Browsing by Subject "Kultur-, stads- och planeringsgeografi"

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  • Leppänen, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    In the current trajectory of human induced global warming, the domains of climate change mitigation and adaptation remain fundamental to the future of human and natural systems. Mitigating the global warming is not only vital but coping with the unavoidable impacts of the global temperature rise will be less disastrous. In terms of the realities of climate change impacts, the climate policies must be implemented. However, the success of mitigation and adaptation efforts might be dependent on how the people and communities are encountered in climate policies. Thus, it is not only crucial how the distribution of climate change burdens and benefits continues, but as important to recognize the multiple entry points to just transition. This thesis contributes to the emerging field of scientific climate justice debate that raises questions of just adaptation and in which ways it is addressed in climate change adaptation policies under the agenda of just transition. The focus of the thesis is particularly on European climate change adaptation dialogue, in the platform of a public consultation organized by the European Commission. With an interpretive approach, the study explores the perceptions of just adaptation in a number of 22 position papers contributed by European and international civic organizations. The analysis is guided by the (1.) the addressment of adaptation injustices and (2.) just adaptation as a transformative pathway. In the prism of environmental and climate justice concerns, and transformative features of adaptation, the results are discussed under the geo-graphy of Carriers of Just Transition. The civic organizations who contributed to the public consultation consider adaptation and just transition important to achieve. At the same time, the civic organizations seem to have adopted a strategy of no-regrets: they actively reclaim on adaptation measures to prepare for the medium and long-term climate impacts while considering that the mitigation efforts of today seem to be failing. At the same time, just adaptation is considered as a way of conserving the present state, while the agenda of just transition seems to be adopted as the desired pathway of fair adaptation. The European adaptation policy dialogue nests in the carriers of just transition – the systemic pathways of consolidating the current European state rather than transformational change.
  • Myllys, Jasmiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Short-term rental platforms have become widely popular in recent years, but their growth has left cities to face a variety of problems. Studies have shown, for example, that short-term rentals have led to an increase in long-term rental prices. When more and more apartments are used as short-term rentals, the supply of long-term rentals decreases. This causes more pressure on the long-term rental market and leads to increased prices. In this study I examine the possible impacts of Airbnb, the biggest and most popular short-term rental platform, on the rental market of Helsinki. First, I analyse how many apartments have been removed from the long-term rental market to the Airbnb market, and second, how likely it is that the number of Airbnb rentals rises in the future. Presumably, renting through Airbnb becomes more popular when the potential income from Airbnb rentals is larger than from long-term rentals. In Neil Smith’s terms, this difference between actual and potential rental income constitutes a rent gap. Therefore, I also analyse whether renting short-term in Helsinki is more profitable than renting long-term. In addition, I discuss the current city and tourism policies of the city of Helsinki in the light of the results of the above research questions and give recommendations on issues to be taken into account in the future. This study uses AirDNA’s data of Airbnb rentals in Helsinki and long-term rental price data from KTI Property Information Ltd, and it focuses on data from year 2019. Data analysis is conducted using statistical and geospatial methods. The results of this study show that in 2019 there were a significant number of professional Airbnb rentals in Helsinki, 863 in total. However, their number varied substantially between the districts of Helsinki. There was a large amount of professional Airbnb rentals especially in the city centre and Kallio area. On the scale of the whole of Helsinki, professional Airbnb rentals comprise approximately 0,5 % of all rental apartments whereas in some districts in the city centre the percentage was considerably higher, in the Kamppi district as much as 3,9 %. Based on the results, the number of Airbnb rentals will likely grow in the future because Airbnb rental income was, on average, greater than long-term rental income in each of the study areas. In most areas, the rent gap was substantial. However, the size of the rent gap varied significantly, between 50 and 1350 euros, based on the location and amount of rooms of the apartment. Some policy recommendations can be made based on the results of this study. When designing future policies, it is important to acknowledge that a sizeable part of the Airbnb rentals in Helsinki is professional and that the number of professional rentals will probably continue to increase. Since the number of professional rentals is still quite small on the city level, the impacts of short-term rentals in Helsinki are presumably not yet significant. Nevertheless, in the future problems can arise especially in the city centre and Kallio area, as these areas have a lot of professional Airbnb rentals. Since only professional Airbnb rentals are disadvantageous for the long-term rental market, assigning certain restrictions would be justifiable in order to prevent future problems and to promote sustainable tourism. Restricting Airbnb activity could be done by enforcing current regulations more rigorously or setting a yearly renting limit like many other European cities have done. This would help to inhibit activity that is against the current legislation and to support the real sharing economy.
  • Kastarinen, Miika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Megatrendit muuttavat asumistarpeita, jolloin kaupunkien asukkaiden vaatimukset ja toiveet muuttuvat. Samalla yritykset pyrkivät vastaamaan tähän muuttuneeseen kysyntään. Vastaavasti yhteiskunnallisilla toimijoilla, kuten valtiolla ja kunnilla on muuttuvat asuntopoliittiset tavoitteensa, joilla pyritään vastaamaan megatrendien tuomaan muutokseen. Helsingin kaupungilla on tavoite kehittää kerrostaloasumista houkuttelevammaksi. Uusien asumisratkaisujen kehittelyssä nähtiin kaupungilla hyödylliseksi myös kokeiluja koordinoiva ohjelma, joka kartoittaisi yhteistyökumppaneita ja alati muuttuvia asumisen tarpeita. Ratkaisuna luotiin Kehittyvä kerrostalo -ohjelma. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää Kehittyvä kerrostalo -ohjelman taustalla olleet asuntopoliittiset tavoitteet ja ohjelman hankkeisiin vaikuttaneet yhteiskunnalliset muutokset. Neljä megatrendiä, jotka selkeimmin esiintyvät Kehittyvä kerrostalo -ohjelman hankkeiden tavoitteissa ovat: asuntokuntien muutos, kulutuskulttuurin muutos, ilmastonmuutos ja ympäristökysymykset sekä teknologioiden ja prosessien muutos. Kehittyvä kerrostalo -ohjelman hankkeet olivat kehitysteemoiltaan hyvin monipuolisia vastaten lukuisiin tutkimuskirjallisuudessa ja yhteiskunnallisessa keskustelussa olleisiin ilmiöihin ja megatrendeihin. Hankkeissa itsessään oli myös samaan aikaan useita erilaisia kehitysteemoja. Helsingin kaupungin Kehittyvä kerrostalo -ohjelman merkitys osana asuntopoliittisia interventioita on yhdistää eri sidosryhmät samaan ohjelmaan. Vaikka tavoitteet olivat eri toimijoilla erilaiset, on mahdollista kannustaa rankentajia ja muita yrityksiä innovaatioihin. Käytännössä pelkällä säätelyllä ei pystytä takaamaan innovaatioiden toteutumista, sillä säädöksien kaltainen ohjaus määrittää lähinnä rakentamisen minimitason. Kehittyvä kerrostalo -ohjelman kaltainen interventio helpottaa innovaatioiden syntyä sekä mahdollistaa kunnianhimoisemmat asumiskonseptit. Vaikka tässä tutkimuksessa käsiteltiin sitä, kuinka lakien ja säädösten avulla voidaan ohjata rakentamista toivottuun suuntaan sekä sitä, milloin nämä muutokset ovat tapahtuneet, näiden muutosten vaikutus itse Kehittyvä kerrostalo -ohjelman hankkeisiin on yhä selvittämättä.
