Browsing by Subject "Kotitalousopettaja"

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  • Vähämäki, Reeta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Goals: Due to the Covid-19 situation, Finnish schools moved to distant education in spring of 2020. Interaction is a particularly important element in learning. Studies had shown that it affects the whole experience of learning for students and teachers. The quality of interaction also determines results and attitudes towards future learning. Distant learning has mainly been studied with adults and higher education. These studies showed that good interaction is an especially important element in distant learning. This could be formed through safe on-line environment and well-planned lessons. The purpose of this study is to find out how have students in Finnish schools experienced distant learning in the spring of 2020. Method. There were eight different interviews made for this thesis. There were nine different interviewees altogether in ages between 13-18 during the spring of 2020. Interviews were conducted in the winter of 2021, almost a year after the quarantine. The interviewees were given choises to take the interviews individually, in pairs or groups. They had also an opportunity to choose the interview face to face or with distant connection. About half of the interviews were made via distant connection and all but one individually. The analysis was made using content analysis. Results. The overall impression of the distant learning in quarantine time of 2020 was mainly negative. The results show that experiences of presence and interaction had diminished during distant learning. The interviewees experienced participation and asking during lessons mentally harder than in normal lesson. The learning environments on-line were found to feel unsafe and that was one of the main reason participation was diminished. Many had problems because of the lack of peers in class, and they missed normal school environments and habits, like recess. Positive results were that distant learning tended to be calmer, and it contained less hustle. There is a possibility to create more interaction and participation in distant education classes by thorough and versatile planning and making possibilities to do group work.There should be more ways to cultivate the feeling of safety in distant learning.
  • Vanne, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The aim of this master's thesis was to study the childhood food memories of 67-76-year-olds. In the first theoretical part of my dissertation I deal with food culture, its formation and the factors that shape it. I write about the history of Finnish food culture since 1945 and the journey towards the current state of Finnish food culture. In the second part of the theory, I write about food memories, previous studies of childhood food memories in Finland and childhood eating habits. My dissertation becomes part of home economics food research, because it deals with Finnish food culture, food memories, cooking skills, food service and even the history of Finnish families' daily lives. My research questions were: How childhood food memories are perceived? Who or what is involved? And in what ways do childhood memories appear in a person’s life at a later age? I did not make hypotheses or presuppositions, as I wanted interview material to speak for itself. The study was conducted as a qualitative study. The research material was collected through pair interviews involving people aged 67–76 years. The subjects were siblings and all of the interviewees were born and have spent their childhoods mainly in the cities of southern Finland. The interviewees were selected at discretion. They have lived their childhoods during the greatest food culture changes in Finland in the last hundred years. The interviews were collected as semi-structured thematic interviews, and the collected material was transcribed, themed and analyzed by means of material-based content analysis. The results of the study show that the role of the mother was the most important in childhood food memories, but the father and grandmother also play a major role in them. Food memories strongly reflected the spirit of the period studied, such as the availability of food, the possibilities of choice, the appreciation of food, Finnish food culture and the social situation. Childhood food memories perceived as positive and negative. Negative food memories are often ignored and there are less negative food memories than positive. There are a lot of positive food memories and they evoke nice and warm thoughts and feelings. In addition to the people, the sensory experiences were emphasized in the food memories. Of the sensory memories, the experiences related to the sense of smell and taste were the most pronounced, but the appearance of the food also affected the attractiveness of the food. The results of my research are largely consistent with previous research. The purpose of the study was to store unique and important Finnish food memorabilia that contain valuable information about history, create an understanding of the present and strengthen the field of home economics research.
