Browsing by Subject "KNOWLEDGE"

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  • Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Diaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernandez-Llamazares, Alvaro; Gallois, Sandrine (2020)
    Although subsistence hunting is cross-culturally an activity led and practiced mostly by men, a rich body of literature shows that in many small-scale societies women also engage in hunting in varied and often inconspicuous ways. Using data collected among two contemporary forager-horticulturalist societies facing rapid change (the Tsimane' of Bolivia and the Baka of Cameroon), we compare the technological and social characteristics of hunting trips led by women and men and analyze the specific socioeconomic characteristics that facilitate or constrain women's engagement in hunting. Results from interviews on daily activities with 121 Tsimane' (63 women and 58 men) and 159 Baka (83 women and 76 men) show that Tsimane' and Baka women participate in subsistence hunting, albeit using different techniques and in different social contexts than men. We also found differences in the individual and household socioeconomic profiles of Tsimane' and Baka women who hunt and those who do not hunt. Moreover, the characteristics that differentiate hunter and non-hunter women vary from one society to the other, suggesting that gender roles in relation to hunting are fluid and likely to change, not only across societies, but also as societies change.
  • Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R. (2018)
    According to the memory colour effect, the colour of a colour-diagnostic object is not perceived independently of the object itself. Instead, it has been shown through an achromatic adjustment method that colour-diagnostic objects still appear slightly in their typical colour, even when they are colourimetrically grey. Bayesian models provide a promising approach to capture the effect of prior knowledge on colour perception and to link these effects to more general effects of cue integration. Here, we model memory colour effects using prior knowledge about typical colours as priors for the grey adjustments in a Bayesian model. This simple model does not involve any fitting of free parameters. The Bayesian model roughly captured the magnitude of the measured memory colour effect for photographs of objects. To some extent, the model predicted observed differences in memory colour effects across objects. The model could not account for the differences in memory colour effects across different levels of realism in the object images. The Bayesian model provides a particularly simple account of memory colour effects, capturing some of the multiple sources of variation of these effects.
  • Loukomies, Anni; Petersen, Nadine; Lavonen, Jari (2018)
    In this study, we examined student teachers' learning during their teaching placement period in Finland and South Africa. The setting of the inquiry in both countries was a 'teaching' school, affiliated to a university teacher education programme. The teaching school is also referred to as an educational innovation that was transferred from the Finnish context to the South African context. Data were collected through an interview protocol. The findings show that the students, like many of their counterparts in different parts of the world, focused on teaching tools and methods as well as classroom management as a gateway to their teaching career. The extended teaching placement period at both the university teaching schools was expected to yield some findings about the intersection of teaching practice and its supporting theories because of the close collaboration of the schools and the universities. Some of the findings satisfied this expectation while other parts did not, confirming that initial teacher education may be regarded as a platform for learning to be teachers, but it has its own limits even in a pedagogical 'laboratory'. The transfer of the educational innovation was regarded as successful.
  • Green, Sarah Francesca (University of Helsinki, 2016)
    Publications of the Faculty of Social Sciences
    This is a reflection on how a combination of the concept of 'knowledge economy', academic audit of research excellence, and the introduction of the criterion of 'impact' as a measure of research quality, have come together in transforming the practices within, and the purpose of, universities in contemporary Europe.
  • Jones, Marjaana; Pietilä, Ilkka Veikko (2020)
    Health policies and strategies promote the involvement of people with illness experiences in service development and production, integrating them into settings that have traditionally been domains of health professionals. In this study, we focus on the perspectives of people with personal illness experiences and explore how they justify involvement, position themselves as legitimate actors and forge collaborative relationships with health professionals. We have used discourse analysis in analysing individual interviews conducted with peer support workers and experts by experience (n = 17) who currently work in Finnish health services. The interviewees utilised discourses of empowerment, efficiency and patient-centeredness, aligning themselves with the justifications constructed by patient movements additionally to those found in current health policies. Both groups wanted to retain critical distance from professionals in order to voice criticisms of current care practices, yet they also frequently aligned themselves with professionals in order to gain legitimacy for their involvement. They adopted professional traits that moved them further from being lay participants sharing personal experiences and adopted an expert position. Although national-level policies provided backing and legitimacy for involvement, the lack of local-level guidance could hinder the practical implementation and make involvement largely dependent of professionals' discretion.
