Browsing by Subject "Kotitalousopettaja"

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  • Vähämäki, Reeta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Goals: Due to the Covid-19 situation, Finnish schools moved to distant education in spring of 2020. Interaction is a particularly important element in learning. Studies had shown that it affects the whole experience of learning for students and teachers. The quality of interaction also determines results and attitudes towards future learning. Distant learning has mainly been studied with adults and higher education. These studies showed that good interaction is an especially important element in distant learning. This could be formed through safe on-line environment and well-planned lessons. The purpose of this study is to find out how have students in Finnish schools experienced distant learning in the spring of 2020. Method. There were eight different interviews made for this thesis. There were nine different interviewees altogether in ages between 13-18 during the spring of 2020. Interviews were conducted in the winter of 2021, almost a year after the quarantine. The interviewees were given choises to take the interviews individually, in pairs or groups. They had also an opportunity to choose the interview face to face or with distant connection. About half of the interviews were made via distant connection and all but one individually. The analysis was made using content analysis. Results. The overall impression of the distant learning in quarantine time of 2020 was mainly negative. The results show that experiences of presence and interaction had diminished during distant learning. The interviewees experienced participation and asking during lessons mentally harder than in normal lesson. The learning environments on-line were found to feel unsafe and that was one of the main reason participation was diminished. Many had problems because of the lack of peers in class, and they missed normal school environments and habits, like recess. Positive results were that distant learning tended to be calmer, and it contained less hustle. There is a possibility to create more interaction and participation in distant education classes by thorough and versatile planning and making possibilities to do group work.There should be more ways to cultivate the feeling of safety in distant learning.
  • Huovinen, Millie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Food is associated with many social practices and symbolic meanings that are culturally bound, separating and connecting members of culture. By studying food cultures, one can gain a deeper understanding of the society of the country in question, the deep structures of the culture and the history of the country. As culture constantly changes with society, so does food culture and its manifestations. As communication technology takes over the sector as a form of social interaction, food cultures are also increasingly shifting to social media as food images serve as a means of communication. This research falls into the fields of cultural research, visual culture research, and food culture research. The aim of the study is to try to find features typical of Finnish and Japanese food culture in social media food images. As the research material consists of a list of pictorial materials, it is also rewarding to look at the aesthetic content that food images contain and how the layout and content of the image are affected by the fact that the food images have been produced for publication in social media. The study emphasizes the cultural-historical approach as the factor that has most shaped Finnish and Japanese food culture. The research material consisted of food images produced by 6 people, of which there were a total of 30. Half of the research subjects and food images represented Finnish food culture and half Japanese food culture. To support the analysis of the images, the subjects' own comments on the food images of their choice were used. This is a qualitative study in which the material was analyzed by means of content analysis. Content analysis was combined with semiotic image analysis, in which reality is interpreted based on the characters and codes present in the images. An even more marginal aspect of socio-semiotics is represented by the social nature of the research material as part of the ways in which people communicate in social media. Despite the small research data, the research provided indications of typical elements that occur in Finnish and Japanese food culture. These include typical ingredients, food rations, cooking methods, and aesthetic perceptions. In Finnish food culture, emphasis was placed on simple dishes that have taken a lot of influence from other countries. Japanese food culture emphasized the preservation of traditions and the use of domestic raw materials.