  • Jäppinen, Mona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The aim of this study is to analyze how facilities and the role of time affect practises in coo-king and dining in the second home. The theoretical framework of this study is based on pre-vious studies of second home living and eating practices. It seems that the busy lifestyle causes reduction of time spent in cooking and eating together. On the other hand, previous studies also show that the second home living acts as a counterweight for busy citylife. The studies related to eating practices are mostly focused on everyday life while ingnoring the in-habitants of second homes. This study takes part to the discussion about second home living, cooking and dining by studying cooking and eating practises. In the previous studies this sub-ject has not been studied from this point of view. The study was executed by utilizing qualitative methods. A thematic interview was used for research material collection. The research material consists of twelve interviews of indivi-duals that spend regularly time in their second homes. The research material was analyzed in a material-based content analysis. The research results show that the more free opportunities to use time are a remarkable fac-tor in cooking and dining in the second home. The results also refer that there was time for cooking in the second home and the food was always prepared from ingredients if it was possible. Because of the conditions in the second home and to save time various methods are utilized to make cooking easier. The results show that there is a strive to dine together and without hurry in the second home. The results also tell of the meanings of cooking and dining in the second home. As a conclusion it can be said that the greater availability of time has a remarkable effect on cooking and dining practises in the second home. The results of this study can be used as guidelines for further studies on eating practices and their impor-tance in second home living.
  • Huovinen, Millie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Food is associated with many social practices and symbolic meanings that are culturally bound, separating and connecting members of culture. By studying food cultures, one can gain a deeper understanding of the society of the country in question, the deep structures of the culture and the history of the country. As culture constantly changes with society, so does food culture and its manifestations. As communication technology takes over the sector as a form of social interaction, food cultures are also increasingly shifting to social media as food images serve as a means of communication. This research falls into the fields of cultural research, visual culture research, and food culture research. The aim of the study is to try to find features typical of Finnish and Japanese food culture in social media food images. As the research material consists of a list of pictorial materials, it is also rewarding to look at the aesthetic content that food images contain and how the layout and content of the image are affected by the fact that the food images have been produced for publication in social media. The study emphasizes the cultural-historical approach as the factor that has most shaped Finnish and Japanese food culture. The research material consisted of food images produced by 6 people, of which there were a total of 30. Half of the research subjects and food images represented Finnish food culture and half Japanese food culture. To support the analysis of the images, the subjects' own comments on the food images of their choice were used. This is a qualitative study in which the material was analyzed by means of content analysis. Content analysis was combined with semiotic image analysis, in which reality is interpreted based on the characters and codes present in the images. An even more marginal aspect of socio-semiotics is represented by the social nature of the research material as part of the ways in which people communicate in social media. Despite the small research data, the research provided indications of typical elements that occur in Finnish and Japanese food culture. These include typical ingredients, food rations, cooking methods, and aesthetic perceptions. In Finnish food culture, emphasis was placed on simple dishes that have taken a lot of influence from other countries. Japanese food culture emphasized the preservation of traditions and the use of domestic raw materials.
  • Nikitin, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The purpose of this research was to figure out how COVID-19 has affected food purchases, making everyday meals, and using restaurant services amongst families with kids. The theoretical framework consists of execution of everyday dining and planning, formation of food choices and food shopping and also importance of eating out. According to previous studies, everyday dining is usually quite a busy and it demands quick solutions. Eating with family in peace is more common at weekends than on weekdays and planning has been shown as important factor in everyday life. In addition, the theoretical framework deals with eating out and the importance of school or work catering to Finnish food culture. Although COVID-19 is quite new as a research topic, theory of this research consists also of some of the most important effects of the Corona pandemic, for example from the perspective of consumption. The need for this research is the topicality and importance of this topic. The research questions were: What kind of effects the Corona pandemic and its limitations have had on eating in everyday life? What kind of effects the Corona pandemic and its limitations have had on food purchasing on everyday life? What kind of effects the Corona pandemic and its limitations have had on the usage of restaurant services? This study was carried out with qualitative research and the data was collected using a thematic and stimulus interview. The respondents were mainly found from a Facebook group, that is targeted for families living in the center of Helsinki. The interviews were carried out using Zoom and there were five mothers and one father in the study. The research data was first transcribed and then analyzed with thematizing and content analysis. According to results of this research, there was need for making everyday life easier during the Corona pandemic. Food planning has increased, as well as food preparation and its demands. There were also new methods for buying food and motives for usage of restaurant services. Increased planning and cooking were experienced as burdensome. To make everyday life easier, families typically used semi-processed food products and food delivery services, especially at the beginning of the pandemic. Motives for eating out were different than before COVID-19, because eating out was more likely to make everyday life easier. Results shows that ordering groceries was more common among the studied families but demands for cooking have also increased during the pandemic. These effects require important skills, for examples planning, control of everyday life and craftsmanship which are taught in home economics lessons. The changes in food purchases and food choices in unexpected situations, like the Corona pandemic, may also gain more value in the future’s home economics teaching.
