Browsing by Subject "Kasvatustieteiden maisteriohjelma"

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  • Laaksonen, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    International policy documents (FN (UN), 1989; WHO & BZgA, 2010, 2013; WAS, 2014; UNESCO, 2018) recommend that children should receive age-appropriate sexuality education, but it is unclear whether this is fulfilled in practice. There is relatively little research on sexuality education for younger students. Therefore, it is relevant to research how sexuality education for younger students is delivered. The purpose of this study is to describe how sexuality education is delivered in grades 1-2 in Finland and to examine teachers’ attitudes towards sexuality education for younger students. In this study I would like to draw attention to the potential of the Finnish curriculum when it comes to sexuality education. Five teachers, who at the time of the study taught grades 1-2 in Finnish primary schools, participated in this study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews that were recorded, transcribed, and analysed with thematic analysis. The results found that teachers had difficulties defining sexuality education. Teachers taught sexuality education across subjects, spontaneously and sometimes also unconsciously. Teachers need help defining what sexuality education is and what themes are to be addressed. Sexuality education should be made an evident part of the subject environmental studies in the Finnish curriculum. This can hopefully encourage teachers to teach sexuality education. The sexuality education was not really planned, evaluated, or developed in any of the schools. This is a serious issue that needs to be addressed. Local plans for sexuality education should be written. The teachers had generally positive attitudes towards sexuality education for younger students, but in some situations sexuality education could be perceived as a difficult subject. Several of the teachers showed interest in promoting diversity and equal treatment in their teaching. This study failed in providing any deeper insight into how teachers work with norms in sexuality education.
  • Ruokonen, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The appearance ideals of today are very narrow and put excessive pressure on individuals to look a certain way. The ideals are seen as so unrealistic that most people cannot reach them. This has led to an increase in body dysmorphia to a degree where it nowadays is normal to be unsatisfied with one’s body. A negative body image can have several serious consequences, such as mental health problems, eating disorders and social and economic problems. Earlier studies have shown that problems with body image also affect children: the majority of children seem to be unsatisfied with their bodies, and many try to lose weight through unhealthy methods, such as skipping meals. Therefore, there is a big need in supporting children’s body image and researchers have highlighted schools as adequate places for this work. The aim of this study is to examine primary school teachers’ comprehensions about children’s body image, as well as their comprehensions about their possibilities to support their students’ body image in school. Six teachers, who at the time of the study were working in grades 1-6 in the primary school in Finland, participated in this study. Semi-structured interviews were used, and data was analyzed by using thematic analysis that took place in the qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. The teachers in this study considered body image as a highly important topic. The teachers seemed to understand what influences children’s body image and they could observe children’s body image in different situations, such as during school lunch and through paying attention to children’s behavior. They also had a strong will of supporting their students’ body image, but at the same time the teachers felt that the lack of knowledge, resources and guidelines made them feel uncomfortable with working with body image. The teachers disagreed on whether supporting children’s body image really was part of their work responsibilities, but despite of this, there was a consensus of the importance that teachers need to be good role models for their students and that teachers should work for a school where every child feels worthy and safe. Based on the results of this study, it can be said that body image needs to be more emphasized in future school curriculums and that teachers need more knowledge in body image and more tools to feel comfortable with teaching this topic. The results of this study can benefit further studies in body image and studies regarding the school’s role in the work with supporting children’s body image.
  • Inkinen, Milla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Previous research has shown that there is deficiency in the quality of early childhood education of children under the age of three. The purpose of this study is to describe with discourse analysis what kind of meanings teachers give to successful pedagogy in their narratives. In addition to discourse analysis, I reason the meanings given to successful pedagogy with National Evaluation Center’s (Karvi) process factors of quality (Vlasov ym., 2018). The main question of this study is how teachers working with children under the age of three speak about successful pedagogy. The material of the study was collected with a questionnaire that was shared in two early childhood education related Facebook groups. The material consisted of 32 narratives where teachers that work with children under the age of three talk about a pedagogically successful day. The material was analyzed with discourse analysis. The analysis and interpretation were strongly based on social constructionism that emphasizes the material as the object of the study. Four larger interpretative repertoires were found from the narratives of the teachers. These repertoires were: Adult meets child, Learning is holistic, Everyone knows what they are doing and The repertoire of insufficiency. These interpretative repertoires represented the most crucial meanings given to successful pedagogy. The repertoires performed in the narratives partly overlapped and parallel. The teachers of early childhood education emphasized sensitive and individualized encounter and interaction that takes a child's interests into account. Learning was seen holistic, and it was typically placed in situations of basic care and small group action. In the aspect of Karvi’s process factors of quality there is still need for improvement in the quality of early childhood education of children under the age of three. The lack of goal-directed pedagogy and support of peer interaction in the narratives arouses a question whether the concept of participation is understood inadequately.
