Browsing by Subject "L."

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  • Mgbeahuruike, Eunice Ego; Fyhrquist, Pia; Vuorela, Heikki; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Holm, Yvonne (2018)
    Piper guineense is a food and medicinal plant commonly used to treat infectious diseases in West-African traditional medicine. In a bid to identify new antibacterial compounds due to bacterial resistance to antibiotics, twelve extracts of P. guineense fruits and leaves, obtained by sequential extraction, as well as the piperine and piperlongumine commercial compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. HPLC-DAD and UHPLC/Q-TOF MS analysis were conducted to characterize and identify the compounds present in the extracts with promising antibacterial activity. The extracts, with the exception of the hot water decoctions and macerations, contained piperamide alkaloids as their main constituents. Piperine, dihydropiperine, piperylin, dihydropiperylin or piperlonguminine, dihydropiperlonguminine, wisanine, dihydrowisanine and derivatives of piperine and piperidine were identified in a hexane extract of the leaf. In addition, some new piperamide alkaloids were identified, such as a piperine and a piperidine alkaloid derivative and two unknown piperamide alkaloids. To the best of our knowledge, there are no piperamides reported in the literature with similar UV absorption maxima and masses. A piperamide alkaloid-rich hexane leaf extract recorded the lowest MIC of 19 mu g/mL against Sarcina sp. and gave promising growth inhibitory effects against S. aureus and E. aerogenes as well, inhibiting the growth of both bacteria with a MIC of 78 mu g/mL. Moreover, this is the first report of the antibacterial activity of P. guineense extracts against Sarcina sp. and E. aerogenes. Marked growth inhibition was also obtained for chloroform extracts of the leaves and fruits against P. aeruginosa with a MIC value of 78 mu g/mL. Piperine and piperlongumine were active against E. aerogenes, S. aureus, E. coli, S. enterica, P. mirabilis and B. cereus with MIC values ranging from 39-1250 mu g/mL. Notably, the water extracts, which were almost devoid of piperamide alkaloids, were not active against the bacterial strains. Our results demonstrate that P. guineense contains antibacterial alkaloids that could be relevant for the discovery of new natural antibiotics.
  • Kapp, Karmen; Orav, Anne; Roasto, Mati; Raal, Ain; Püssa, Tõnu; Vuorela, Heikki; Tammela, Päivi; Vuorela, Pia (2020)
    Mint flavorings are widely used in confections, beverages, and dairy products. For the first time, mint flavoring composition of mint candies and food supplements (n=45), originating from 16 countries, as well as their antibacterial properties, was analyzed. The flavorings were isolated by Marcussons type micro-apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS. The total content of the mint flavoring hydrodistilled extracts was in the range of 0.01-0.9%. The most abundant compounds identified in the extracts were limonene, 1,8-cineole, menthone, menthofuran, isomenthone, menthol and its isomers, menthyl acetate. The antimicrobial activity of 13 reference substances and 10 selected mint flavoring hydrodistilled extracts was tested on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by broth dilution method. Linalool acetate and (-)-carvone, as most active against both bacteria, had the lowest MIC (90) values. (+)-Menthyl acetate, (-)-menthyl acetate, and limonene showed no antimicrobial activity. Three of the tested extracts had antimicrobial activity against E. coli and 8 extracts against S. aureus . Their summary antimicrobial activity was not always in concordance with the activities of respective reference substances.
  • Bublyk, Olena M.; Andreev, Igor O.; Kalendar, Ruslan; Spiridonova, Kateryna V.; Kunakh, Viktor A. (2013)
  • Khazaei, Hamid; Purves, Randy W.; Hughes, Jessa; Link, Wolfgang; O'Sullivan, Donal M.; Schulman, Alan H.; Bjornsdotter, Emilie; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Nadzieja, Marcin; Andersen, Stig U.; Stougaard, Jens; Vandenberg, Albert; Stoddard, Frederick L. (2019)
    Background: Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds are an excellent source of plant-based protein. In spite of the vast nutritional and environmental benefits provided by faba bean cultivation, its use as a food crop has been restricted, primarily due to the presence of the pyrimidine glycosides vicine and convicine (v-c). Ingestion of v-c can cause favism in individuals with a genetically inherited deficiency in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). In monogastric animals, v-c can cause decreased feeding efficiency. The elimination of these glucosides is a goal of most faba bean breeding programs worldwide. Scope and approach: Our review focuses on the current genetic, molecular and biochemical knowledge surrounding the accumulation of v-c in faba beans. The gap between the current knowledge and what remains unknown is discussed. This review also explores historical and obscure information on v-c in faba bean. Key findings and conclusions: A low-v-c faba bean line was identified in the 1980s and this trait has been introduced into several modern cultivars. It has been shown that low-v-c faba beans are safe for G6PD-deficient individuals. A robust molecular marker is now available for marker-assisted breeding to reduce levels of v-c. The biosynthetic pathway of v-c is not yet understood and is currently under investigation. An international coordinated effort, led by the authors of this paper, is making progress towards full elucidation of the pathway. Further efforts in this direction could lead to lower levels of these compounds than the current low v-c genotypes offer, perhaps even complete elimination.