  • Järvinen, Janette (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    During the exception period caused by the coronavirus, the cooking of college students has increased in households. Familiar daily routines and regularly recurring everyday activities, such as the lack of contact teaching and student meals, may have created challenges for food planning and preparation. Being responsible for daily meals requires cooking skills as well as the ability to assess the healthiness of food. The goal of this study is to provide research information on university students' eating habits and experiences of health promotion during exceptional times, and on how university students have experienced the adequacy of their own resources in organize health-promoting eating during exceptional times. The theoretical background of the study relies on the researches of nutrition, eating habits and control of everyday life applied the field of home economics pedagogy. The research was carried out using qualitative methods. The research material consists of five university students. The data collection was carried out by in-depth interviews with university students. The interviews were conducted in March 2021 using the Teams app because, due to the prevailing period of exception faceto-face encounters were not possible. The research material was analyzed by thematic design. According to the research results, organizing nutritious meals during exceptional times required more resources such as cooking skills, abilities to rhythmize a new kind of everyday life and also motivation and a desire to prepare health-promoting meals. The students felt that their cooking skills were sufficient, but especially the organization of lunch and maintaining the nutritional quality of lunch was perceived as a great challenge despite their abilities. Continuous cooking, scheduling, and planning were described as heavy, timeconsuming, and stressful. This has had an unhealthy effects on students ’eating habits. A new kind of everyday rhythm and the workload of cooking seemed to be a challenge in students' everyday activities. Due to the preservation of the meal rhythm, the financial situation and the social interaction situations, the university students experienced a longing for an affordable and nutritious student restaurant. According to the results obtained, the new kind of everyday life offered by exceptional circumstances and the challenges it brings seemed to undermine conventional everyday management, such as the organization of daily meals.
  • Karhu, Pilvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of Covid-19 epidemic to the everyday life and the work-life balance among young adults. Work is a significant part of a person’s every-day life. Individualisation of working hours stands out in the current work life. Therefore, the need for finding the work-life balance increases. Work-life balance is seen to be a main factor, whereby the employee is able to stabilize the demands becoming from work and leisure. The exceptional global circumstances with Covid-19 epidemic have suddenly affected people’s everyday life and ways of working during the year 2020. Majority of Finnish employees were forced to move to remote work due to the Covid-19 epidemic. The remote work makes it even more challenging to maintain the border between work and leisure time. In addition, people were required to adapt their everyday life due to the health threatening virus. This research applies qualitative methodology. The data were collected by using the theme interview method. Six young adults took part in the interview. All interviews were carried out during September and October in 2020. In addition to the interview the interviewees were asked to describe their normal day during Covid-19 epidemic with a timeline. The timeline was used to support the interviews according to the stimulated recall Interview method. The interview recordings were transcribed word for word and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Hermeneutic-phenomenological approach was also applied in this research. The significance of routines stood out in the everyday life during Covid-19 epidemic. Certain everyday routines were shattered due to the epidemic, while people were forced to adapt their ways of working and free time activities. Despite this, other daily routines were considered as a resource to manage in the crisis. Especially the continuing of work was seen as an important factor in the Covid-19 crisis. Work and leisure time activities were overlapping more flexibly during the Covid-19 epidemic. On the other hand, it was considered important to make a clear boundary between work and leisure time in the end of the day.