  • Järvinen, Janette (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    During the exception period caused by the coronavirus, the cooking of college students has increased in households. Familiar daily routines and regularly recurring everyday activities, such as the lack of contact teaching and student meals, may have created challenges for food planning and preparation. Being responsible for daily meals requires cooking skills as well as the ability to assess the healthiness of food. The goal of this study is to provide research information on university students' eating habits and experiences of health promotion during exceptional times, and on how university students have experienced the adequacy of their own resources in organize health-promoting eating during exceptional times. The theoretical background of the study relies on the researches of nutrition, eating habits and control of everyday life applied the field of home economics pedagogy. The research was carried out using qualitative methods. The research material consists of five university students. The data collection was carried out by in-depth interviews with university students. The interviews were conducted in March 2021 using the Teams app because, due to the prevailing period of exception faceto-face encounters were not possible. The research material was analyzed by thematic design. According to the research results, organizing nutritious meals during exceptional times required more resources such as cooking skills, abilities to rhythmize a new kind of everyday life and also motivation and a desire to prepare health-promoting meals. The students felt that their cooking skills were sufficient, but especially the organization of lunch and maintaining the nutritional quality of lunch was perceived as a great challenge despite their abilities. Continuous cooking, scheduling, and planning were described as heavy, timeconsuming, and stressful. This has had an unhealthy effects on students ’eating habits. A new kind of everyday rhythm and the workload of cooking seemed to be a challenge in students' everyday activities. Due to the preservation of the meal rhythm, the financial situation and the social interaction situations, the university students experienced a longing for an affordable and nutritious student restaurant. According to the results obtained, the new kind of everyday life offered by exceptional circumstances and the challenges it brings seemed to undermine conventional everyday management, such as the organization of daily meals.
  • Karhu, Pilvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of Covid-19 epidemic to the everyday life and the work-life balance among young adults. Work is a significant part of a person’s every-day life. Individualisation of working hours stands out in the current work life. Therefore, the need for finding the work-life balance increases. Work-life balance is seen to be a main factor, whereby the employee is able to stabilize the demands becoming from work and leisure. The exceptional global circumstances with Covid-19 epidemic have suddenly affected people’s everyday life and ways of working during the year 2020. Majority of Finnish employees were forced to move to remote work due to the Covid-19 epidemic. The remote work makes it even more challenging to maintain the border between work and leisure time. In addition, people were required to adapt their everyday life due to the health threatening virus. This research applies qualitative methodology. The data were collected by using the theme interview method. Six young adults took part in the interview. All interviews were carried out during September and October in 2020. In addition to the interview the interviewees were asked to describe their normal day during Covid-19 epidemic with a timeline. The timeline was used to support the interviews according to the stimulated recall Interview method. The interview recordings were transcribed word for word and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Hermeneutic-phenomenological approach was also applied in this research. The significance of routines stood out in the everyday life during Covid-19 epidemic. Certain everyday routines were shattered due to the epidemic, while people were forced to adapt their ways of working and free time activities. Despite this, other daily routines were considered as a resource to manage in the crisis. Especially the continuing of work was seen as an important factor in the Covid-19 crisis. Work and leisure time activities were overlapping more flexibly during the Covid-19 epidemic. On the other hand, it was considered important to make a clear boundary between work and leisure time in the end of the day.
  • Liuska, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This study reviews the everyday life of special needs families during the Covid-19-pandemic. In special needs families at least one child has an increased need for services for their health, growth and/or development. Previous studies show that these services are an important resource and help in everyday life, as it is often built around taking care of the child. In previous studies special needs families have mainly been reviewed during normal conditions and the more recent studies conducted during the pandemic emphasize the perspective of authorities. The purpose of this study is to highlight the everyday life of special needs families during the Covid-19-pandemic and how services have been organized. This study applies qualitative methodology. The data was collected by semi-structured interviews. Seven mothers of special needs families took part in the interviews. The families were from across Finland. The family structures, children’s diagnoses and available resources varied within these families. Tran scripted data was analyzed with content analysis. The study shows that the everyday life of the families focused at home during the Covid-19-pandemic, which led to everyday life routines, free time and use of money changing. During the pandemic the families had to quickly rebuild their everyday life and its routines. Everyday life became more restricted as the routines focused at home. Parents' free time decreased as the children did not attend school or free-time activities. The meaning of home and its surroundings were highlighted because families were not able to spend their time together in shopping centers or restaurants. It became apparent that the realization of services varied between the families during the Covid-19-pandemic. During the pandemic the services were no longer considered safe due to the increased risk of infection, which led to some of the services coming to a halt and the implementation of special arrangements to other services. The decision of realization of the services was partly held by the service providers, while in some cases the families made the decision themselves to pause the service. The need for help in the families did not decrease and especially mothers had to answer this with their own work input. The families found the service system to be rigid and hoped for more flexibility from their service providers. That would mean considering the wishes of the family and the focusing on the best interest of the child.