  • Aroalho, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Africa has recently increased its share of the global market, and the continent’s potential has been recognized globally. The continent has experienced a lot of oppression and forced changes in history, and it is currently developing its new identity with relatively young states and its fast-growing population. African Union (AU) is calling pan-African ideology to bring together the African people in their blueprint and master plan Agenda 2063, where the cultural heritage is at the core. Culture is also at the core of the creative economy, and the creative economy's share of the global economy is growing. Due to globalization and digitalization, the knowledge from other cultures is spreading rapidly, which is the basis of a cultural shift both at local and global levels. This research investigated the culture and the creative economy as builders of society in Kenya. Kenya has been very successful in the field of Information and Communications Technology (ICT), the state takes its cultural heritage seriously in its development programs and their focus is especially on the potential of the youth in the creative economy. Kenya has a vast cultural diversity in the state with its officially recognized 44 tribes. This cultural diversity plays a significant role in the creative economy. According to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD, 2020), the creative economy has no single meaning, as the concept is constantly evolving. The basic elements of the concept are from human creativity, ideas, and intellectual property, knowledge and technology. The creative industries include such as music, film, video, arts and crafts and performing arts. These elements are the basis of the creative economy, in addition, they have a significant commercial and cultural value. The research was conducted in Kenya during January and February 2021, and the data was collected from two main geographical research areas, the city of Nairobi and Taita-Taveta County. The geographical research areas were chosen by their cultural diversity, the creative economy and their urban and rural statuses. Nairobi has a classification of a creative city where the digital creative economy is booming, and the city is attracting people around East Africa. Taita-Taveta respectively is a rural county near the Kenyan coast, where the creative economy is mainly in the traditional form, for example, crafting and basket making. The research combined the elements from the ethnographical, hermeneutical and critical approaches by using unstructured, structured interviews and observation, as the methods combined qualitative methods with numerical data. The results show that the culture and the creative economy do build the society in Kenya. It is seen in each level of society, for example, among the families, tribes, counties and even the government. Each level influences and controls the way culture and the creative economy build the society in Kenya. The meaning of the community arose in culture and the creative economy shifts, as they provide help in the mitigation and adaptation into new situations. With the exponential population growth, the share of the youth is rising, culture and the creative economy have the potential to provide jobs for the youth in the future. There are challenges with culture and the creative economy in Kenya. First, to preserve the cultural diversity in Kenya among the youth. Second, to target the governmental policies to the right actions and towards the right groups, which would then support the sector itself. Due to attitude shifts, the role of the youth is a significant point to consider. Furthermore, there is a vast gap between the government and the community, which causes a lot of harm to the creative economy, as the policies do not support the creative sector. If these significant points are solved, there is a vast potential for the culture and the creative economy to continue building the society in Kenya.
  • Edvinsson, Pontus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Socio-economic segregation has been increasing in Helsinki for decades and the relation between socioeconomic factors and educational outcomes have been discussed frequently recently and have been an important topic for politicians and researchers. An increasing segregation and dwindling school results in the more disadvantaged areas of Finland have been connected in various reports. The main objective in this master’s thesis is firstly to investigate the spatial socio-economic differences between school catchment areas of the 26 municipalities in the Uusimaa region. And secondly, the relationship between educational outcomes and socio-spatial segregation in Uusimaa, as the former research evidence has only documented the socio-spatial differentiation within the municipalitan core of the region. The aim is to analyze the relationship of the four different socio-economic variables of basic level education, higher education, unemployment and low income households in each school catchment area and present them with help of four different maps created in GIS. Lastly data consisting of educational outcomes from first year pupils (N=1 920) from 41 different schools in the Uusimaa region provided by Kansallinen koulutuksen arviointikeskus were analysed. The data consisted of two standardized tests, one regarding mathematics and one about the finnish language. These two tests were part of a longitudinal evaluation which started in the fall of 2018. The core finding of this study is that Helsinki is by far the area with the largest socio-economic differences between the school catchment areas in the Uusimaa region, where eastern Helsinki often displayed low socio-economic levels and where western Helsinki and southern Espoo often presented a high socio-economic level compared to the rest of the Uusimaa region. And that the educational results regarding the Finnish language had a stronger correlation with the socio-economic data compared to the mathematical educational outcomes. These findings offer new insights for Finnish educational policies and demonstrate the need for supporting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in different types of urban and rural areas.
  • Rönnberg, Oskar (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Segregation is usually treated as a place-based phenomenon based on residential locations, but during the last ten years more emphasis has been put on understanding segregation as a multi-contextual phenomenon, where mobility in urban space affects the individual’s exposure to segregation. Such research has not yet been done in Helsinki, where socio-economic and ethnic segregation has been on the rise since the 1990’s, but there is anecdotal evidence of for example young people from disadvantaged neighbourhoods not being as mobile in the urban space as others. The aim of this study is to find out how socioeconomic differences and experiences from the past are linked to how people move around and use urban space in Helsinki. A survey study was carried out (N=1 266) in spring 2020 for the purposes of this research. The study is based on a self-selected sample, so the results cannot be generalized for the whole population. Spatial mobility is analyzed with four measures: which parts of the city the respondent usually moves around in, how often they visit the city center, how many of their everyday activities are located near their home, in the city center and in other neighbourhoods and municipalities, and how many of the listed places in the survey they had visited during the last year. The main research methods are linear regression, correlation analyses and statistical tests. Spatial mobility varies based on education, age, family background and mobility practices in the youth. These factors explain at most a quarter of the variance in mobility. Cultural and economic capital also correlates with mobility, but their explanatory power diminishes when education and age are controlled for. The spatial mobility is low for them who had small activity spaces in their youth, and especially for them who still live in the same neighbourhood. Those who live in the outer suburbs are among the least mobile and many of the respondents in Northeastern and Eastern Helsinki do not regularly visit Southern Helsinki. Even though there are many different factors that influence the level of mobility that are not ad-dressed in this study, the results confirm that family background and past experiences affect the individuals’ mobility practices. The results indicate that people who live in disadvantaged neighbourhoods risk exposure to segregation in different contexts of everyday life as a result of low mobility. As people with low education are underrepresented in the study, it is possible that there are some kind of immobilities in the city that have not been covered in this study. The results underline the need for more research in multi-contextual segregation and the experiences and conceptions of the city, especially regarding children and young people.