  • Leskelä, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Objectives. Home economics education should establish action which tackles challenges and opportunities related to daily life and digital tools. Previous studies have shown that the most important predictors of home economics teachers’ information and telecommunication technology use are the teacher-level factors of digital competence, perceived usefulness of information and telecommunication technology in home economics teaching and the school-level support. In addition, there is a connection between perceived usefulness of information and telecommunication technology in home economics teaching and its use for facilitating pupils’ learning. This study investigates use of digital tools in home economics teaching, in a sense of what kind of experiences and perceptions home economic teachers’ and teacher students’ have. Thus, finding out how digital tools are used in home economics teaching and which factors have an impact to pedagogical decisions. Methods. This study combines two types of data, thus being a mixed-methods study. Data was collected by a questionnaire from Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish and Estonian home economics teachers and teacher students (n222). 1) Qualitative data was analysed by using thematic analysis, but only using Finnish home economics teachers’ and teacher students’ responses. 2) Part of qualitative data was quantified by using Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish and Estonian respondents’ answers. 3) Quantitative data was analysed by using SPSS-program. Means, standard deviations, t-tests and cross-tabulations were calculated from the data. Results and conclusions. Home economics teachers and teacher students used digital tools particularly to ease teachers work tasks and to support pupils’ learning. By respondents’ experiences digital tools bring value to teaching and the use of digital tools is favourable. Home economics studies have supported and encouraged teacher students to use digital tools, but there is need for further and greater support in the future, especially at teacher training.
  • Munck, Lilli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The objective of the study was to clarify how animal rights view and animal-protection appears in the adolescents´ perceptions of animals´ use in food production. In the animal rights view animals´ use is critically examined, whereas animal-protection focuses on the animal welfare without challenging animals´ use itself. Animal rights view was examined by two animal philosophic theories, preference utilitarianism and animal rights theory. In the examination of the animal-protection views utilitarianism and the ambivalence of the human-animal relationship served as a theory. The connection of diet followed by the young people to their views was also examined, because the earlier study shows that following vegan and vegetarian diet supports animal rights view more strongly, whereas the omnivore´s animal ethical views are multiple. Animal ethics has been presented to be added to the contents of the home economics subject, because it is strongly related to today's sustainability- and food education. The data of the study was collected as a part of a survey that was published in Helsingin Sanomat in March 2020. The analysis focused on the age group 15–25. Material included answers to one open question about animals' welfare and rights in food production. The material was qualitatively analysed by using thematic analyses. As a result, five themes were found: questioning of the animals' use, criticism of factory farming, promotion of welfare, defence of the Finnish production and defence of eating meat. The first two represented the animal rights view. Respondents questioning animals´ use considered using animals ethically problematic, whereas in the criticism of the factory farming the animals' intensive production was resisted but not animals' use itself. The animal-protection view appeared as a desire to promote the welfare on farm animals without criticising structures of the food production. The defenders of the Finnish production considered that the welfare is coming true well enough in Finland. A small group did not consider paying attention to the animals' rights and welfare at all important. Animal rights view was most common among vegans, which supports previous studies. Results can be utilized in the planning of teaching materials about farm animal welfare and rights.
  • Liuska, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This study reviews the everyday life of special needs families during the Covid-19-pandemic. In special needs families at least one child has an increased need for services for their health, growth and/or development. Previous studies show that these services are an important resource and help in everyday life, as it is often built around taking care of the child. In previous studies special needs families have mainly been reviewed during normal conditions and the more recent studies conducted during the pandemic emphasize the perspective of authorities. The purpose of this study is to highlight the everyday life of special needs families during the Covid-19-pandemic and how services have been organized. This study applies qualitative methodology. The data was collected by semi-structured interviews. Seven mothers of special needs families took part in the interviews. The families were from across Finland. The family structures, children’s diagnoses and available resources varied within these families. Tran scripted data was analyzed with content analysis. The study shows that the everyday life of the families focused at home during the Covid-19-pandemic, which led to everyday life routines, free time and use of money changing. During the pandemic the families had to quickly rebuild their everyday life and its routines. Everyday life became more restricted as the routines focused at home. Parents' free time decreased as the children did not attend school or free-time activities. The meaning of home and its surroundings were highlighted because families were not able to spend their time together in shopping centers or restaurants. It became apparent that the realization of services varied between the families during the Covid-19-pandemic. During the pandemic the services were no longer considered safe due to the increased risk of infection, which led to some of the services coming to a halt and the implementation of special arrangements to other services. The decision of realization of the services was partly held by the service providers, while in some cases the families made the decision themselves to pause the service. The need for help in the families did not decrease and especially mothers had to answer this with their own work input. The families found the service system to be rigid and hoped for more flexibility from their service providers. That would mean considering the wishes of the family and the focusing on the best interest of the child.