  • Jalonen, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Finland is one of the leading countries in consuming dairy products. The consumption of fluid milk has decreased during the recent years, but the consumption of other dairy products, such as quark and cheese, has increased correspondingly. In addition, various plant-based beverages and other dairy-like products have gradually risen in popularity. The supply of plant-based products has grown, and consumers have accepted them as an alternative to dairy products. This study examines what kinds of dairy products and plant-based dairy product alternatives consumers use and how they explain their product choices. Plant-based dairy product alternatives are discussed by addressing the concept of appropriation because, contrary to the case of dairy products, plant-based products are often new to their users who might have found them only over the recent years. The research method is qualitative. The data was collected by means of semi-structured interview, accompanied by stimulus photos. Ten adults from Finland Proper, Uusimaa and Central Ostrobothnia were interviewed for the research. The participants photographed all dairy products and plant-based dairy product alternatives that they bought within a week. The photo footage was then used as the basis for discussion in the interviews. According to the study, the use of dairy products and the use of plant-based dairy product alternatives are concurrent and versatile among consumers. Dairy products are chosen for their price, taste and familiarity, and they might also be bought for other people besides the consumers themselves. Reasons for choosing plant-based beverages and other dairy-like products, in turn, are their taste, health-promoting effects, consumers’ habits, interest in new products, as well as ethical and ecological reasons. Dairy products are consumed somewhat more versatilely than plant-based products, and none of the consumers replaces cheese with plant-based alternatives as of yet. The appropriation of especially oat-based products has been successful, being clearly the most preferred plant-based products among consumers.
  • Kylliäinen, Mira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of the study was to examine blogwriters’ expressions of hurry and easing hurry. This thesis explored how bloggers express hurry and ways to ease it in their texts. Previous research and scientific literature related to research includes a discussion related to the dimensions of time, experience of time, hurry, and lack of time. The literature related to time pressures, everyday life rhythms and sequences, hurry in varying life situations and downshifting is also essentially related to the thesis. Key observations in the research literature are that time pressures are often related to family and work reunification and its challenges, work, but sometimes also leisure time. The theme of downshifting in this study is related to the aspect of easing hurry. There are many levels involved in aspects of downshifting, from lighter lifestyle changes to ethical holistic changes in life. The study used textual material obtained from the Internet, 62 separate blog posts, whose expressions related to hurry and easing hurry were examined using the membership categorization method. Membership categorization was used to give an idea of how the thoughts of bloggers can be structured. The study provided an analysis that yielded seven membership categories that bloggers settle into. These categories are emotional or emotionally responsive, responsible, centered on many tasks and issues, hurry opponents, hurry lovers, aware and resourceful, and calm and relaxed. Five of the categories consisted of expressions of hurry and two of categories consisted of expressions regarding easing hurry. The authors associated emotion in their expression of hurry, and hurry was treated with, for example, physical feelings, sense of duty, and even guilty thoughts. When in hurry, writers felt that they were living in the middle of several things and tasks. The hurry was opposed but it was also liked. The expression of hurry facilitation recognized the need to slow down the pace and presented the public various ways to ease the rush. The writings also showed that the hurry was alleviated by calm attitude, slowing down and in a relaxed way. Area for further research would be to study how junior high school students in home economics teaching experience hurry in their own life and what kind of everyday life management skills they could learn in order to ease hurry.