  • Nurmi, Marisofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Globally, there is a constant shortfall of financial resources in conservation, which has partially been supplemented by combining conservation and conservation-compatible businesses. Many protected and conserved areas in sub-Saharan Africa are largely funded by revenues generated within the area, mainly through ecotourism. While ecotourism revenues are bringing in money into the system, dependency on this single type of revenue source is making conservation areas – or even the whole protected area system – vulnerable to changes in visitor numbers, which are prone to different political or socio-economic disturbances (such as conflicts, economic recession, and epidemics). A sudden substantial decrease in revenues or increase in costs may threaten the existence, extent, and quality of conservation areas in terms of biodiversity conservation. Collecting and analysing economic information on protected and conserved areas can help investigate their long-term sustainability and resilience to financial threats, such as the COVID-19 pandemic and related economic outcomes. In this thesis, I assess how conservation costs and revenues vary between different types of protected and conserved areas, how financially self-sufficient they are, and how economically resilient these areas may be in the face of global changes. The analysis is based on financial data from different types of protected and conserved areas in South Africa: state-owned national parks (South African National Parks, later SANParks), provincial parks (Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife, later Ezemvelo) and private conserved areas. With the use of simulation modelling and resilience theory, I discuss how potential economic resilience varies between protected areas. The findings indicate that there are significant differences in the cost-revenue structure of different kinds of protected and conserved areas, and especially between public and private. Ezemvelo receives most of its funds from the provincial government, whereas SANParks covers the majority of its costs from tourism revenues. Private game reserves again need to cover their costs independently. According to the findings, size is an important attribute to predict the per hectare net income and running costs of public protected areas but has no significant influence on those of private game reserves. For public protected areas, the running costs per hectare are significantly higher for protected areas less than 1000 hectares. Based on the economic modelling and resilience theory, I concluded that private game reserves are generally financially more viable, but their vulnerability lies in their lack of embeddedness within a larger system (e.g., a conservation organization) that could support them during difficult times and require and encourage a long-term commitment to conservation. The economic resilience of public protected areas is more closely tied to the political atmosphere regarding conservation funding: self-generated revenues form only a part of the budgets of public protected areas. In addition, protected areas which have large fixed costs and depend on high tourism revenues are likely to be less economically resilient. Because of the higher running costs and resultant sensitivity of net income to changes in costs and revenues, parks that are home to the “Big Five” species (lion, leopard, rhino, elephant and buffalo) are in a more vulnerable position in the face of disturbances, as the pandemic. To address the threats that upcoming socio-economic disturbances pose to the funding base of protected and conserved areas, more focus should be given to the economic resilience of these areas, especially in countries and occasions where the areas rely on self-generated revenues.
  • Kokkonen, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    European Union is a notable political actor that strives for governing and producing EU territory through spatial policies and planning. So far, spatial planning has been a technology to govern the terrestrial environment, but now marine space is seen as the new frontier of spatial planning. In 2014, EU has given a directive of maritime spatial planning (MSP), which aims to that every coastal member state had established spatial planning practices to their national marine areas by 2021 according to EU’s spatial agendas. The MSP has been looked at as a managerial tool helping to enhance the ecological condition of the seas, but not as a policy that produces spatiality. In this research, EU’s MSP policy is used as to research Europeanization of space in ‘EU’rope. The aim of this research is to interpret how understanding of ’EU’rope as a territorial entity is shaped through the structure of the maritime spatial planning policy and the meanings attached to it, in order to create a perception of the future development of EU and marine areas in general. The research is conducted from a social constructionist approach as an interpretive policy analysis. The concept of policy integration is in-built to MSP and is used as an indicator to Europeanization in this study. The policy integration effort is seen to steer social networks of actors that create the MSP in practice. Therefore, semi-structured theme interviews were conducted to the actors carrying out the MSP process in Finland. These actors’ understanding of the Finnish MSP is seen to construct ‘EU’ropean space in and through the domestic MSP process. Accordance with the hermeneutic traditions, comprehensive contextualization is conducted in this research in order to understand the maritime spatial planning policy. The research suggests that the spatiality and territoriality of marine areas produces different kind of planning practices than is seen in the terrestrial environment. The EU’s MSP policy is a policy tool for the EU territory, but at the same time, it is used as a tool to carry out domestic regional objectives as well. In Finland, the coastal Regions have benefitted from MSP and gained more power over the Finnish marine territories and the MSP may be used as to reinforce Regional planning. By adopting MSP policy, EU has changed the spatial governance structure of marine Europe. It has transformed heterogenic marine areas in Europe into single entity in order to be spatially governable by EU. These spaces have therefore been submitted under larger decision-making processes than before and EU is able to harness the national marine territories for the benefit of the whole Europe, and mainly due increasing economic growth in the territory. By means of policy integration efforts, the MSP creates new kinds of socio-spatial dimensions to Europe in where political bargaining over domestic marine spaces becomes a norm for the domestic maritime spatial planners. The research suggests that the territorial policy integration efforts reinforce the objectives of the EU directive in transnational collaboration, and this new platform of negotiation can be predicted to unify neighbouring domestic planning practices and goals in some extent.