  • Vähämäki, Reeta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Goals: Due to the Covid-19 situation, Finnish schools moved to distant education in spring of 2020. Interaction is a particularly important element in learning. Studies had shown that it affects the whole experience of learning for students and teachers. The quality of interaction also determines results and attitudes towards future learning. Distant learning has mainly been studied with adults and higher education. These studies showed that good interaction is an especially important element in distant learning. This could be formed through safe on-line environment and well-planned lessons. The purpose of this study is to find out how have students in Finnish schools experienced distant learning in the spring of 2020. Method. There were eight different interviews made for this thesis. There were nine different interviewees altogether in ages between 13-18 during the spring of 2020. Interviews were conducted in the winter of 2021, almost a year after the quarantine. The interviewees were given choises to take the interviews individually, in pairs or groups. They had also an opportunity to choose the interview face to face or with distant connection. About half of the interviews were made via distant connection and all but one individually. The analysis was made using content analysis. Results. The overall impression of the distant learning in quarantine time of 2020 was mainly negative. The results show that experiences of presence and interaction had diminished during distant learning. The interviewees experienced participation and asking during lessons mentally harder than in normal lesson. The learning environments on-line were found to feel unsafe and that was one of the main reason participation was diminished. Many had problems because of the lack of peers in class, and they missed normal school environments and habits, like recess. Positive results were that distant learning tended to be calmer, and it contained less hustle. There is a possibility to create more interaction and participation in distant education classes by thorough and versatile planning and making possibilities to do group work.There should be more ways to cultivate the feeling of safety in distant learning.
  • Bardy, Helena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aim: The purpose of the study was to create an image of the teachers' future vision for the school's activities and to outline an organizational culture that supports this activity. The research questions of the study were: 1. "How do teachers shape a future vision for the school?" and 2. "What kind of organizational culture do teachers experience as supporting for the school's future activities?" The research problem is formed by a time characterized by constant change, which places high demands on schools. The research provides a tool for and is part of a larger development process the school undergoes. Methods: The research was conducted as a case study of a specific school. The school had 15 teachers, nine of which participated in the research. The used data were essays written by teachers using a one-question method and the analysis-method was analysis of narrative. The research approach was of abductive form and the focus of the study was hermeneutical. Results and conclusions: Based on the analyzed data, a future vision for the school's activities has been created and an organizational culture that supports the future activities has been described. The most significant elements in the results are the teachers' common vision of a school as a safe environment where both students and staff feel good, appreciated and taken into account. Concrete actionplans for implementation are also formed. The study presents a collaboratively created vision and action plan for the development of the organizational culture in the school and is used as a tool in the ongoing development process of the school.
  • Vähänen, Henna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The objective of this research was to determine what sorts of risks pre-adolescent children are able to recognize on social media and how they act once they have acknowledged these dangers. Additionally, the goal was to study the effects of school and media education on the preadolescents’ social media behavior. In this research social media has mostly been de-fined according to previous studies, as applications favored by children and adolescents. One class of fifth graders from the Helsinki metropolitan area participated in the research. The material was collected through themed small-group interviews. There were a total of 21 participants and seven interview groups. The data was categorized and analyzed by using the content analysis method. Four different content types were identified from the material, and were categorized as social media risks recognized by the pre-adolescents. These labelled risks were bullying, personal information, hoaxes and unpleasant content. Bullying on social media was brought up the most often. The adolescents had been taught media education at school, but they still would have preferred to receive further education especially on the subject of social media har-assment. Some of them felt they were already familiar with the content of the media educa-tion curriculum beforehand, and had not learned any new useful information. The pre-adolescents’ behavior on social media aligned with the risks they had identified and the media education they had received. They valued their own privacy on social media, but were not able to react to bullying otherwise than by blocking the harassers. The pre-adolescents con-sidered bullying to be a substantial part of social media, without any possible solutions.