  • Suhonen, Lilli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The study examines what home will look like as a space and how home will be made during the coronary pandemic in 2020. The research topic is topical, as the coronary pandemic continues and affects the whole world and thus every home. The home is seen in this dissertation as a concrete, imagined, and lived home space that includes residents, emotions, functions, home material, and interactions. Experiences associated with the home by naming the home as a symbol that is shaped by the meanings and experiences the resident gives to their home. Previous studies show that concept of the home is multidimensional and escapes by precise definitions, but still for most people it is an obvious part of life. In previous studies, the home has expanded in terms of operations and new meanings with the corona pandemic. The corona pandemic appears in this dissertation as a situation of change, to see the attitudes of the home that have become invisible are broken and the experiences and meanings of meaning-making are reappeared. The study is implemented as narrative research. The method of data acquisition was autobiographical stories. The data eventually consisted of 23 stories ranging in length from half a page to three pages. The authors of the stories were Finnish women and men aged 20-48. Data analysis was performed using Atlas software. The analysis utilized thematic design and metaphorical analysis. During the Corona Pandemic, the home became a more private space and the importance of the home expanded. A metaphor was attached to the home to explain the new and strange situation of change. The home appeared on the one hand as an anxious prison and a constant performance but on the other hand as a refuge and an opportunity to finally rest when there was nothing else to go. The importance of the positive meanings inherent in the feeling of home in the home is thus associated with many negative meanings that weakened the feeling of home. The partially lost home feel was sought by providing decorating and repairing the home as well as acquiring new furniture and items. The dissertation provides new information on how the home is perceived during a serious health-threatening crisis, what new meanings the home acquires during it and how the home can be adapted to change situations.
  • Moisas, Karoliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The current consumption is unsustainable for the planet. Consumption and activities should be made more sustainable, but studies also show challenges in the way of change. Earlier studies have examined sustainable consumption from different perspectives in different disciplines, but the use of social media material, such as blogs, has so far been rather limited. The study examines a more waste-free lifestyle as part of sustainable consumption. The phenomenon is investigated by analyzing sustainable living blog texts. Different ways of avoiding the amount of waste generated in everyday life will be explored. Interest in a more waste-free life and its topical nature guided the setting of the research issue. The study was carried out using qualitative methods. The research material was collected online on the basis of the following criteria: the most recent posts and texts were translated into the implementation of a more sustainable and waste-free lifestyle. The research material consists of four blogs, which examined the texts of a total of five authors. One writing is in English. The material was analysed by means of data-based content analysis. Based on the study, a more sustainable, waste-free lifestyle can be implemented by a variety of means. The lifestyle requires planning, foresight and active investigation and action. Everyday choices can reduce the amount of waste in many ways. Products were produced independently, unnecessary consumption and materials were avoided, and efforts were also made to develop their own activities, and it can be concluded from research that there were many different possibilities for implementing more sustainable lifestyle. The provision of research and opportunities for applications relate to different ways of implementing sustainable choices and information on what needs to be taken into account in order to implement a more sustainable lifestyle.
  • Heikkinen, Tanja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Food waste is a global phenomenon that affects many different areas, such as the economy and the environment. Households cause the most food waste in the whole food chain, and if we want to influence and reduce household’s food waste, it is very necessary to study it. A lot of research on household food waste has been done lately. According to activity theory, action always has a target or a goal that actor wants to achieve and actions are always determined by tools. In this study, I investigate what kind of activity the households are doing when trying to avoid food waste. I utilize activity theory and operating system that based on it. I investigate the causes of household food waste, means of reducing and how the operating system appears in the activities of household food waste planning. This study accomplished as a qualitative research. Target group was the people who are interested in reducing food waste. Material for this study was collected using a questionnaire interview with structured and open questions. The questionnaire was sent to the target group through the Facebook food waste group and 89 responses were collected in a short time. The material was analyzed using content analysis. The results of the causes of food waste and the means of reducing it were corresponding with previous research findings. Also in this study peoples own actions, as well as the influence of others contributed to food waste. Proper tools are important when reducing food waste. Proper tools were felt to be necessary, but those availability was mentioned sometimes difficult to get. Also learning and development was seen important when reducing food waste. Experimentalism and courage to try new were also mentioned as important. Many households had also developed their reduction in food waste beyond on their own households, and as well as to the food garbage.