  • Dok, Matilda Carol (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Abstract This thesis explores the everyday spatial practices in the gentrified and micro-segregated Eastleigh, Nairobi. Gentrification is one of the most important aspects of urban studies, as well as social geography contributing to significant socioeconomic changes in many metropolitan cities in the world. Although the emerging empirical studies indicate socioeconomic impacts of gentrification, less research has been conducted to examine social and economic interaction in gentrified spaces in the Global South. Additionally, there are limited studies on how cultural diversity influences gentrification. In the case of a diversified neighbourhood, such as Eastleigh, assessing the effects of culture on gentrification is significant. Therefore, this study aimed to see by observing and interviewing residents, whether the developments in Eastleigh can be analysed and interpreted through the theoretical framework of gentrification and micro-segregation. The study used descriptive research to build on literature and graphics to collect data on gentrification indicators and socioeconomic interactions. The qualitative part of the study entailed observation, questionnaire survey, and key Informant interviews, while quantitative analysis was based on the graphical presentation of data. The outcomes of the study strongly suggest that an increase in the housing variables, the influx of wealthy population, increased employment, and shift in consumption trends are the significant indicators of ongoing gentrification in Eastleigh. The empirical studies indicate that social interactions in gentrified spaces appear to be marginalized due to cultural differences that have a strong impact on social and economic agents. The review made similar observations regarding social interactions between the new-comers and the long-time residents. The results of the study also found out that the reason for social and economic inequalities among the residents and the gentrifies was cultural differences which hindered access to social and economic services. However, since this study is one of the initial studies on gentrification in Eastleigh, Nairobi, more and in-depth studies are recommended
  • Dovydaitis, Emily (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Finland and Estonia form a cross-border region in Europe. Unlike other cross-border regions, which share a land border with their neighbor, Finland and Estonia are separated by the Gulf of Finland. The distance is close enough to facilitate regular travel by ferry on a weekly or monthly basis, but for Estonian immigrants living in Finland, daily commutes are unlikely. Given that Finland is the top migration destination for Estonians, the cross-border region of Estonia-Finland poses an interesting case study. In this thesis, the integration and transnationalism of Estonians living in Finland are studied through a spatial mobility lens. First, a theoretical framework is proposed to facilitate empirical research. The framework jointly examines integration and transnationalism by partitioning them into separate domains: social, structural, cultural, civic & political, identity, and spatial. The aim of the framework is to narrow the socio-spatial gap in migration literature, by focusing on the interwoven nature of the social and spatial perspectives. Using data from a comprehensive survey about Estonian immigrants living in Finland, the proposed theoretical framework is operationalized for multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). Three MCA analyses are performed: 1) social integration with host society (Finland), 2) social transnationalism with the sending society (Estonia), and 3) spatial transnationalism between the host society (Finland) and the sending society (Estonia). MCA results show that transnationalism and integration vary both across and within domains. MCA results are connected to one another using correlation analysis and general linear model (GLM) analyses. Correlation analysis and GLM demonstrate that for the study population, integration in the host society and transnationalism with the sending society are inversely associated. This inverse relationship carries over into the spatial domain and can be seen based on which country an immigrant does certain activities (e.g., visiting family, working, accessing healthcare, enjoying leisure time). Immigrants with strong social connections to the host society are more likely to do activities in Finland whereas immigrants with strong social connections to the sending society are more likely to do activities in Estonia. Some immigrants exhibit a multilocal mobility pattern, in which they do activities equally in both Estonia and Finland.
  • Metsalo, Vilhelm (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The cooperation between Finland and Estonia is most visible in the collaboration between the capitals of the countries. The twin city development of Helsinki and Tallinn and the planned tunnel infrastructure between the cities have caused societal debates in both countries. The societal debate on the themes gained new importance when Estonia became part of the EU and NATO in 2004. The tunnel infrastructure connecting the cities became a major news topic from the mid-2010s onwards, and it was also an important part of news coverage regarding the cooperation between the countries. The progress of the public and private tunnel projects sparked interest in the major daily newspapers in both countries. The theoretical background of the thesis is based on the theories of cross-border cooperation, twin cities and spatial planning. The theoretical framework of the thesis revolves also around the strategic framing and anchor infrastructures used in the media as part of territorial cohesion. Discursive framing and regional branding in the media are both important parts of regional formation. The aim of the study was to find out the discourses used in framing the twin city and tunnel connection in the largest daily newspapers of Finland and Estonia. The conclusion of the dissertation is that geographical reality can be interpreted by studying discourses and societal significance. Media discourses convey a broader societal debate on the topics. The material of the study was articles in the online publications of Helsingin Sanomat and Postimees from 2004-2020. The study examined the articles according to the framework of content analysis and critical media discourse analysis. The study examined the forms of discursive framing through media discourses. Based on the data analysis, the tunnel infrastructure is a more newsworthy topic than the twin city. The tunnel plays an important role in shaping the discourses in the research material. The tunnel is framed as a foundational part of the twin city and wider regional context. The tunnel connection gains relevance by forming the area and enabling growth. Improving accessibility and connection to Central Europe are major parts of the Finnish tunnel discourse. Economic perspectives are part of the discourse in both journals. Major political actors in both countries, such as ministers and mayors, are most prominently present in the research material. Political agency is embodied in the framing of anchor infrastructure. The entry of the privately funded tunnel project in 2016 changes the themes of the articles. The private tunnel project is causing occasional opposition from countries’ politicians and officials, manifested in confrontation represented in the media. In Finland the criticism of the private project is focused on the alignment of the tunnel, whereas in Estonia on security policy concerns caused by foreign funding. The largest daily newspapers in Finland and Estonia serve as a platform for the societal debate. Their articles delimit and frame the topics of societal debate. The means of strategic framing and raising the news value of the topic become the focus of the research material as the media focuses more on the tunnel connection after the mid-2010s. The discursive framing of the twin city takes place through a tunnel infrastructure. The discursive framing that emerges in the media reflects the geographical significance of different actors.
  • Sallasmaa, Christa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The topic of this thesis is participatory budgeting and its connection to the discussion between neoliberalism and participatory governance in the context of city development. Helsinki started its own model of participatory budgeting in 2018 and has pledged to continue the concept in the future. I examine whether Helsinki’s participatory budgeting has the potential to support the ideologies of neoliberalism or participatory governance. In practice, I am exploring the views from the city government and active members of Helsinki’s neighborhood associations. Neighborhood associations had a significant role in the original participatory budgeting of Porto Alegre. I used interview and qualitative survey to collect my data. Neoliberalism has influenced the inequality between regions and the so-called crisis of democracy. Direct involvement of citizens is seen as a solution to these problems. Neoliberalism and participation have a paradoxical relationship: they have received similar criticism. In participatory governance participation means deliberative decision-making based on exchange of knowledge, but in neoliberalism participation can be a rhetoric tool to cover up actual decision-making or a city branding technique. Porto Alegre’s original model of participatory budgeting is seen as a part of participatory governance, but many of the international models seem to be more compatible with neoliberal ideology. The city government has not reserved enough resources to the participatory budgeting. The execution was rushed and showed signs of rationalization. According to the interview and the qualitative survey, inequality between regions might be the downfall of Helsinki’s participatory model. The active members of neighborhood associations see the benefits of participation budgeting but only from the perspective of certain regions. Currently, Helsinki’s participatory budgeting works better as a branding technique than as a method of decision-making. It seems to be more compatible with neoliberalism than participatory governance.