  • Lindblad, Christel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Purpose. Effect of the method “Grej of the Day” (GOTD) and sustainability pedagogics about Agenda 2030 is analyzed. The purpose is to support teaching of facts about Agenda 2030, raise the pupils’ motivation for environmental education and improve their attitudes. This study aims to see if pupils get more knowledge and better environmental attitudes after GOTD- microlessons about goals in Agenda 2030. The pupils’ feelings after the GOTD were analyzed. A swedish study shows that teachers think that their pupils get more knowledge and better motivation when teaching SO-subjects (society subjects) with GOTD. Methods. 22 pupils in grades 5–6 participated in this study. This was an action research and the pupils had 4 microlessons about 4 goals (12–15) from Agenda 2030. After the two first lessons a school project was analyzed using content analysis to see if something should be improved. Knowledge and attitudes related to Agenda 2030 were studied with a survey before and after the intervention. The survey also had two open questions about feelings before and after a GOTD-microlesson. Questions about the knowledge were based on Grön Flagg- surveys and results are presented by percentages of right and wrong. The survey about attitudes included statements to take a stand on on a Likert-scale. Results were analyzed using SPSS and presented statistically. The open questions were analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusions. Knowledge before the intervention was very good and all the pupils gave the right answer to 7 of the 24 questions both before and after the intervention. In some questions about Goal 12 Sustainable consumtion and production the pupils lacked some knowledge and the intervention improved their knowledge a little. Attitudes about the environmental goals in Agenda 2030 were good and only a little improvement could be detected after the intervention. The improvement was not statistically significant. Content analysis of the answers to the open questions show that GOTD creates inner motivation for learning. The method “Grej of the Day” appears to be useful as a complement while teaching environmental issues in elementary schools.
  • Bergström, Isa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The aim of this study is to describe, analyze and interpret how newly graduated teachers in Sweden experience the availability, the various forms and adequacy of social support in the work community. This study is made in collaboration with the research projects SAMS (Samverkan och social stöd i den finlandssvenska skolan) and ECTPA (Early Career Teacher’s Professional Agency across four European countries). The theoretical framework consists of the model for social support at different system levels (Cornér, 2020; Pyhältö, 2018). The model includes of four components and three of them are relevant to this study: support sources, support forms and support fit. Support sources are the sources of social support, i.e., from whom do the newly graduated teachers feel that they receive support from in the work community. Support forms includes the different types of social support, i.e., emotional support, informational support, and instrumental support The experience for what type of social support is needed versus how much the newly graduated teacher receive in practice, is called support fit. This study is based on qualitative, semi-structured interviews conducted in October of 2021 and on the network plots drawn by each informant. The purpose of the network plots was to map the newly graduated teacher’s professional networks. The study involved 9 newly graduated teachers who worked across Sweden in primary, secondary, and upper secondary schools. The interview data were analyzed by using thematic analysis and with a deductive research approach. The most important assets for social support were mentors, the collegial team and the teachers who share the same grade or subject. The principals were one of the smallest assets. Emotional and informative support is provided by agents with teaching and supervisory roles, while school management only provides informative support. Relatives and friends provide both emotional and informative support, while social media only provides informative support. The instrumental support was deficient in terms of insufficient time for planning. The adequacy of social support has decreased due to the Covid-19 pandemic and the newly graduated teachers want more social support from the school management as well as more time for reflection and feedback. Suggestions for further research could be to research the nature of the distance that exists between the newly graduated teachers and the school management.
  • Majuri, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the experiences of parents of children with special needs when encountering professionals and to understand the meaning of these encounters. Child’s special needs affect parents in many ways and there is more parental burnout among parents of children with special needs. Parents of children with special needs regularly encounter professionals from social services, health services and schools and family-centeredness has become one of the values that conduct services planning. Family-centered practices recognizes parents as the experts on their child, acknowledges the individuality of the families, promotes partnership, and are based on the family’s strengths. In previous studies parents described parents as the experts on their child but stated that professionals do not always acknowledge their expertise. System is described fragmented, and parents experience that professionals do not see the complexity of their lives. The study is based on thirteen semi-structured qualitative interviews with parents of children with special needs. The interview material was analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Results showed that when encountering professionals parents experienced that parents and professionals had different roles. The roles of the professionals were companion, expert, know-it-all, and border guard. The roles of the parents were expert, organizer, and fighter. System affected encounters as it was experienced fragmented, and it contained different rules. Also, diagnosis and resources affected encounters. Encounters, occupational skills, services, and information sharing were experienced coincidental. Encounters evoke emotions and emotions affected encounters. Based on the results, it can be concluded that from parents’ perspectives there are issues that hinder family-centered practices. Encounters also have issues that increase parents’ burden. System should be improved so that it matches better the needs of the families, for example there could be a coordinating professional. Professionals should acknowledge parents’ expertise and consider parents’ emotions when encountering them.