  • Honkanen, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. The purpose of this study was to picture e-learning in higher education during a global pandemic from the students’ point of view. The study focuses on how higher education students experienced e-learning, either meaningful or unmeaningful. The theoretical framework consists of previous studies concerning e-learning and meaningful learning. The theoretical background also contains a view of personality differences from the perspective of studying. The research questions are as follows; 1. How higher education students have experienced e-learning during pandemic? 2. Which factors have helped to experience the e-learning be meaningful? Methods. The research data has been gathered in individual interviews which took place at the autumn of 2020. Most of the interviews were conducted in zoom. The individual interviews were semi-structured theme interviews. Ten higher education students participated in the study, they were all between 21 and 25 years old and their institutions located all over Finland. The data of this research was analysed with qualitative methods using the databased content analysis. Results and conclusions. From the interviewee’s point of view e-learning was experienced as either meaningful or unmeaningful, depending on the individual preferences. Issues with technology, the lack of instructions and support were mostly experienced as declining the feeling of meaningfulness. Simultaneously longing for social interaction was connected with the personality differences. Of the features of personality orientation, mainly the introverts experienced e-learning to be more meaningful than extroverts. On the other hand, the experience of e-learning was also attached to individual’s attitude towards it. The findings give support to the idea that e-learning can be experienced in a meaningful way. However, it should pay attention to individual learning preferences.
  • Rydberg, Irene (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The Master´s Thesis examines home economics teachers´ experiences of home economics education during the exceptional circumstances caused by the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) in spring 2020. The topic is important as the coronavirus pandemic continues, affecting and will affect home economics education. Previous research has shown that home economics is a civic subject that is constantly evolving as the world changes. Previous studies have also found that the management of competencies (such as consumer skills, cooking and home sanitation) included in the home economics subject supports people’s well-being in everyday life. The Thesis analyzes how home economics teachers experience the changes brought about by exceptional circumstances in their work when they switched to distance learning in schools. The material of the Thesis is part of the “Towards more sustainable home economics education 2020” survey, which was collected during the pandemic. The qualitative material consists of the answers of 99 home economics teachers to a two-part open-ended question: "Explain how your teaching changed in a state of exceptional circumstances caused by the coronavirus. Describe how the collaboration with students and their guardians has gone." Coding and thematic design were used in the analysis of the material. According to the home economics teachers who responded to the survey, challenges were posed by, for example, practicing the use of digital tools, inventing new teaching tasks, taking into account different family situations, and the fact that some students had difficulty getting in touch. Home economics teachers though welcomed, for example, the development of digital skills, student assessment and co-operation with students´ guardians. Home economics teachers experienced an increase in workload and working hours during exceptional circumstances, which had a detrimental effect on home economics teachers' resilience at work. The conclusion of the Thesis is that the resilience of home economics teachers must be supported, for example, by providing clear municipality- and school-specific instructions for the implementation of home economics education.
  • Laukkanen, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Childrens and adolescents relationship with food can be supported in various pedagogical methods. Previous research suggests that childrens and adolescents relationship with food can be supported by positive interaction and by emphasizing the pleasurable aspect of eating. The suggested approach can be understood with food and eating relationship framework. The framework is developed by Talvia and Anglé (2018), whose aim is to guide educators on how to fulfil the food and nutrition educational needs of putting the diverse relationship with food and eating into practice. In this study the food and eating relationship framework is applied to home economics teachers perceptions on supporting pupils’ relationship with food. The theoretical framework of this study is based on previous research of food education and attitudes towards food. Previous research takes place on the fields of nutritional science and home economics. A qualitative research was utilized in this study. The data consists of six virtual interviews of home economics teachers. Teachers expressions that are associated with supporting pupils’ relationship with food and eating were first separated from the data. The expressions were analysed and categorized with content analysis methods. The analysis yielded four main categories of which represent home economics teachers perceptions on how to support pupils’ relationship with food. The main categories are offering mental support for the pupil, utilizing positive pedagogy in teaching, creating a safe atmosphere in the learning environment and increasing pupils’ knowledge on the impacts of food and eating. In this study the home economics teachers experience that they can support pupils’ relationship with food in various pedagogical means. According to the results, home economics teachers find both teachers and peers contribution being a meaningful part of supporting pupils’ relationship with food. Both teachers and peers are expected to accept and allow different relationships with food and eating. The whole group is expected to offer mental support for peers and teachers find guiding pupils towards this as their task. Results suggest that home economics teachers find pedagogical skills even more important than home economics skills when the aim is to support pupils’ relationship with food and eating. Area for further research would be how the teachers pedagogical skills promote pupils’ relationship with food and eating.