  • Mäntymaa, Eeva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis aims to examine the current regional identity of Jätkäsaari, a district of Helsinki, halfway of its construction phase. In the thesis I aim to find out, what are the most important factors in creating a regional identity for Jätkäsaari from the perspective of both the urban planners of the region and its residents. Moreover, I also sought to find out, how the regional identity of Jätkäsaari has been shaped in the planning phase of the district, and how the regional identity of Jätkäsaari has been modified by means of branding. In addition, the aim of the thesis is to find out how the residents of Jätkäsaari experience the identity of the area, and what factors make up regional identity. I interviewed three key experts for the thesis, who were substantially involved in the planning work of Jätkäsaari. In addition, I surveyed the opinions of Jätkäsaari residents on the topic by using a questionnaire published on Facebook. 80 people responded to the survey. The data was collected in the spring of 2019. The answers to the expert interviews and resident surveys are compared and used to find out, how the views of the residents and the planners relate to each other, and to determine the most important features of Jätkäsaari's regional identity. The results of the questionnaire show, that Jätkäsaari has clearly started to develop a distinctive identity. Maritimeity and the port's presence are important factors of the identity. However, Jätkäsaari is also designed as a clear extension to the city center of Helsinki. On the other hand, some residents of the area also perceive Jätkäsaari as its own territory and as an island that clearly stands out from the city center. Community spirit of Jätkäsaari has started to develop already from the early stage. Resident evenings have been popular from the beginning and there has been active discussion between the residents and the planners about the development of Jätkäsaari area.
  • Välimäki, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The goal of the Helsinki City Strategy for years 2017–2021 has been to make Helsinki the most functional city in the world. Strategy of functionality aim to improve economic attractiveness and competitiveness in Helsinki as one of its main objectives. In academic literature, regional competitiveness is connected to a wide range of different factors. However, common for many theories is an underlying idea of companies benefitting from functioning as part of a wider regional system. These benefits may relate a to better availability of labour and other specialized inputs but above all, to companies being able to make use of the knowledge located in the region. Company’s ability to utilize knowledge is linked especially to developing innovations that improve production. For cities, motivation to improve competitiveness lies in questions of employment and welfare. It can be linked to a development in which globalization and post industrialization have together led to a situation, where cities are considered to be competing on resources. This development can also be seen in a change in the role of city governments. In so called entrepreneurial cities, governments function as active agents aiming to mould cities into favourable platforms for entrepreneurship. However, despite the fact that companies are located in regional system they automatically do not have access into the benefits, such as knowledge. This brings importance to the networks of regional actors and to the manner of how they communicate through these networks. Academic literature gives evidence to an idea that besides examining only the dynamics between urban governments and companies, there should be research placed on how public and private actors exchange knowledge and how that interactions is experienced. The aim of this theses is to examine the interaction between a city and its entrepreneurs as one factor of a regional economic system. The knowledge gained is also hoped to benefit the city of Helsinki in developing its services. The research is done by examining the role of cities in entrepreneurship and the interaction between a city and its companies. Methodological perspective of this thesis is a case study. The case comprises the interaction that takes place in the permission and advisory services of the city of Helsinki, between the city of Helsinki and six private companies from the field of tourism and services. Helsinki City Strategy and one more economically profiled document are used to shed light to the role of urban government from the city of Helsinki point of view. Company perspective is gained from semi structured themed interviews with entrepreneurs, that have been clients of previously mentioned services of the city of Helsinki. Both documents and interviews are analysed by performing a theme analysis. From the entrepreneurship point of view, the current situation of the city of Helsinki aligns with the theory of an entrepreneurial city. Knowledge that companies need is mainly related to being able to understand what rules and structures effect their ability to function as a part of urban environment and to plan and implement ideas. Companies and the city of Helsinki share a common goal of building high quality urban environment that benefits all involved. However, there are also some identified challenges caused for example by different operating speed and difficulties in finding relevant information and knowledge. In general, knowledge accessibility appears to be one of the key factors in successful interaction between companies and the city. According to the results, knowledge accessibility is related to the ability to understand the structure of the city’s network of knowledge and actors. In addition to that, the type and quality of interaction is also considered important. How companies experience the interaction is related to how well the network is known and how fast the right people will find each other. Interaction that is defined by discussion and communication is viewed as effective and entrepreneur friendly. Based on the interviews there is evidence that effectivity of interaction might effect companies’ ability to run business and implement new ideas. To sum up, for companies good advising is considered to mean fast and clear answers, promoting to mean conversation, and enabling entrepreneurship to mean that companies are allowed to develop their businesses to meet the needs of their clientele. Hence, it seems important to remember that in addition to supporting the creation of innovation it is also important that efficient governance enables companies to implement their ideas.