  • Särkelä, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Objectives. Sexuality is a part of humanity. Sexuality develops through our lives and includes various stages of growth and development. Sex education is part of human rights and WHO (World Health Organization) has defined Europe wide standards for sex education. Previous studies show that sex education increases more knowledge and strengthens the child’s self-esteem. On the other hand, studies have shown teachers experiencing sex education challenging and they need further education on it. The aim of this research was to determine perceptions and experiences of primary school teachers about sex education. Methods. The data of this qualitative research was collected by interviewing five primary school teachers. The material is analyzed by the method of analysis of the content. Interviews are transcribed and transcribed material decrypted into sections sorted by the topic. These themes emerged from the data itself and on research issues. By using content analysis, the purpose was to create a view of teacher’s perceptions and experiences and reflect them with the theoretical frame of reference of research. Results and conclusions. Teachers considered sex education important and relevant. The world is changing all the time and teacher’s knowledge should keep up with the change. Content areas of sex education were mainly familiar to teachers, but some flaws in their knowledge were also found. Teachers perceived the subject as a natural thing, but they also identified the challenging nature of the subject. Sex education raised some uncertainty among teachers which was mostly due to lack of education. Further education of teachers would improve sex education on primary schools and strengthens teachers’ faith in themselves as sex educators.
  • Bärlund, André (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Aim. Employee selection is an activity that strongly affects the competitiveness of organizations and their opportunity for success. Decision making in employee selection is often believed to be rational and objective, but research has shown that rationality is not the only factor in recruiters decision making (Goings et al., 2021). It has been shown that intuition is part of human decision making and that intuition is present during employee selection regardless of the recruiters will (Miles & Sadler-Smith, 2014). Research has highlighted intuition as a cognition that through domain specific experience can develop into a form of expertise. This expertise is called expert intuition and can be used as support for decision making (Salas et al., 2010). The aim of this study is to explore recruiters use of intuition with focus on work experience and how it affects recruiters use of intuition in decision making. Methods. The study was conducted as a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews as method for data collection. The participants consisted of eight recruiters whose work experience varied between 3 and 20 years. The collected data was analyzed through qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusions. The results showed that the recruiters used intuition in their decision making and the majority of them felt that intuition plays an important part in employee selection. The recruiters used their intuition mostly during the job interview and at the end of the recruitment process. Intuition was also seen as useful while reviewing CVs, LinkedIn profiles and in situations where time is limited. The recruiters felt that their work experience had led to development of their intuition and to an increased thrust in their intuition. The majority of the recruiters felt that their work experience had neither led to an increased or decreased use of intuition in their decision making.
  • Saari, Milja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract In recent years, open-plan schools have been widely discussed in schools, homes and the media. There are both passionate supporters and unwavering opponents to these more open and adaptable environments. There is a limited amount of research evidence for new learning environments, but they are still common in many schools around Finland. This master`s thesis examines the opinions of classroom teachers about the advantages and disadvantages of new learning environments in primary education. Classroom teachers are also allowed to tell what kind of new learning environment would be best suited for primary education. The research material has been collected from two Facebook groups of teachers. A total of 22 classroom teachers responded to the survey. Respondents wrote their answers freely. The material was analyzed using the method of data-driven content analysis. The majority were positive about the new learning environments in primary education. Teachers said that the new learning environments benefit beginners in many ways: for example, students learn to work together and develop their thinking and learning skills. They facilitate functional and diverse teaching. Students can be divided and flexibly divided into different groups and differentiation is easy. On the other hand, teachers also carefully described the challenges of new learning environments in the primary school context. Often new learning environments have too much noise and stimuli. Respondents put forward many ideas how existing environments should be modified to allow for quality primary education.