  • Lukkarinen, Vilja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The aim of this study is to examine what kind of discourses can be found in the public expert debate in the news media and in the public lay discourse from the news media comment field regarding the Milk Myths campaign. Milk has a historically strong position in Finnish food culture, and because of this Milk Myths campaign has caused a stir. The theoretical framework of the dissertation is related to Finnish food culture, its tension and changes, food policy and food in media discussions. The topic is strongly connected to the Finnish food culture and its tensions. The changes and tensions in the food culture are notoriously discussed and may create confrontations between interlocutors. The research questions are: 1 What kind of discourses can be found in the expert speech related to Oatly’s Milk Myths campaign in the news media? 2 What kind of discourses can be found in the public debate about Oatly’s Milk Myths campaign? The material for the dissertation was three news articles and one news comment field based on Milk Myths campaign. The news articles were found in Helsingin Sanomat, Iltalehti and MTV. The comment field was related to Helsingin Sanomat’s news coverage Milk Myths campaign. The data was analyzed using discourse analysis. The discourses found in the news material were named health, environmental and economic discourses, as well as a discourse of confrontation. The discourses found in the public debate were named the discourses on the defense of milk and animal welfare, as well as the discourse on a boycott, the environment and Finnishness. In conclusion, the discourses found the research were tense both internally and with other discourses. The discourse was as polarized and dichotomous as the discourse found in previous studies regarding food wars.
  • Jalonen, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Finland is one of the leading countries in consuming dairy products. The consumption of fluid milk has decreased during the recent years, but the consumption of other dairy products, such as quark and cheese, has increased correspondingly. In addition, various plant-based beverages and other dairy-like products have gradually risen in popularity. The supply of plant-based products has grown, and consumers have accepted them as an alternative to dairy products. This study examines what kinds of dairy products and plant-based dairy product alternatives consumers use and how they explain their product choices. Plant-based dairy product alternatives are discussed by addressing the concept of appropriation because, contrary to the case of dairy products, plant-based products are often new to their users who might have found them only over the recent years. The research method is qualitative. The data was collected by means of semi-structured interview, accompanied by stimulus photos. Ten adults from Finland Proper, Uusimaa and Central Ostrobothnia were interviewed for the research. The participants photographed all dairy products and plant-based dairy product alternatives that they bought within a week. The photo footage was then used as the basis for discussion in the interviews. According to the study, the use of dairy products and the use of plant-based dairy product alternatives are concurrent and versatile among consumers. Dairy products are chosen for their price, taste and familiarity, and they might also be bought for other people besides the consumers themselves. Reasons for choosing plant-based beverages and other dairy-like products, in turn, are their taste, health-promoting effects, consumers’ habits, interest in new products, as well as ethical and ecological reasons. Dairy products are consumed somewhat more versatilely than plant-based products, and none of the consumers replaces cheese with plant-based alternatives as of yet. The appropriation of especially oat-based products has been successful, being clearly the most preferred plant-based products among consumers.