  • Saarinen, Eemi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    This Master’s thesis addresses perceived insecurity in socio-economically segregated districts in Helsinki surrounding metro stations. Helsinki has long been in a cycle of segregation, and news of street violence and youth gangs have caused concern. This thesis focuses on perceived insecurity, which can be caused by many factors, including physical environment and presence of other people. Segregation is a phenomenon with several causes and consequences. Segregation has often thought to be a delayed, regional consequence of economic inequality in society. Segregation can also be driven by the negative spiral in neighborhoods and the associated relocations of affluent population. In Helsinki, segregation is moderate compared to the global scale, but several studies have shown that disadvantage is localized in the eastern parts of Helsinki. Perceived insecurity is a holistic experience involving cognitive functions and risk theories. Insecurity can be experienced, for example, in terms of the characteristics of the physical environment: open spaces without social control or crowded spaces which obstruct escape routes can cause insecurity. In addition, individual factors, other people’s behavior in the space, and surveillance can affect perceived insecurity. The thesis has two research questions. In the first research question, the issues causing perceived insecurity in Lauttasaari, Herttoniemi and Mellunkylä are investigated. The reason for the selection of these districts as target areas is socio-economic diversity and proximity of metro stations, which may have an impact on perceived insecurity. The results of a security survey conducted in Helsinki serve as data related to insecurity. The second research question examines how urban planning and the characteristics of the built environment affect insecurity in the target areas. The data used for this research question are planning documents and photographs taken in the target areas. The results show large regional differences in perceived insecurity. Lauttasaari is perceived as the safest area and Mellunkylä as the least safe area, with Herttoniemi in between. In Lauttasaari, the main concerns are reduction of green areas and traffic behavior. In Herttoniemi, social problems are significantly more of a concern than in Lauttasaari. In Mellunkylä, many are concerned about, for example, intercultural conflicts, street violence and youth gangs. The different responses of the target areas may be explained by the socio-economic differences between the areas. Based on the planning documents, the aim is to improve especially the status of Mellunkylä: The aim is to create a new center in the area surrounding Mellunmäki metro station. Mellunkylä is also involved in the urban renewal project within the housing & land use implementation program concucted by the city of Helsinki. Actions targeting socio-economically weaker regions may reduce segregation and the associated regional disparities in perceived insecurity. According to the results of the photography tour, elements of the physical environment causing insecurity were found in almost all the metro station surroundings. Such elements include, for example, narrow underpasses, blocks without round-the-clock use and signs of vandalism. Helsinki is perceived as a fairly safe city, but regional differences are considerable. Measures to prevent segregation and the resulting insecurity must be aimed at preventing socio-economic disparities at the macro level by closing income disparities and raising the profile of deprived neighborhoods. At the micro level, insecurity can be prevented by improving the quality of the built environment where it is weak. However, the causes and consequences of segregation and insecurity are complex and actions need to be tailored to the local context.
  • Kukkola, Henna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Suomalaiset lähiöt sijoittuvat kaupunkien keskustojen laidoille. Ne ovat keskenään erinäköisiä, eri ikäisiä ja keskenään hyvin erilaista kaupunkiympäristöä. Siitä huolimatta termi ”lähiö” tuo meille jokaiselle mielikuvan juuri tietyntyyppisestä alueesta erityispiirteineen. Tämän tutkielman tarkoituksena oli tarkastella sitä, millaisista elementeistä lähiömäinen kaupunkiympäristö mielikuvissa muodostuu sekä sitä, miten se poikkeaa erityisesti kantakaupunkimaisesta ympäristöstä. Lähiöitä on tutkittu Suomessa vuosikymmeniä. Lähiöt ovat kiinnostaneet ja herättäneet keskustelua ensimmäisten lähiöiden valmistumisesta saakka. Tämä keskustelu on vaikuttanut mielikuviimme lähiöstä sekä siihen, miten itse niistä puhumme. Lähiöiden suunnittelussa aikanaan tapahtuneet virheet johtivat paikoittain rakenteellisiin ja sosiaalisiin ongelmiin, joiden takia esimerkiksi sanomalehdissä uutisoitiin pitkään lähiöiden ongelmista niiden asukkaiden todellisia kokemuksia sen enempää kuulematta. Asukkaat itse viihtyivät alueillaan ja yrittivät vaikuttaa lähiöiden negatiivisiin imagoihin muun muassa yleisöpalstojen kirjoitusten kautta. Yhdessä nämä puhetavat ovat antaneet lähiöille maineen, joka kaikuu jo lähiö-termissä itsessään. 2000-luvulla alueellinen eriytyminen on paikoittain syventänyt lähiöiden ongelmia. Samalla lähiöiden määrän kasvu on tuonut ne kaupungin laidoilta lähemmäs arkikokemuksiamme. Kaikki tämä näkyy siinä, miten ihmiset lähiöitä mielikuvissaan rakentavat. Mielikuvia päätettiin lähteä tutkimaan laadullisia tutkimusmenetelmiä hyödyntäen. Huomio haluttiin kiinnittää mielikuvien muodostumiseen, jota tutkimukseen vastaajien toivottiin kuvailevan mahdollisimman vapaasti, mutta kattavasti. Mielikuvien tarkastelua varten laadittiin kyselylomake, joka jaettiin huhtikuussa 2022 sosiaalisen median kautta kaikkien aiheesta kiinnostuneiden vastattavaksi. Lomakkeella selvitettiin vastaajien mielikuvia sekä lähiömäisestä kaupunkiympäristöstä että kantakaupunkimaisesta ympäristöstä. Vastauksia kerättiin sekä vastaajien omin sanoin, että luokittelemalla ympäristöä eri kategorioihin ja pyytämällä vastaajia ottamaan kantaa juuri niiden luonteeseen. Lisäksi haluttiin selvittää vastaajien henkilökohtaista suhdetta lähiöön. Kyselyn aineisto käsiteltiin sisällönanalyysiä hyödyntäen. Tutkimuksessa tunnistettiin tärkeimpiä lähiöön liitettäviä mielikuvia. Vastaajat mielsivät muun muassa ilmeeltään yhtenäisten asuinkerrostalojen, ostoskeskusten, lähiluonnon, ulkoilumaastojen, henkilöautopainotteisen liikenteen sekä ystävällisten, kylämäisessä yhteisössä asuvien ihmisten muodostavan lähiöihin kuuluvia ympäristön kulmakiviä. Vastauksista on tunnistettavissa selvä ero kantakaupunkimaisen ympäristön ja lähiömäisen kaupunkiympäristön herättämien mielikuvien välillä. Samalla vastauksista kävi ilmi, että vastaajat käsittävät lähiön identiteettiä sen suhteen kautta, joka lähiöllä on kantakaupunkiin. Vastaajat ymmärsivät lähiön riippuvuuden kaupungista ja vertasivat lähiömäisen kaupunkiympäristön yksityiskohtia kantakaupunkimaiseen. Piirteet, joissa näiden välinen ero oli suurin, olivat vastaajien mielikuvissa lähiöille kaikkien tunnusmaisimpia. Vastaajat eivät pitäneet lähiötä urbaanina, kaupunkimaisena ympäristönä, mutta eivät myöskään maalaismaisena. Lähiö sijoittuu kyselyyn vastanneiden mielikuvissa näiden maailmojen välimaastoon alueeksi, jolla on näistä molemmista irrallinen, oma identiteettinsä.