  • Ketolainen, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Previous studies show that secondary school students participate in school meals in varying degrees. School meals are an important part of students ’school day as they are present at school every day. School meals are part of food education on basic education. With school lunch, students gain energy for study and they can better focus on teaching and learning. However, in many cases, convenience store products attract students more than food served at school. Research objective: The aim of this qualitative case study is to find out what different factors emerge from the students' method of empathy in the texts in relation to school meals. The aim was to find the various reasons raised by the students, which are why they either stay at the school to eat school lunch or go to the convenience store instead. The research questions of the study are: 1. How do students justify staying in to eat school lunch? 2. In what ways do students justify not staying in school meals? Methods. 7th grade students from one unified school in southern Finland participated in the study (N = 127). Data collection was carried out using the empathy method. There were two frame stories, in one of which the student experienced a situation where he went to a convenience store instead of attending school lunch, and in the other he stayed at the school himself to eat despite going to the friends' shop. The material was analyzed by data-driven content analysis. Results and conclusions. The most common reasons for students to stay in school to eat were the food served, the cause-and-effect relationship related to school rules, the healthiness of food, and money. The reasons for going to the store were most often the food served, the friends, the products from the store and the content of the break. The main themes that emerged from the data were ‘Top-down rules and regulations’, ‘Youth-related issues’ and ‘Student-related issues’. In future the research result can be utilized in home economics education and in the development of school meals.
  • Leimio, Marjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The supply of teaching materials is constantly changing and expanding. This is also affected by the digitalization of schools and learning. Digitalization was emphasized even more in the spring 2020, when the primary education was shifted to distance learning due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Teachers are constantly required to consider and make decisions on the teaching methods they use. This study is conducted in collaboration with the Finnish Competition and Consumer Authority (FCCA). Among other things, the FCCA produces teaching materials. One of them is the Ostopolku [Consumption path]- teaching material, which aims to show the different parts of shopping process and how they are linked to each other. This material has been developed in collaboration with teachers. The aim of this research is to observe, what kind of user experiences teachers have from the teaching material. The purpose is to find out how teachers use the material, what kind of experiences they have as users of the material and how they would develop it. The data were collected using an electronic survey (n=10). In addition to the survey, I interviewed one teacher who had used the Ostopolku -teaching material in her teaching. Also, a specialist’s interview was conducted with Taina Mäntylä from the FCCA, the developer of the teaching material. The aim of Mäntylä's interview was to deepen the material and evaluate what kind of similarities and differences can be found in her interview and teachers' user experiences. The collected material guided the analysis, the research was conducted with the data-driven qualitative content analysis. Teachers are generally satisfied with the Ostopolku- teaching material. Pupils were actively involved in the lessons and the material was found to be suitable for both home economics and social studies lessons when the grade to be taught was taken into consideration in the content. There were also development suggestions for the teaching material, while the material itself was found to be quite extensive compared to the planned duration of the lessons. Teachers also expressed their hopes for adding various videos and smaller assignments to the material.