  • Kylliäinen, Mira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of the study was to examine blogwriters’ expressions of hurry and easing hurry. This thesis explored how bloggers express hurry and ways to ease it in their texts. Previous research and scientific literature related to research includes a discussion related to the dimensions of time, experience of time, hurry, and lack of time. The literature related to time pressures, everyday life rhythms and sequences, hurry in varying life situations and downshifting is also essentially related to the thesis. Key observations in the research literature are that time pressures are often related to family and work reunification and its challenges, work, but sometimes also leisure time. The theme of downshifting in this study is related to the aspect of easing hurry. There are many levels involved in aspects of downshifting, from lighter lifestyle changes to ethical holistic changes in life. The study used textual material obtained from the Internet, 62 separate blog posts, whose expressions related to hurry and easing hurry were examined using the membership categorization method. Membership categorization was used to give an idea of how the thoughts of bloggers can be structured. The study provided an analysis that yielded seven membership categories that bloggers settle into. These categories are emotional or emotionally responsive, responsible, centered on many tasks and issues, hurry opponents, hurry lovers, aware and resourceful, and calm and relaxed. Five of the categories consisted of expressions of hurry and two of categories consisted of expressions regarding easing hurry. The authors associated emotion in their expression of hurry, and hurry was treated with, for example, physical feelings, sense of duty, and even guilty thoughts. When in hurry, writers felt that they were living in the middle of several things and tasks. The hurry was opposed but it was also liked. The expression of hurry facilitation recognized the need to slow down the pace and presented the public various ways to ease the rush. The writings also showed that the hurry was alleviated by calm attitude, slowing down and in a relaxed way. Area for further research would be to study how junior high school students in home economics teaching experience hurry in their own life and what kind of everyday life management skills they could learn in order to ease hurry.
  • Suhonen, Lilli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The study examines what home will look like as a space and how home will be made during the coronary pandemic in 2020. The research topic is topical, as the coronary pandemic continues and affects the whole world and thus every home. The home is seen in this dissertation as a concrete, imagined, and lived home space that includes residents, emotions, functions, home material, and interactions. Experiences associated with the home by naming the home as a symbol that is shaped by the meanings and experiences the resident gives to their home. Previous studies show that concept of the home is multidimensional and escapes by precise definitions, but still for most people it is an obvious part of life. In previous studies, the home has expanded in terms of operations and new meanings with the corona pandemic. The corona pandemic appears in this dissertation as a situation of change, to see the attitudes of the home that have become invisible are broken and the experiences and meanings of meaning-making are reappeared. The study is implemented as narrative research. The method of data acquisition was autobiographical stories. The data eventually consisted of 23 stories ranging in length from half a page to three pages. The authors of the stories were Finnish women and men aged 20-48. Data analysis was performed using Atlas software. The analysis utilized thematic design and metaphorical analysis. During the Corona Pandemic, the home became a more private space and the importance of the home expanded. A metaphor was attached to the home to explain the new and strange situation of change. The home appeared on the one hand as an anxious prison and a constant performance but on the other hand as a refuge and an opportunity to finally rest when there was nothing else to go. The importance of the positive meanings inherent in the feeling of home in the home is thus associated with many negative meanings that weakened the feeling of home. The partially lost home feel was sought by providing decorating and repairing the home as well as acquiring new furniture and items. The dissertation provides new information on how the home is perceived during a serious health-threatening crisis, what new meanings the home acquires during it and how the home can be adapted to change situations.
  • Honkamaa, Meeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Leaving the parental home is seen as an important step towards independence in Western societies. Today, an increasing number of young adults in Finland move from their childhood home to live alone. Previous research has shown that interpersonal relationships are a major factor in creating a sense of home, raising the question of how young adults leaving the parental home begin to feel at home in a new place where others do not live. While studying the formation of a sense of home, this research also wants to focus on the object aspect. Based on previous research, the significance of objects in human life is undeniable. This research connects Home Economics with the perception of objects which has been introduced in the study of Material Culture and Consumer Research – in addition to their functionality objects are also seen as active agents and conveying meanings. This study examines factors contributing to the formation of the sense of home in the first independent home after childhood in the individualized context of Finnish society and the significance of objects in the process. The research was conducted as a narrative study and the data was gathered as autobiographical stories using the E-form of the University of Helsinki. The data consisted of 70 autobiographical stories from young adults aged 19–28 living in Finland. The data was analyzed using a qualitative content analysis method and the programme Atlas.ti was utilized. Based on the data, the sense of home in the independent home was created in the context of home as a physical, social and mental space. Seven main themes constituted the sense of an independent home: appartment and surroundings, privacy, independence, management of everyday life, sensory experiences, interpersonal relationships and objects. Settling into the independent home was marked by an ethos of individuality, i.e., the characteristics of the sense of home reflected the society of the given time. In addition to individuality, familiarity was emphasized in the creation of the sense of home. Familiar elements were needed in the new phase of life to facilitate the transition. Based on the object relationships of young adults, objects played an essential role in the creation of the sense of home.