  • Bergström, Karoliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    School environments have become increasingly challenging due to segregation in cities, escalating social problems and multiculturisation. The challenges do not emerge only in classrooms but are also reflected more widely to the school communities and surrounding areas. The growing challenges raise a question whether a school’s role could be extended from an educational institution to a more versatile node of services that supports not only children’s learning but also all residents’ wellbeing and lifelong learning in the neighbourhood. In this study I examine a school’s local role in increasing social capital, sense of community, inclusion and trust in its neighbourhood and I analyse how a community building, where the school is placed, could take a supportive role in it. The thesis is a case study of a Finnish multicultural urban neighbourhood where a new community building was opened a few years ago. The community building houses a school, daycare, library, youth centre and social- and health services. I take an institutional approach in the study and I interview five institutional actors representing the school and the city. The study material consists of these interviews and of a recording given to me by one of my interviewee who had interviewed other school representatives before my study. In the analysis part, I use a case analysis method, which sheds light not only on the policies and functional practices of the school and the community building but also on the challenges they face. Even as one case study, the knowledge gained from it can be viewed in a wider context in order to understand the functioning of school communities and to take part in discussing the operational school environments. The main results of the study indicate that the interviewed school and city representatives perceive the school as a larger local actor rather than only as an educational institution. The representatives see that the school is an important actor in building sense of community, inclusion and trust in the wider neighbourhood and also believe that it reflects its conventions and values to the whole community. Central finding in the thesis is also the interviewees’ common view that the community building and its versatile services strongly support the school in delivering education, wellbeing and assistance for children, families and all residents of the community. The school and community building are also regarded as important domains of integration for the people with an immigrant background to the Finnish society. A school represents one the most central institutions of the society and it reaches whole families due to compulsory education. Therefore, it works as a natural platform for integrating services and assistance not only for children but also for adults. The main challenges that the school and community building face in its functioning and in creating a wider local role were mentioned to be segregation with its negative side effects and policies made in the city level that do not fit as such to the neighbourhood’s local context. This study takes part in the discussion of segregation in cities and growing spatial inequality with their negative impacts on people’s wellbeing and on equal opportunities. This negative trajectory will also lead to malfunctioning of cities and the wider society. The results of this study provide insights to the question, whether a community building as a concept could be a solution in school and spatial development and in urban neighborhood improvement. A community building that supports a school in taking a stronger local role and working as a node of services for education, hobbies, leisure and assistance can possibly improve people’s everyday lives and wellbeing in the whole society.
  • Viertola, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Pastoral livelihoods are currently changing in Kenya. Economic, societal and environmental development of the country has led to increased standard of living and demand of livestock products in the markets. The rising demand to contribute to food production puts pressure on pastoralist production, while keeping livestock is becoming more challenging due to changes in land use, commercialisation and climate change. Pastoralists are at crossroads, in which they should adapt to the mentioned changes through options such as sedentarisation and livelihood diversification while taking gender into account. Pastoralists are relatively vulnerable due to being a socially marginalized group in Kenya and several development actors are now focusing their projects on pastoralists in order to support them in adaptation. However, Mausch et al. (2021) have argued that development projects often neglect the needs of the target group. Including the target group’s opinions and aspirations to project objectives can lead to more inclusive and sustainable outcomes. ESSA - Earth observation and environmental sensing for climate-smart sustainable agropastoral ecosystem transformation in East Africa is an example of a development project which could benefit from acknowledging target group’s aspirations. Within the systemic change of pastoralism it is crucial to look more deeply at separate pastoral communities. Pastoralism is connected to environment, culture and history which vary between locations, thus they cannot be categorised as a homogeneous group. However, most pastoral communities share the traditional labour division between women and men. In patriarchal pastoral communities women have traditionally been responsible for work labelled as reproduction. Pastoral women have not had the same opportunities in life or representation in society as pastoral men or women in urban areas which puts them in a doubly marginalised position. In this study I combine mapping livelihood aspirations of women and exploring womanhood in the context of pastoralism. The choice to focus on pastoral women’s livelihood aspirations is influenced by the field of feminist geography, the lack of information on pastoral womanhood, the ESSA project and my personal interest towards strengthening the position of women in Global South. The aim of this research is to explore livelihood aspirations of six pastoral Maasai women in Taveta Sub-County, Kenya. Additionally, I am searching for possible connections between the aspirations and the women’s current positions and roles. This research also contributes to the ESSA project by providing information on pastoral womanhood and women’s opinions towards beekeeping, because ESSA’s women-related objectives include livelihood diversification through beekeeping. Feminist geography materialises through aims to broaden the understanding of lives of women, who have traditionally not gained attention in science. This work also includes extensive self-reflection of my position as the researcher, which is instrumental in feminist geography. The research material was collected through fieldwork which took place in six households close to Salaita Hill and Lake Jipe. The research methods were participative observation and semi-structured interviews which were executed with the support of two translators. The research material consists of field diary, in which I report what I observed, interview transcriptions and ESSA’s project paper. In this research I represented the women’s future livelihood aspirations as the women expressed them, and analysed the type of aspirations. The women wanted to continue pastoralism, although most of them were also interested in diversifying their livelihoods to farming, business and casual labour. The women knew relatively little about beekeeping, and the main message from the interviews was that these Maasai women are afraid of bees. Thus, they were not interested in beekeeping as livelihood. From the field diary and interview transcriptions I interpreted that there were connections between the livelihood aspirations, pastoral culture and its patriarchal characteristics, which determine women’s thoughts. Additionally, it seemed that casual work and lack of education might affect the livelihood aspirations. However, the conclusions of this research are not objective because they are interpretations affected by my subjective positionality as the researcher.