  • Lehtisaari-Pousar, Saala (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The purpose of this user-centered design-based research was to redesign wedding dress, which was made of recycled bedlinen and use leftover linen fabric to redesign upcycled clothes by participatory designing methods. The study approaches the apparel design challenge with Lamb and Kallal (1992) design framework, which was developed to consider the consumer’s needs. The Functional, Expressive, and Aesthetics (FEA) framework was developed to provide an overall conceptual frame for designing any type of apparel. The study explores Niinimäki and Koskinen (2011) article how an emphatic design approach could improve a sustainable design process. Also, sustainable development, slow fashion, and significance of material choices were important aspects of this study. Previous studies have addressed the impact of apparel design with special needs, but not consider redesigning upcycled clothes with recycled material, which has restrictions of fabric quantity. The research questions were ”which are the users wishes, needs and expectations for wedding dress redesign” and “which are user-based design criteria of functional, expressive and aesthetic needs” and also “does the custom made upcycled clothes meet the design criteria by user-centered experience”. User was interviewed three times. Based on the user data collection qualitative content analysis gathered the essential issues. Themes were to identify user profile and user needs for the upcycled clothes. Participatory design process includes Mattelmäki (2006) design probes, user’s picture collages of her favorite clothes, sketches, and prototypes. Conclusion of the study was how much the user appreciates the co-making process and the opportunity to change people’s values and attitudes towards slow fashion. Also, user’s expectations were fulfilled by upcycled clothes. Custom made clothes suite her well and memories were included by satisfaction. User’s idea of layering clothes offered more variety of using the upcycled linen clothes all year round.
  • Boström, Linda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The aim of this study was to explore parental perspectives on home-school collaboration when the child often expresses a dislike towards going to school. Further the study will bring forth the parent’s perspective on how they want to support well-being in school and how they would evaluate the forms of support for learning provided by the school. The study was executed by analyzing three of the questions in the questionary made by Förbundet Hem och skola and Suomen Vanhempainliitto. The number of respondents in this study was n=80. The material was limited to respondents who´s children rarely or never want to go to school and further to a Swedish speaking school. The answers regarding parents view on collaboration between home and the school was analyzed quantitatively using descriptive statistics and the following research questions regarding support of wellbeing and the value of support measures were answered by qualitative content analysis. The result regarding the analysis for the collaboration through the view of the parents shows that the parents do not always feel that the collaboration meets their expectations. The school does emphasize the weight of collaboration and encourages parents to be in contact with the school. The parents however do not always feel welcome to visit the school during school hours, and they feel that they are not heard. The parents furthermore wish that the support of the child’s wellbeing also should be done in collaboration with the school and the other parents. Regarding forms of support for learning the majority (77%) of the respondents say their child had not received intensified or added support. The study shows that parents who´s child had been offered support for learning experienced some dissatisfaction in how it was done. The parents feel that the support measures were insufficient and late. The reason for this can be seen in lack of resources. Some parents also expressed dissatisfaction regarding how the school communicated about possible learning support and if measures resulted in progress.
  • Tuominen, Pinja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of this study was to examine how the Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) directors describe the pedagogy of children under the age of three and what significances the ECEC directors can give to the pedagogy of said children. The study focuses on analyzing how the pedagogy of under the age of three is discursively constructed by the ECEC direc-tors. Previous studies have shown that the shortcomings in the pedagogy are emphasized especially on the children under the age of three, although it is known that the early childhood phase is very intensive in the development of children. Thus, the pedagogy and discourse of the ECEC directors is very important, as it guides the whole pedagogic work culture. The methodology of this research was based on social constructionism and discourse analy-sis. The data for this master’s thesis was gathered by interviewing five municipal ECEC di-rectors from two municipalities of the southern Finland area. The interviews were conducted in 2020. A qualitative research method which utilized half-structured thematic interviews was used. The interviews were recorded and transcribed and the data was analyzed by discourse analysis. Four different discourses were formulated from the data of the first research problem, how ECEC directors describe the pedagogy of children under the age of three. The following dis-courses occurred in the research material: the whole day pedagogy, research-based, profes-sionalism and pedagogical leadership. Four different discourses were formulated from the da-ta of the second research problem occurred following four discourses: the basis of life, rights of children, sensitive interaction in the middle of the pedagogy and participation of the child. The ECEC directors described pedagogy of the children under the age of three as a unity of education and care. Furthermore, the importance of pedagogy, research basis, professional skills and pedagogic leadership was emphasized in the discussion. The sensitive interaction and participation of the children was the baseline of a good quality pedagogics. The pedagog-ics of the early childhood education was described as an important foundation of life and a privilege of the child.