  • Moisas, Karoliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The current consumption is unsustainable for the planet. Consumption and activities should be made more sustainable, but studies also show challenges in the way of change. Earlier studies have examined sustainable consumption from different perspectives in different disciplines, but the use of social media material, such as blogs, has so far been rather limited. The study examines a more waste-free lifestyle as part of sustainable consumption. The phenomenon is investigated by analyzing sustainable living blog texts. Different ways of avoiding the amount of waste generated in everyday life will be explored. Interest in a more waste-free life and its topical nature guided the setting of the research issue. The study was carried out using qualitative methods. The research material was collected online on the basis of the following criteria: the most recent posts and texts were translated into the implementation of a more sustainable and waste-free lifestyle. The research material consists of four blogs, which examined the texts of a total of five authors. One writing is in English. The material was analysed by means of data-based content analysis. Based on the study, a more sustainable, waste-free lifestyle can be implemented by a variety of means. The lifestyle requires planning, foresight and active investigation and action. Everyday choices can reduce the amount of waste in many ways. Products were produced independently, unnecessary consumption and materials were avoided, and efforts were also made to develop their own activities, and it can be concluded from research that there were many different possibilities for implementing more sustainable lifestyle. The provision of research and opportunities for applications relate to different ways of implementing sustainable choices and information on what needs to be taken into account in order to implement a more sustainable lifestyle.
  • Heikkinen, Tanja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Food waste is a global phenomenon that affects many different areas, such as the economy and the environment. Households cause the most food waste in the whole food chain, and if we want to influence and reduce household’s food waste, it is very necessary to study it. A lot of research on household food waste has been done lately. According to activity theory, action always has a target or a goal that actor wants to achieve and actions are always determined by tools. In this study, I investigate what kind of activity the households are doing when trying to avoid food waste. I utilize activity theory and operating system that based on it. I investigate the causes of household food waste, means of reducing and how the operating system appears in the activities of household food waste planning. This study accomplished as a qualitative research. Target group was the people who are interested in reducing food waste. Material for this study was collected using a questionnaire interview with structured and open questions. The questionnaire was sent to the target group through the Facebook food waste group and 89 responses were collected in a short time. The material was analyzed using content analysis. The results of the causes of food waste and the means of reducing it were corresponding with previous research findings. Also in this study peoples own actions, as well as the influence of others contributed to food waste. Proper tools are important when reducing food waste. Proper tools were felt to be necessary, but those availability was mentioned sometimes difficult to get. Also learning and development was seen important when reducing food waste. Experimentalism and courage to try new were also mentioned as important. Many households had also developed their reduction in food waste beyond on their own households, and as well as to the food garbage.