  • Ruuskanen, Taina; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Riuttanen, Laura; Lauri, Antti (2018)
    Transferable skills, such as learning skills as well as oral and written communication skills, are needed by today’s experts. The learning of transferable skills was studied during a multidisciplinary two-week, research-oriented intensive course in atmospheric sciences. Students were assessed on their experience of learning data analysis, writing reports and articles, oral presentation, learning and teaching, as well as project and time management skills and the importance of learning these transferable skills in the beginning and at the end of the course. The learning outcomes were constructively aligned with the course and it supported the learning of transferable skills needed by researchers working with multidisciplinary research questions. The methods of teaching were group work, data analysis of real scientific questions and real scientific data, a few expert lectures, discussions with experts and peer-support, and the course evaluation that was based on the groups’ oral presentations and a written report. The groups consisted of seven to eight students and four to six assistants who were working side-by-side for the period of the course. Students considered data analysis, including the formulation of research questions, as the most important transferable skill of the course and stated that it was also what they learned the most. We conclude that the students felt that working with real scientific questions and data in multidisciplinary groups supports the learning of transferable skills. The findings suggest that the students may have learned transferable skills from peers, assistants, and teachers while working in small groups of students in different stages of their studies. The study was conducted from student feedback from one course only, but we have observed while organizing over 50 similar courses that working on real scientific questions and data in a multidisciplinary and multicultural course has been motivating for both the teachers and the students. We recommend this method to be used by research groups who are training the future generation of researchers and experts in atmospheric sciences and other fields.
  • Engeström, Yrjo (2020)
    The article examines the potential of the dialectical principle of ascending from the abstract to the concrete for transforming practices of learning. It is shown that V.V. Davydov's work has created a foundation for such transformation. The theory of expansive learning builds on Davydov's legacy and brings the principle of ascending from the abstract to the concrete into learning and concept formation outside schools, "in the wild." Three studies investigating different scales of expansive learning are discussed, focusing on the internally contradictory germ cells discovered and used in those studies. The article concludes by emphasizing the need to integrate Davydov's revolutionary pedagogy and the broader agenda of school transformation as part of societal transformation.
  • Saastamoinen, Antti; Hyttinen, Virva; Kortelainen, Mika; Aaltio, Juho; Auranen, Mari; Ylikallio, Emil; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Sainio, Markus; Suomalainen, Anu; Tyynismaa, Henna; Isohanni, Pirjo (2020)
    This study examines how parents of pediatric patients might differ in their views and attitudes towards genetic technology and information when compared to adult patients. There is surprisingly little evidence on how parents compare to other parts of population in their attitudes. Previous empirical studies often relate health-related preferences and attitudes to factors such as age, education, and income instead of parental status, thus evading comparison of parents to others as health-related decision makers. Findings related to the parental status can be useful when implementing genetic technology in clinical practice. We conducted a survey of views on genetic technology and information for groups of adult neurology patients (n = 68) and parents of pediatric neurology patients (n = 31) to shed some light on this issue. In addition to our own survey instrument, we conducted other surveys to gain insight on psychosocial factors that might affect these attitudes. The results suggest that parents are more concerned about their children's genetic risk factors when compared to the attitudes of adult patients about their own risk. For both groups, negative emotional state was associated with more concerns towards genetic information. Our study provides insights on how parental views might affect the acceptance of genetic technology and information.
  • Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Ritmala-Castren, Marita; Vahlberg, Tero; Leino-Kilpi, Helena (2015)
    Critical care patients benefit from the attention of nursing personnel with a high competence level. The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate the self-assessed basic competence of intensive care unit nurses and related factors. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A basic competence scale (Intensive and Critical Care Nursing Competence Scale version 1, Likert scale 1-5, 1 = poor and 5 = excellent) was employed among Finnish intensive care unit nurses (n = 431). Intensive care unit nurses' self-assessed basic competence was good (mean 4.19, SD 0.40). The attitude and value base of basic competence was excellent whereas experience base was the poorest compared to the knowledge base and skill base of intensive and critical care nursing. The strongest factor explaining nurses' basic competence was their experience of autonomy in nursing care (F value 60.85, beta 0.11, SE 0.01, and P
  • Salomaa, Anna; Paloniemi, Riikka; Kotiaho, Janne S.; Kettunen, Marianne; Apostolopoulou, Evangelia; Cent, Joanna (2017)
    The gradually decreasing connectivity of habitats threatens biodiversity and ecological processes valuable to humans. Green infrastructure is promoted by the European Commission as a key instrument for the conservation of ecosystems in the EU biodiversity strategy to 2020. Green infrastructure has been defined as a network of natural and semi-natural areas, designed and managed to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services. We surveyed Finnish experts' perceptions on the development of green infrastructure within the existing policy framework. Our results show that improving the implementation of existing conservation policy instruments needs to be an integral part of developing green infrastructure. Despite the potential of green infrastructure to benefit biodiversity, existing conceptual ambiguity of green infrastructure with rather complex role of ecosystem services - and the possible interpretation of this in practice - raises concerns regarding its ability to contribute to biodiversity conservation.