  • Laine-Åström, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Aims. The content of this work is meeting which is studied by analysing special teacher`s self-bring out significances for the touching from their interviews. The significance of the touch has been confessed from the point of view of the health of brain. The connection to others is significant and confessed from the point of view of the learning. According to studies the touch is a part of the school human interaction. In this study the goal was to examine through the interpretation frames the meanings that special teachers themselves give related to the touch. In the study were examined the touches between teacher and the student. In this study the study task is to increase the understanding of the means to utilise the touch in the changing situations of the school by the special teachers. Methods. The research data was gathered from Koskettava koulu -projects five ready transcribed special teacher’s interviews. They were analyzed by using content analysis to find research units. These units were categorized to four different interpretation frames. Through each of the frames is a possibility to observe the teacher’s manner on speaking from the touch, so called discourses of touch, which build up the picture of the touch in the school. A subject of the study is to find out purposes of the touch given buy teachers and also to find out what kind of reality teachers are building when they talk about touch. Results and conclusions. The majority from discourse of the teacher’s interviews were emphasised the frames of Everyday life and Pupil knowing. In the frame of everyday life were observed discourse’s which processed the touch through steering, regulation, encouraging, the act of consoling and routines. Through the frame of the Pupil knowing were observed discourses of touch in which the teacher’s ability to know the pupil and his/her background, pupils age and the pupil’s initiative was emphasised. Through the frame of danger, the teachers addresses brought out the touch at school from the point of view of restriction, worry which rises from the media, sufficient informing of the supporters and protection skills. In the frame of interaction touch was analysed through discourses of trust and communication. The result of this study cannot be generalized to apply all the special teachers, but they will give a points of view from significance of the touch in the school
  • Vaara, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The early childhood education and care (ECEC) and Basic education introduced a new national Core Curriculum by the Finnish National Agency for education in 2016. Both national norm curricula can be found confluence, and since ECEC transformed under to Finnish National Agency for education in 2015, ECEC, preschool education and basic education becomes an integral part of the lifelong path of growth and learning and of the continuum of curricula. The purpose of this study is to clarify ECE leaders’ and basic education leaders’ views on curricula and curriculum leadership. The research questions are following: (1) How does Curriculum appear in ECE leaders and basic education leaders discussion? (2) What discourses can be identified in both discussions? (3) How does Curriculum Implementation appear in both discussions? This study was conducted using qualitative methods and the used data consists of theme interview collected in the Eduleaders project training. The training involved 10 interviewees working in the context of educational leadership. The material was analyzed by a using discourse analysis with the aim of defining curricula discourses in leaders’ discussions. Four significant discourses were mentioned and can be identified as the following: 1. The discussion about curriculum as a framework 2. The discussion about curriculum as a vanguard. 3. The discussion about curriculum as a challenge. 4. The discussion about curriculum as an enabler. The research results show that both early childhood education leaders and basic education discuss about curricula within the same framework and with the same concepts. The results reveal the curriculum to be in reformation phase in which the old and the new curriculum are confronted. Furthermore, the national curriculum gained a central role as a fundament of work. The distributed leadership and pedagogical discussions occurred in the discussions of both leaders as ways to implement the curriculum. In the discussions about curriculum as challenge the leaders pointed out it being difficult to implement the curriculum in classrooms or child groups, where teachers prefer rather traditional teaching than the alternative methods of the new curriculum. Eventually the slowness and extent of development as well as short-sightness in the field were identified as challenges. However, the discussion illustrates the curriculum positively in terms of child orientation, opportunities to try new things and co-creation.