  • Karhu, Teemu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Suomea pidetään ensisijaisesti luontomatkailun kohteena. Luonnon vetovoiman merkitys kuitenkin vaihtelee niin tutkimusten kuin kansallisuuksien ja yksilöidenkin välillä. Matkailun vetovoimakohtaista kysyntää on tutkittu muun muassa haastattelututkimuksin, mutta perinteisillä tutkimusmenetelmillä tarkasteltuna vetovoiman kysynnän ja tarjonnan spatiaalista kohtaamista ei ole voitu selvittää. Uudet, suuriin tietomassoihin perustuvat tutkimusmenetelmät mahdollistavat kokonaan uudenlaisen tutkimuksen. Matkaviestinten käytöstä syntyvät lokitiedot muodostavat tietolähteen, johon perustuen matkaviestinlaitteen käyttäjiä voidaan jäljittää sekä ajassa että paikassa. Matkaviestimet toimivat potentiaalisena aineistolähteenä matkailututkimukselle erityisesti matkailijoiden reittien ja preferenssien esiin tuojana. Matkailun kokemukset luovat ihmisille mielihyvää ja tyytyväisyyden tunnetta. Kokemus nähdään matkailussa arvon tuottajana. Arvon yhdessä luonnin teorian mukaan hyödykkeen arvo on asiakkaan siitä saama käyttöarvo. Arvontuottoon vaikuttaa asiakkaan motivaatio, joka matkailussa vertautuu ihmisen henkilökohtaisiin tarpeisiin ja näkyy kiinnostuksena matkakohteeseen. Kohteen valinta omien mielenkiinnon kohteiden perusteella edesauttaa arvonluonnissa. Millä tavalla matkailijoiden todelliset reitit ja vetovoimatekijät kohtaavat? Voiko reittivalinnoista nähdä, että ihmiset matkustavat omien mielenkiinnonkohteidensa mukaisesti? Tutkimuksessa analysoidaan ulkomaisten matkailijoiden käyttämiä matkareittejä Suomessa suhteessa matkailun vetovoimatekijöihin. Vetovoimatekijöiden luokitus perustuu Suomen matkailun aluerakennetutkimukseen. Visit Finlandin matkailijasegmentointi tuo esiin matkailijoiden mielenkiinnon kohteet. Matkailijoiden reitit pohjautuvat DNA Oyj:n matkaviestinaineistoihin. Analyysin perusteella matkailijoiden reitit kohtaavat luonnonvetovoimaisimmat kohteet heikosti, mikä johtuu pääosin matkailun kaupunkikeskeisyydestä. Kohtaavuus reittien ja muiden vetovoimaluokkien välillä on luonnonvetovoimaa parempi. Tulosten perusteella on syytä pohtia, onnistuuko matkailumarkkinointi viestimään ja kohdistamaan viestinsä oikein, ja ymmärretäänkö viesti oikein. Heikko kohtaavuus henkilökohtaisten toiveiden ja todellisuudessa tapahtuneen matkailun välillä indikoi heikkoa arvontuottoa ja sitä kautta matalaa todennäköisyyttä suositella Suomea matkakohteena tai matkustaa uudelleen Suomeen.
  • Oikarinen, Inka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In recent decades there has been a revival of customs and traditions among several indigenous Amazonian peoples, one feature of which is the strengthening of many shamanic practices repressed and partially abandoned under colonial rule. For the Yawanawa people of Acre, Brazil, annual cultural festivals have become a prominent symbol of cultural revitalization. Festivals enable an international audience to experience a live tradition in the form of song, dance, games, art and crafts as well as shamanic rituals and substances. In the context of shamanic ritual, the terms medicine and healing are some of the prominent discourses through which shamanic networks connect and alliances are created between visitors and the Yawanawa. The present study looks at the understandings of health and wellbeing of non-indigenous persons participating in contemporary shamanic networks in Amazonia. The aim of the study is to describe how knowledge of Yawanawa shamanic practices affects understandings of health, sickness and healing. My research questions are: 1) What are the meanings assigned to health and illness in Amazonian sociophilosophies and those of the Yawanawa people? 2) How do Western people practicing Amazonian shamanism perceive health and illness, and how do their understandings relate to those present in Yawanawa shamanism? 3) What constitute the main elements of healing in Yawanawa shamanism? My primary research data consists of six thematic interviews with non-indigenous people practicing and studying Yawanawa shamanism. I will employ two theoretical approaches to frame the analysis. The study locates in medical anthropology which examines concepts around health, illness and healing and their cultural and social diversity. I will refer to the framework of subjective theories of health by Schmid (2010, 2011) to view individual health-related understandings as subjective meaning-making frameworks that resemble but are not reduced to scientific medical theories. Indigenous relational philosophies of health comprise the second theoretical framework, through which the Yawanawa medical system and shamanism will be understood as consisting of the creation and management of harmonious relationships with both human and nonhuman actors. Literature review represents Amazonian shamanism as an interconnected world with a visible and invisible side. Health for indigenous peoples is based on a relational cosmovision where principles of right relationship and reciprocity are recreated at social, ecological and cosmological levels. Wellbeing is a co-created, shared resource as well as the result of successful negotiation with nonhuman beings with potentially conflicting interests. For the Yawanawa, health is defined through the balanced relations of bodies and souls that constitute a human person, as well as creating a distinct Yawanawa identity through embodied means. Traditional Yawanawa shamanism equally relies on the transformation of the body and its different capacities through removal and adding of substances. More recently, the changes occurring in Amazonian shamanic practices have been characterized by increased interconnectedness and exchange on a global level with an increase in shamanic tourism and neo-shamanic movements alongside the practice of indigenous shamanism. Non-local neo-shamanic activities, such as the ritual consumption of ayahuasca for self-healing, have been criticized as reflecting a western, individualistic worldview that does not recognize the relational, intersubjective dimensions of shamanism. Similarly, the elements of Amazonian shamanism undergo a translation that includes the medicalization and commercialization of ayahuasca as well as a tendency to psychologize shamanic experiences with nonhumans. Analysis of the interview data shows that the understandings of health of shamanic practitioners reflect a relational worldview that shares several elements with indigenous socio-philosophies of health. For the study participants, shamanism offers an alternative worldview and framework for understanding wellbeing compared to that of biomedicine characterized by scientific reductionism. A central effect of maintaining relational conceptions of health can be seen in an expanded view of the determinants of health. Individual wellbeing is defined holistically as the balance between the physical, psychological, social and spiritual dimensions of a person. At the same time consideration of elements and actors affecting health is spread horizontally to include relations between individual and their social and intergenerational ties, as well as ecological ties to the nonhuman world which includes other species as well as invisible beings of the spirit world. There is an individualistic orientation present whereby individual responsibility and autonomy are considered as important determinants of wellbeing. Interviewees also recognize some differences between their views and those of the Yawanawa regarding the agency of nonhuman beings. However, the study concludes that practicing and studying shamanism is not merely an egoistic pursuit for the study participants, but increased understanding of the principles of Amazonian shamanism and worldviews shows in an expanded awareness of relational ties in both shamanic cosmology as well as in interpersonal ties with the Yawanawa and Amazonian peoples. This is also reflected in the way the elements of healing in shamanism are understood as containing both subjective and intersubjective elements.