  • Murtonen, Mari; Nokkala, Christina; Södervik, Ilona (2020)
    In this study, firstly, university biology students’ conceptual understanding and potential misconceptions concerning meiosis were studied. Secondly, an easily applicable drawing task was used to foster students’ metaconceptual awareness which would help them to reach conceptual change. A quasi-experimental design with a non-equivalent control group was conducted. The students (N = 82) were divided into experimental and control groups. The control groups attended traditional teaching, i.e. lectures with practicals, whilst the experimental groups had an additional activating task before practicals. In the activating task, the students drew the selected phases of meiosis and marked given concepts of meiosis in the drawing. The drawings were scored and the solutions were discussed in detail with the students. After the activating task, the traditional practicals were held for both groups. After a week, both experimental and control groups were given the same task. The results show that students in the experimental group understood meiosis significantly better than the control group, who had more misconceptions after the instruction compared to the experimental group. Thus, fostering students’ metaconceptual awareness is crucial and relatively easy to apply, also in higher education.
  • He, Chen; Micallef, Luana; He, Liye; Peddinti, Gopal; Aittokallio, Tero; Jacucci, Giulio (2021)
    Understanding the quality of insight has become increasingly important with the trend of allowing users to post comments during visual exploration, yet approaches for qualifying insight are rare. This article presents a case study to investigate the possibility of characterizing the quality of insight via the interactions performed. To do this, we devised the interaction of a visualization tool—MediSyn—for insight generation. MediSyn supports five types of interactions: selecting, connecting, elaborating, exploring, and sharing. We evaluated MediSyn with 14 participants by allowing them to freely explore the data and generate insights. We then extracted seven interaction patterns from their interaction logs and correlated the patterns to four aspects of insight quality. The results show the possibility of qualifying insights via interactions. Among other findings, exploration actions can lead to unexpected insights; the drill-down pattern tends to increase the domain values of insights. A qualitative analysis shows that using domain knowledge to guide exploration can positively affect the domain value of derived insights. We discuss the study’s implications, lessons learned, and future research opportunities.
  • Holopainen, Leena; Kofler, Doris; Koch, Arno; Hakkarainen, Airi; Bauer, Kristin; Taverna, Livia (2020)
    The aim of this study was to use path modelling to establish how rapid automatized naming (RAN), verbal short-term memory (VSTM), letter-sound connection (LSC), phoneme blending (PHB), and Raven tasks predict reading in Finnish and German. Students (N = 769) from Finland, Germany, and Italy (German-speaking children from South Tyrol) were followed from first grade until the end of second grade. Firstly, in all countries, LSC was found to be the strongest predictor for reading in first grade. Secondly, Finnish students' word-reading skills were better than those of German and Italian students throughout the follow-up period, but word-reading level in first grade predicted word-reading level after one year only for Italian and German students. Thirdly, rapid automatized naming (RAN) and verbal short-term memory (VSTM) predicted reading skills in each orthography and country with a different power and at different phases, implying that the educational system also has a role in predicting reading skills.
  • Vainio, Annukka; Pulkka, Anna; Paloniemi, Riikka; Varho, Vilja; Tapio, Petri (2020)
    This study explored individuals' engagement in the sustainable energy transition in Finland. Using the attitude-behaviour-context model (Guagnano et al., 1995) and Stern's (2000) typology of environmentally significant behaviours, this study tested the assumption that individuals' engagement in transition is a combination of socio-psychological and contextual (socio-economic) variables and that the active engagement requires individuals to have a future orientation, systemic and self-efficacy, subjective knowledge and a pro-environmental attitude. The survey (N = 1012), representative of the 17-75-yearold Finnish population, was analysed with exploratory factor analysis and linear regression. The socio-psychological variables explained a larger portion of variance than the socio-economic variables in all three types of sustainable energy behaviours. The consideration of future consequences, self-efficacy and knowledge were positively associated with all three types of sustainable energy behaviours. Systemic efficacy was positively associated with and the consideration of immediate consequences was negatively associated with private-sphere environmentalism. The results suggest that individuals' consideration of the immediate and distant future should be included in the socio-psychological models of sustainable behaviours. The results also suggest that policymakers need to focus on strengthening citizens' efficacy beliefs, future orientation and knowledge. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Matschoss, Kaisa; Pietilä, Maria; Rask, Mikko; Suni, Tanja (2020)
    Co-creation principles have become prominent in the scientific disciplines that aim to respond to global sustainability challenges especially in the global south. This paper analyses a co-creation pilot of global change research in the novel context of a Nordic country, Finland. The pilot was organised to learn how to create a future agenda for a complex and transdisciplinary research field of global change. This paper analyses its conceptualisation in Finland, how did the series of engagement events increase the capacities of participants and how did the process contribute to a change towards a new, societally responsible way of co-creating global change research. The study found that co-creation suits well for the translation of important societal questions into global research agendas and for networking actors to cocreation activities. Based on the study, we argue that co-creation offers a socially acceptable approach to address socially critical topics to design transdisciplinary social and sustainability research.