  • Salminen, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Recipes are an essential part of today’s cooking culture, both in consumers’ daily lives and in the teaching of home economics. Previous research focusing on recipes has hardly considered consumers’ views on what features are part of a successful and user-friendly recipe. In order to create recipes that meet the needs of consumers, it is necessary to find out what kind of recipes satisfy consumers. The study aimed to identify the features that consumers value in a good recipe. The research was carried out using qualitative methods. The data consists of eleven individual interviews with consumers. The interviews were conducted remotely. Expressions associated with the features of a good recipe were analyzed and classified using data-driven content analysis. The analysis was used to create two main categories: the selection and usage of the recipe. Both categories reflect the features consumers value in a good recipe. The research results provide an indication of what kind of features consumers value in a recipe. According to the study, there is no absolute “good recipe” that would appeal to all consumers. A good recipe makes it easier for consumers to cook and bake. It does not only contain features that are important for the use of the recipe, but it also fits the specific criteria that consumers use when choosing recipes. The recipe is chosen if it inspires customers, gives them new ideas, seems reliable, and quickly triggers a pleasant reaction. Using a recipe is considered worthwhile if following the recipe is easy and effortless so that the customer can achieve a successful outcome with the recipe. The result should match consumers' image of the recipe, which is created through written and visual communication. The research results can help in the design and implementation of recipes for home economics teachers and other professionals. Further research could be carried out to identify the sources consumers use to find new recipes and how the exceptional circumstances caused by the COVID-19 pandemic are visible in the use of recipes.
  • Iivanainen, Josefiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The study examines consumers’ views about cosmetic packaging. Previously, this topic has been studied as the acquisition of packaging at the store in which the focus has been on the color, materiality, and ecology. Natural and organic cosmetics have recently gained scholarly interest, yet, the packaging itself has not. This study is interested in what the visuals, colors, materials and recycling aspects of cosmetic packaging mean to consumers. The phenomenon is examined as the use of packaging and from the perspective of everyday aesthetics at home. The data was collected as pair interviews (n=12) using semi-structured theme interview and stimulus material (biodegradable cosmetic packaging). The interviewees were 26–67 years old. The data was analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. This study contributes to the discussion about aesthetic meanings of cosmetic packaging by focusing on the ecological aspects and the challenges related to recycling. Earlier studies have mainly studied food packages. In this study, cosmetic packaging was seen as a part of everyday aesthetics and the items were seen as visually pleasing and a part of interior decoration. Consumers associated the visual aspects and colors with their identity and self-expression. On the one hand, the packaging conveys about everyday and affordable cosmetics, and on the other hand, about luxurious and high-quality cosmetics. Through the packaging material and colors, consumers conclude how ecological of the product and packaging. Consumers combine the material of cosmetic packaging and the amount of material with the environmental friendliness and recyclability of the packaging. Consumers identify the prevalence of plastic use, the overpacking of cosmetics and the empty space of packaging as ecological challenges for cosmetic packaging. With regard to packaging material, more choice was seen in food, and the purchase of food was also perceived to be more important from an ecological point of view than the purchase of cosmetics. Recycling is challenged by unclear materials for consumers, multi-material packaging, different coatings and the fact that packaging cannot be easily emptied. Consumers therefore wish clearer recycling instructions for packaging. The recycling of packaging inks proved to be an unknown topic. However, in the case of color recycling, the materiality of the colorant, its separation from the packaging material, and the toxicity and harmfulness of the colors to nature were considered.