  • Lukkari, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The study examines the experiences of university students in busyness as part of everyday life and how the experience of busyness manifests itself as part of well-being. Previous studies have shown that busyness is positioned, on the one hand, as an experience of the adequacy of leisure time and, on the other, as the inadequacy of leisure time. Time-use surveys show that leisure time has increased in our society, but an increasing proportion of citizens feel themselves busier. The research literature on busyness often looks at people with gainful employment or the peak years of families with children, where students' experiences often take a back seat. This study participates in the discussion of busyness by studying students' experiences. The research data were collected through a semi-structured thematic interview. In January 2022, individual interviews were conducted remotely via the Zoom app. Eleven university students from the universities of Lapland, Oulu, Vaasa, Jyväskylä, Eastern Finland, and Helsinki participated in the interview. The data analysis was initially carried out through thematics, after which theory-driven content analysis was utilized. University students feel that busyness is both a negative and a positive phenomenon. Experiencing busyness as a negative is more common, which manifests itself as part of everyday life as experiencing stress, feeling inadequate, and a challenge to reconcile different schedules. Experiencing busyness as a positive is reflected in the way of thinking in which busyness is perceived to produce effective action. The amount of busyness experienced plays a significant role, as too much busyness appeared negatively. From the point of view of well-being, experiencing a busyness lowers mood and produces an irregular sleep rhythm. However, the students were aware of their resources and looked forward to the weekend as a counterbalance to everyday life. The findings align with the previous research literature that a culture that glorifies busyness is perceived to dominate. In conclusion, busyness was an integral part of the students' lives and perceived well-being.
  • Honkanen, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. The purpose of this study was to picture e-learning in higher education during a global pandemic from the students’ point of view. The study focuses on how higher education students experienced e-learning, either meaningful or unmeaningful. The theoretical framework consists of previous studies concerning e-learning and meaningful learning. The theoretical background also contains a view of personality differences from the perspective of studying. The research questions are as follows; 1. How higher education students have experienced e-learning during pandemic? 2. Which factors have helped to experience the e-learning be meaningful? Methods. The research data has been gathered in individual interviews which took place at the autumn of 2020. Most of the interviews were conducted in zoom. The individual interviews were semi-structured theme interviews. Ten higher education students participated in the study, they were all between 21 and 25 years old and their institutions located all over Finland. The data of this research was analysed with qualitative methods using the databased content analysis. Results and conclusions. From the interviewee’s point of view e-learning was experienced as either meaningful or unmeaningful, depending on the individual preferences. Issues with technology, the lack of instructions and support were mostly experienced as declining the feeling of meaningfulness. Simultaneously longing for social interaction was connected with the personality differences. Of the features of personality orientation, mainly the introverts experienced e-learning to be more meaningful than extroverts. On the other hand, the experience of e-learning was also attached to individual’s attitude towards it. The findings give support to the idea that e-learning can be experienced in a meaningful way. However, it should pay attention to individual learning preferences.
  • Lempinen, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Food waste is a global problem with both ecological and economic impacts. The purpose of this study is to explore the perspectives from which food waste content is themed in Kotiliesi magazines in 2000, 2010 and 2021. Throughout its history, Kotiliesi has provided its readers with food-related content and advice. In this study, Kotiliesi magazine is seen as a household food educator. The purpose of the study is to interpret what kind of food education habits can be identified in the background of the food waste content of Kotiliesi magazines. Research shows that a large proportion of food waste is generated in common households and it is therefore important to understand what kind of food waste-related content and food education practices can be found in the magazine available to all Finns. The data for this study consisted of annual issues of Kotiliesi magazines from 2000, 2010 and 2021. As not all magazines contained food waste related content, the data was finally limited to 25 magazines with a total of 30 articles. The data was analysed using theory-based content analysis. Based on the literature review, three different perspectives on the background of food waste reduction practices in the Kotiliesi magazines were identified. The economic perspectives dealt with the financial savings from food waste, the ecological perspectives on the environmental impact of food waste and the moral perspectives on the perceived legitimacy of food waste. Against the background of these food waste reduction practices, the literature review identified three different approaches to food education. The majority of the content on food waste in the Kotiliesi magazines was instructional in general, with an emphasis on 'eating right' and 'doing right'. There was also some food waste content written in a presumptive way, where the reader was assumed to have prior knowledge and skills on the subject, and the magazine used simple or superficial language. In addition to the advisory and presumptive style, a planning style was identified in the magazines with an emphasis on planning and preparedness, mostly related to food preparation practices and food preservation. The study provided new insights into the food waste-related content of Kotiliesi magazines from different decades and the underlying food education practices.