  • Kontkanen, Jani; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Dillon, Patrick; Hartikainen-Ahia, Anu; Åhlberg, Mauri (2016)
    Visual databases are increasingly important resources through which individuals and groups can undertake species identification. This paper reports research on the collaborative processes undertaken by pre-service teacher students when working in small groups to identify birds using an Internet-based taxonomic resource. The student groups are conceptualised as 'knowledge-building communities' working in a 'joint problem space' comprising the collective knowledge of the participants interacting with the taxonomic database. Collaborative group work and associated dialogue were recorded with digital video. The recordings were analysed for the categories of dialogue and the categories of knowledge used by the students as they interacted with the taxonomic database and how they drew on their previous experiences of identifying birds. The outcomes are discussed in the context of the interplay of individual and social processes and the interplay between abstraction and lived experience in the joint problem space.
  • Niemi, Jarkko (2015)
    This study investigates the Finnish bipartite utterance that consists of a display of an epistemic stance by voi olla ‘(it) may be’ and a span of talk initiated by että ‘that’ following it. It is shown that in a sequence-initiating turn, the voi olla että ‘(it) may be that’ utterance conveys a lack of knowledge of a state of affairs. By contrast, in a responding turn, the voi olla että ‘(it) may be that’ utterance commonly cooperates with the preference displayed by the prior speaker's turn, and the implied lack of knowledge may not be as real as in an initiating turn. Moreover, the study demonstrates that the relative prominence of a bipartite utterance differs according to its sequential position. In an initiating turn, the talk following voi olla is more prominent, which reflects the function of the turn as initiating something new. By contrast, in a responding turn, voi olla gains more prominence than the talk that follows it, because the stance it expresses cooperates with a preference displayed by the co-participant's prior action. The data for this study are drawn from audio and videotaped interactions between friends and relatives, as well as from customer service encounters. The study is informed by the method of conversation analysis.
  • Aivelo, Tuomas; Huovelin, Suvi (2020)
    Citizen science is a valuable tool in environmental and formal education in creating scientific knowledge for the researchers and facilitating learning and fostering a positive relationship toward the environment and study species. We present a case study on the Helsinki Urban Rat Project in which students surveyed rat occurrence in their own near environments. According to our results, experientiality, involvement, meaningfulness, freedom to choose, ease of participation, and the rats themselves contributed to students' increased interest in participation. Furthermore, students described diverse factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive knowledge that they acquired during their participation. In general, students described negative attitudes toward rats, but they less negative views on rats after participation. We reflect on the success of the citizen science project and implications of planning a future citizen science project and incorporating citizen science in formal education.
  • Craig, Christie; Thomson, Robert; Santangeli, Andrea (2018)
    Ecosystem services are cited as one of the many reasons for conserving declining vulture populations in Africa. We aimed to explore how communal farmers in Namibia perceive vultures and the ecosystem services they provide, with special focus on cultural and regulating ecosystem services. We surveyed 361 households across Namibia’s communal farmlands and found that over two-thirds of households liked vultures and found them useful, stating that they were harmless and useful for locating dead livestock. The minority of households who disliked vultures believed that they were killing their livestock. Poisoning was the main cause of vulture mortalities reported by farmers. While poisoning appears to be a concern for vultures in the communal farmlands, it appears that cultural use of vulture body parts is a minimal threat. We found that few farmers knew of cultural beliefs about vultures or uses for body parts; most farmers believed these beliefs and practices to be outdated. It is further promising that communal farmers have an overall positive perception of vultures. This highlights the potential for communal conservancies to bring attention to vulture conservation in their constituencies.