  • Pihlajamäki, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of the study was to find out negotiation experiences between the parents of co-parenting arrangements. The research problem is how the cooperation is built in co-parenting arrangements through negotiations and what kind of actions co-parents do to make the family form to continue. These co-parenting arrangements are based mutual agreement and the child’s biological parents and their desired partners are committed to raising the child together, without an intimate or romantic relationship between co-parents. The negotiation is understood as a combination of verbal communication and actions between the parties and the goal is to accomplish joint understanding. Parenting in these families has been found to be thoughtful and well planned. The research was carried out using qualitative research methods. The research group included the parents in co-parenting arrangement families who have already have a child. The data was collected through a semi-structured thematic interview. Three persons were interviewed, two of them defined themselves as mothers and one as father. Interviewees were acquired through social media, researcher contacts, and the snowball effect. Two interviews were conducted face-to-face and one remotely on video. The data was analyzed by data-driven content analysis. The analysis suggests that in the co-parenting arrangements family was established based on the similarity of parents’ wishes and values. The biological mother’s home had the most decision-making power. Parents tried to find potential problems and eliminated them in advance or made changes in their actions when the problems arose. Lack of arguments was understood as smooth and well working co-parenting. According to the study, the biological parent’s bond with the child is considered special and the role of the biological mother is the least negotiable. The negotiations are related to building cooperation in the co-parenting arrangements families. Research shows that in these family’s co-parents consciously construct their cooperation from the time they first met. If some of the parents has life changes it also affects other co-parent’s daily life and their roles. Therefore, the society should be able to provide support for these families to build their co-operation that considers the specificities of the family.
  • Liikanen, Anne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Goals. The aim of the study is to find out the consumption of children 's fashion in families with young children. What qualities are relevant for mothers when purchasing children clothes? What factors influence the consumption of children's fashion? Previous studies show that mothers mainly buy clothes for their children. Mothers feel they are good mothers when they dress their children beautifully. Clothing is part of identity and its construction. Through clothing, the aim is also to belong to or stand out from the ranks. Children's clothing should be practical, comfortable, cheerful, colorful or light, and clean and intact. Fashion, high cost, elegance, dark colors and investment in the brand are accepted with reservation. Ecology and ethics are a growing trend in consumption. Methods. I collected the material electronically using the Helsinki e-form. I sent a link to the survey to a Facebook group with a lot of mothers of young children. The survey received 403 responses, of which 401 remained in the final data. In addition to the structured questions, there were two open-ended questions in the survey. This qualitative data was used to enliven and support the quantitative results. Quantitative data were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods such as percentages. I also used cross-tabulation and correlations in the analysis. In the analysis of qualitative data, I used theory-based content analysis. I tailored the themes according to the themes found through the quantitative results of the material. Results and conclusions. According to the study, mothers are the primary purchasers of children's clothes. In children's clothing, mothers valued practicality, good technical properties, ecology and ethics, as well as domesticity. Obtaining used children's clothing was popular. Consuming fashion through social media was more common than buying fashion clothes. Consumption of fashion clothes was more common than purchasing designer clothes. Children's fashion highlighted ecological and ethical values, but the problem was over-consumption of clothes and over-spending. Gender equality is sought with gender-neutral clothing, but equality is not reflected at all in the procurement of clothing. The increase in the values of ecology and ethics is due to the fact that there is a lot of talk about environmental problems and climate change and how to solve them.
  • Pöllänen, Ilona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Former studies have shown that everyday workload has increased in Finland. However, their focus has been on families’ point of view, but young childless adults’ views have stayed in the shadows. According to the studies adolescents are even prone to serious health issues caused by loaded everyday life. The goal of this thesis is, firstly, to study what young childless adults think about loaded everyday life and, secondly, to analyse ways how young adults try to ease their everyday workload. The research approach is qualitative. The data was collected with an e-questionnaire that included open ended questions. The study participants were chosen by discretionary and snowball sampling. The data consists of 29 young childless adults who experienced periods of transition in their lives and who also experienced loaded everyday life on a scale of daily to monthly. The data was analysed by using a data-driven content analysis. Everyday workload of young childless adults relates to the challenges of everyday well-being and performance. The former was emphasized among those who were affected by loaded everyday life most strongly and the latter among those who were less burdened by everyday life. Young adults tried to make their loaded everyday life easier via time management and by taking care of their well-being. It turned out that workload experience can be facilitated and managed by means suitable for oneself, so that is possible to secure and increase mastery of everyday life and well-being. The experience of everyday workload turned out to be a personal experience which was related to several different factors and individual needs. The number of things to be looked after, activities, or leisure time did not predict the quality of loaded everyday life experience.