  • Keinanen, Marja; Kakela, Reijo; Ritvanen, Tiina; Myllyla, Timo; Ponni, Jukka; Vuorinen, Pekka J. (2017)
    Sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and small herring (Clupea harengus) are the dominant prey fish of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Baltic Sea. If the fatty acid (FA) proportions of sprat and herring differ, the dietary history of ascending salmon could be determined from their FA profiles. Therefore, we investigated the FA composition of several age groups of whole sprat and small herring, caught from the three main feeding areas of salmon in autumn and spring. Oleic acid (18: 1n-9) was the most prevalent FA in sprat and characteristic of this species. In herring, palmitic acid (16: 0) was the most common FA, but herring lipid was characterized by n-6 polyunsaturated FAs, and moreover, by palmitoleic acid (16: 1n-7) and vaccenic acid (18: 1n-7). Due to the higher lipid content of sprat, the concentrations of all other FAs, excluding these, were higher in sprat than in herring. The concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22: 6n-3) increased with an increase in the lipid content and was consequently highest in the youngest specimens, being in young sprat almost double that of young herring, and 2.6 times higher in the sprat biomass than in that of herring. As a result of a decrease in the DHA concentration with age, the ratio thiamine/DHA increased with respect to age in both species, and was lower in sprat than in herring. It is concluded that an abundance of DHA in the diet of salmon most likely increases oxidative stress because of the susceptibility of DHA to peroxidation, and thus decreases thiamine resources of fasting, prespawning salmon. Because the FA composition of sprat and herring differs, and the relative abundancies of prey fish differ between the feeding areas of salmon, the feeding area of ascending salmon can most probably be derived by comparing their FA profiles.
  • Pohjanmies, Tähti; Elshibli, Sakina; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Rusanen, Mari; Vakkari, Pekka; Korpelainen, Helena; Roslin, Tomas (2016)
    Populations at species' range margins are expected to show lower genetic diversity than populations at the core of the range. Yet, long-lived, widespread tree species are expected to be resistant to genetic impoverishment, thus showing comparatively high genetic diversity within populations and low differentiation among populations. Here, we study the distribution of genetic variation in the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) at its range margin in Finland at two hierarchical scales using 15 microsatellite loci. At a regional scale, we compared variation within versus among three oak populations. At a landscape scale, we examined genetic structuring within one of these populations, growing on an island of ca 5 km(2). As expected, we found the majority of genetic variation in Q. robur to occur within populations. Nonetheless, differentiation among populations was markedly high (F-ST = 0.12) compared with values reported for populations of Q. robur closer to the core of its range. At the landscape level, some spatial and temporal sub-structuring was observed, likely explained by the history of land-use on the island. Overall, Q. robur fulfils the expectation of the central-marginal hypothesis of high differentiation among marginal populations, but the notable population differentiation has most likely been influenced also by the long, ongoing fragmentation of populations. Finnish oak populations may still be adjusting to the drastic habitat changes of the past centuries. Preservation of genetic variation within the remaining stands is thus an important factor in the conservation of Q. robur at its range margin.
  • Khazaei, Hamid; Wach, Damian; Pecio, Alicja; Vandenberg, Albert; Stoddard, Frederick L. (2019)
    Increasing productivity through improvement of photosynthesis in faba bean breeding programmes requires understanding of the genetic control of photosynthesis-related traits. Hence, we investigated the gene action of leaf area, gas exchange traits, canopy temperature, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and biomass. We chose inbred lines derived from cultivars 'Aurora' (Sweden) and 'Melodie' (France) along with an Andean accession, ILB 938, crossed them (Aurora/2 x Melodie/2, ILB 938/2 x Aurora/2 and Melodie/2 x ILB 938/2), and prepared the six standard generations for quantitative analysis (P-1, P-2, F-1, F-2, B-1, and B-2). Gene action was complex for each trait, involving additive and dominance gene actions and interactions. Additive gene action was important for SPAD, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and F-v/F-m. Dominance effect was important for biomass production. It is suggested that breeders selecting for productivity can maximize genetic gain by selecting early generations for canopy temperature, SPAD and F-v/F-m, then later generations for biomass. The information on genetics of various contributing traits of photosynthesis will assist plant breeders in choosing an appropriate breeding strategy for enhancing productivity in faba bean.