  • Särösalmi, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this research is to produce knowledge of languaging. The research strives to describe how students talk about their thoughts and actions while playing games designed to teach mathematics. This research is based on Jorma Joutsenlahti’s theories of languaging. The speech of the players is rated by four languages: natural, symbolic, figure and ac tion. These languages and their specific traits are presented in the theory chapter. There were six participants from different parts of southern Finland. The players were from grades 2nd to 5th . The games were from DragonBox - School. The material was col lected by recorded videostreams, because current Covid19-situation made it impossible to meet face to face. This is a case study research. The analysis was made by content analysis using both quality and quantity methods. In the light of this research, the amount of the talk has effect on mathematical speach. The more student talked during the game, the more there were use of mathematical lan guage. Also, the familiarity of mathematical terms increased the use of language. All the four languages were noted in the players talk. The natural language was in the largest role, strongly connected to action through gaming. Also, the symbolic language was used during the games. The games itself contained lot of figurative language; the players recognized some of the figures. There were no tasks in the game to produce figures. The result of this study gives information about languaging.
  • Törnqvist, Linda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Mål. Syfte med denna studie var att ta reda på hur elever i årskurserna 5–6 upplever gruppdynamikens inverkan på studiemotivationen. Tidigare forskning visar att en grupp som består av motiverade och positivt inställda elever har en positiv inverkan på lärandet. Gruppdynamik är också i en central roll för gruppens trivsel, hur gruppmedlemmarna samarbetar och presterar. Studien tangerar även elevers upplevelser och åsikter om en bra gruppdynamik, deras egen studiemotivation och skoltrivsel i både skolan och den egna klassen. Metoder. Studien har gjorts i form av en kvalitativ intervjustudie. I studien deltog fem (5) grundskoleelever från ett lågstadie i södra Finland. Materialet för studien samlades in genom semi-strukturerade intervjuer. Materialet har först transkriberats och sedan analyserats enligt grunderna för en tematisk analys. Resultat och slutsatser. Studiens resultat visar att eleverna upplever att vänner både i skolan och den egna klassen påverkar positivt på deras skoltrivsel. De lyfter fram att de har gemensamma intressen med klasskompisar och alla blir accepterade som de är. Gällande studiemotivationen ansåg alla deltagare att de drivs an en inre motivation. Deras största motivationsfaktor är att få lära sig. Resultaten visar även att alla deltagare tycker att de har en bra gruppdynamik i klassen, och de anser att en bra gruppdynamik är viktigt. Eftersom alla ansåg sig ha en bra gruppdynamik i klassen, var ingen av den åsikten att gruppdynamiken har en negativ inverkan på studiemotivation. Till motsats lyfte eleverna fram att en bra gruppdynamik gör det lättare att fokusera på det relevanta och att lära sig, i stället för att behöva grubbla över stämningen i klassen.
  • Sonninen, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In my research, I describe, analyze, and interpret the realization of children’s rights in a Nepalese mountain village called Randepu, where I volunteered as a teacher for a short period during the fall of 2019. I focus mainly on examining children’s rights in education at the village’s school. My research questions were: 1) What rights of the child are realized in the education of Shree Naba Jyoti Silvano Basic School and what kind of rights are not realized? and 2) In what way did I, as a volunteer, experience the realization of children's rights in the research village at a general level? I also interpreted issues outside of the school in children’s rights. In the literature-based part of my research, I become familiar with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and Nepalese legislation. I also addressed the general situation in Nepal in the light of theory as well as through Western eyes, my own interpretations and my own experiences. The questioning and the topic of my research were formed out of my own personal interest. The topic of my research was unique, so there was little previous research on the topic. However, there were studies about Nepal, children’s rights in Nepal and the education system of Nepal. I approached my research topic through an ethnographic research method despite visiting the village for only a short time. The participants in the study were students at the school whose rights I was studying. Adult members of the village as well as volunteers also participated in the study. In accordance with the principles of ethnographic research, my research material consisted of very diverse material: my own observations, the diary entries I made, the photographs I took during my visit, and my own experiences during the field period associated with the research. Unforeseen discussions with teachers, students and other members of the village served as additional material. The rights of the child were largely not realized in the village. According to the results of the study, there were problems with children's rights: the right to education, girls’ rights, the right to sanitation, health care and clean drinking water, child marriages and child labor. The right to education contained many obstacles and disadvantages. Long hikes to school contributed to the obstruction of the child's right to education and the quality of education and material deficiencies were poor. The children were thus also denied the opportunity for postgraduate studies. I felt the results were inconsistent due to exceptional circumstances. Children’s rights were not realized at a general level in the village, but given the circumstances, this was common. The results were influential, and the awareness of the results could be used to improve the school’s and village’s functioning.