmospheric CO2 have not been explored. Methods We used Arabidopsis thaliana recombinant inbred lines originating from accessions Col-0 (strong CO2 response) and C24 (weak CO2 response) to study short- and long-term controls of g(s) Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was used to identify loci controlling short- and long-term g(s) responses to elevated CO2 as well as other stomata-related traits. Key Results Short- and long-term stomatal responses to elevated CO2 were significantly correlated. Both short-and long-term responses were associated with a QTL, at the end of chromosome 2. The location of this QTL was confirmed using near-isogonic lines and it was fine-mapped to a 410-kb region. The QTL did not correspond to any known gene involved in stomatal closure and had no effect on the responsiveness to abscisic acid. Additionally, we identified numerous other loci associated with stomatal regulation. Conclusions We identified and confirmed the effect of a strong QTL corresponding to a yet unknown regulator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2 concentration. The correlation between short- and long-term stomatal CO2 responses and the genetic link between these traits highlight the importance of understanding guard cell CO2 signalling to predict and manipulate plant water use in a world with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. This study demonstrates the power of using natural variation to unravel the genetic regulation of complex traits.
  • Parri, Elina; Kuusanmäki, Heikki; van Adrichem, Arjan J.; Kaustio, Meri; Wennerberg, Krister (2020)
    STAT3 mediates signalling downstream of cytokine and growth factor receptors where it acts as a transcription factor for its target genes, including oncogenes and cell survival regulating genes. STAT3 has been found to be persistently activated in many types of cancers, primarily through its tyrosine phosphorylation (Y705). Here, we show that constitutive STAT3 activation protects cells from cytotoxic drug responses of several drug classes. To find novel and potentially targetable STAT3 regulators we performed a kinase and phosphatase siRNA screen with cells expressing either a hyperactive STAT3 mutant or IL6-induced wild type STAT3. The screen identified cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase (CDC7), casein kinase 2, alpha 1 (CSNK2), discoidin domain-containing receptor 2 (DDR2), cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8), phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase 2-alpha (PI4KII), C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) and receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase H (PTPRH) as potential STAT3 regulators. Using small molecule inhibitors targeting these proteins, we confirmed dose and time dependent inhibition of STAT3-mediated transcription, suggesting that inhibition of these kinases may provide strategies for dampening STAT3 activity in cancers.
  • Torrieri, Giulia; Almeida Ferreira, Monica; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Talman, Virpi; Karhu, Tuuli; Pohjolainen, Lotta; Carvalho, Cláudia; Pinto, João F.; Hirvonen, Jouni; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Balasubramanian, Vimalkumar; Santos, Hélder A. (2022)
    Myocardial infarction results in a massive loss of cardiomyocytes (CMs). Unfortunately, current therapies are unsuccessful in replacing lost CMs, and thus, there is an urgent need for innovative approaches. Here, a nanosystem based on spermine-acetalated dextran (AcDXSp) and encapsulating two drug compounds able to stimulate in vitro CMs proliferation is developed. The nanosystem is coated by deposition of a film constituted by tannic acid (TA) and Fe3+ ions. The coating with TA increases the retention of the nanocarrier in cell co-cultures of CMs and fibroblasts stimulated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, due to the high affinity of TA for components of the cardiac extracellular matrix. The system exhibits biocompatibility toward primary CMs and induces their proliferation, as indicated by the two-fold increase of CMs in the active cell cycle. At the same time, the presence of TA synergistically helps contrasting fibrosis by reducing profibrotic genes expression, such as collagen 1 and osteopontin, by approximately 80% compared to the control. Overall, the developed nanosystem demonstrates the capability to stimulate CMs proliferation and reduce fibrosis, showing potential benefits for future in vivo applications.
  • Parviainen, Suvi; Autio, Karoliina; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Guse, Kilian; Pesonen, Sari; Rosol, Thomas J.; Zhao, Fang; Hemminki, Akseli (2015)
    Vaccinia virus is a large, enveloped virus of the poxvirus family. It has broad tropism and typically virus replication culminates in accumulation and lytic release of intracellular mature virus (IMV), the most abundant form of infectious virus, as well as release by budding of extracellular enveloped virus (EEV). Vaccinia viruses have been modified to replicate selectively in cancer cells and clinically tested as oncolytic agents. During preclinical screening of relevant cancer targets for a recombinant Western Reserve strain deleted for both copies of the thymidine kinase and vaccinia growth factor genes, we noticed that confluent monolayers of SCCF1 cat squamous carcinoma cells were not destroyed even after prolonged infection. Interestingly, although SCCF1 cells were not killed, they continuously secreted virus into the cell culture supernatant. To investigate this finding further, we performed detailed studies by electron microscopy. Both intracellular and secreted virions showed morphological abnormalities on ultrastructural inspection, suggesting compromised maturation and morphogenesis of vaccinia virus in SCCF1 cells. Our data suggest that SCCF1 cells produce a morphologically abnormal virus which is nevertheless infective, providing new information on the virus-host cell interactions and intracellular biology of vaccinia virus.
  • Massinen, Satu; Hokkanen, Marie-Estelle; Matsson, Hans; Tammimies, Kristiina; Tapia-Páez, Isabel; Dahlström-Heuser, Vanina; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Burghoorn, Jan; Jeppsson, Kristian E.; Swoboda, Peter; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Toftgård, Rune; Castrén, Eero; Kere, Juha (2011)
  • Tanoli, Ziaurrehman; Alam, Zaid; Ianevski, Aleksandr; Wennerberg, Krister; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Aittokallio, Tero (2020)
    Knowledge of the full target space of drugs (or drug-like compounds) provides important insights into the potential therapeutic use of the agents to modulate or avoid their various on- and off-targets in drug discovery and precision medicine. However, there is a lack of consolidated databases and associated data exploration tools that allow for systematic profiling of drug target-binding potencies of both approved and investigational agents using a network-centric approach. We recently initiated a community-driven platform, Drug Target Commons (DTC), which is an open-data crowdsourcing platform designed to improve the management, reproducibility and extended use of compound-target bioactivity data for drug discovery and repurposing, as well as target identification applications. In this work, we demonstrate an integrated use of the rich bioactivity data from DTC and related drug databases using Drug Target Profiler (DTP), an open-source software and web tool for interactive exploration of drug-target interaction networks. DTP was designed for network-centric modeling of mode-of-action of multi-targeting anticancer compounds, especially for precision oncology applications. DTP enables users to construct an interaction network based on integrated bioactivity data across selected chemical compounds and their protein targets, further customizable using various visualization and filtering options, as well as cross-links to several drug and protein databases to provide comprehensive information of the network nodes and interactions. We demonstrate here the operation of the DTP tool and its unique features by several use cases related to both drug discovery and drug repurposing applications, using examples of anticancer drugs with shared target profiles. DTP is freely accessible at