  • Reed, Thomas E.; Prodohl, Paulo; Bradley, Caroline; Gilbey, John; McGinnity, Philip; Primmer, Craig R.; Bacon, Philip J. (2019)
    While evolutionary responses require heritable variation, estimates of heritability (h(2)) from wild fish populations remain rare. A 20-year molecular pedigree for a wild Scottish population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was used to investigate genetic contributions to (co) variation in two important, correlated, phenotypic traits: "sea age" (number of winters spent at sea prior to spawning) and size-at-maturity (body length just prior to spawning). Sea age was strongly heritable (h(2) = 0.51) and size exhibited moderate heritability (h(2) = 0.27). A very strong genetic correlation (r(G) = 0.96) between these traits implied the same functional loci must underpin variation in each. Indeed, body size within sea ages had much lower heritability that did not differ significantly from zero. Thus, within wild S. salar populations, temporal changes in sea age composition could reflect evolutionary responses, whereas rapid changes of body size within sea ages are more likely due to phenotypic plasticity. These inheritance patterns will influence the scope of evolutionary responses to factors such as harvest or climate change and, hence, have management implications for salmonid populations comprising a mix of sea ages.
  • El Omari, Nasreddine; Akkaoui, Sanae; El Blidi, Omar; Ghchime, Rokia; Bouyahya, Abdelhakim; Kharbach, Mourad; Yagoubi, Maamar; Balahbib, Abdelaali; Chokairi, Omar; Barkiyou, Malika (2020)
    The present study aimed to determine the phenolic compounds of Arislolochia Ion& root extracts and to evaluate their antibacterial activities on multiresistant strains. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, and alkaloids. The HPLC-DAD analysis of A. longa extracts showed the presence of several major bioactive compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, citric acid, and quinic acid. The agar diffusion method was used for the sensitivity test, while minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration values were determined by microdilution assay. Different tests were carried out on 3 clinical multiresistant strains and 3 reference strains. The diameter of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 induced by the ethyl acetate fraction at 200 mg/mL was 25 +/- 1 mm. Moreover, Escherichia coli ATCC 29522 showed a great sensitivity toward all the concentrations tested. The MICs of the active extracts vary between 12.5 and 100 mg/mL with a bacteriostatic effect on Pseudomonas aemginosa ATCC 27853, Enterococcus faecalis, and S. aureus ATCC 25923.
  • Whitlock, Rebecca; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Palm, Stefan; Koljonen, Marja-Liisa; Dannewitz, Johan; Östergren, Johan (2018)
    1. Inferring the dynamics of populations in time and space is a central challenge in ecology. Intra-specific structure (for example genetically distinct sub-populations or meta-populations) may require methods that can jointly infer the dynamics of multiple populations. This is of particular importance for harvested species, for which management must balance utilization of productive populations with protection of weak ones. 2. Here we present a novel method for simultaneous learning about the spatio-temporal dynamics of multiple populations that combines genetic data with prior information about abundance and movement, akin to an integrated population modelling approach. We apply the Bayesian genetic mixed stock analysis to 17 wild and 10 hatchery-reared Baltic salmon (S. salar) stocks, quantifying uncertainty in stock composition in time and space, and in population dynamics parameters such as migration timing and speed. 3. The genetic data were informative about stock-specific movement patterns, updating priors for migration path, timing and speed. Use of a population dynamics model allowed robust interpolation of expected catch composition at areas and times with no genetic observations. Our results indicate that the commonly used "equal prior probabilities" assumption may not be appropriate for all mixed stock analyses: incorporation of prior information about stock abundance and movement resulted in more plausible and precise estimates of mixture compositions in time and space. 4. The model we present here forms the basis for optimizing the spatial and temporal allocation of harvest to support the management of mixed populations of migratory species.
  • Mwaipopo, Beatrice; Rajamäki, Minna Liisa; Ngowi, Neema; Nchimbi-Msolla, Susan; Njau, Paul J.R.; Valkonen, Jari P.T.; Mbanzibwa, Deusdedith R. (2021)
    Viral diseases are a major threat for common bean production. According to recent surveys, >15 different viruses belonging to 11 genera were shown to infect common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Tanzania. Virus management requires an understanding of how viruses survive from one season to the next. During this study, we explored the possibility that alternative host plants have a central role in the survival of common bean viruses. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques to sequence virus-derived small interfering RNAs together with conventional reverse-transcription PCRs (RT-PCRs) to detect viruses in wild plants. Leaf samples for RNA extraction and NGS were collected from 1,430 wild plants around and within common bean fields in four agricultural zones in Tanzania. At least partial genome sequences of viruses potentially belonging to 25 genera were detected. The greatest virus diversity was detected in the eastern and northern zones, whereas wild plants in the Lake zone and especially in the southern highlands zone showed only a few viruses. The RT-PCR analysis of all collected plant samples confirmed the presence of yam bean mosaic virus and peanut mottle virus in wild legume plants. Of all viruses detected, only two viruses, cucumber mosaic virus and a novel bromovirus related to cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and brome mosaic virus, were mechanically transmitted from wild plants to common bean plants. The data generated during this study are crucial for the development of viral disease management strategies and predicting crop viral disease outbreaks in different agricultural regions in Tanzania and beyond.
  • Plis, Kamila; Niedzialkowska, Magdalena; Borowik, Tomasz; Lang, Johannes; Heddergott, Mike; Tiainen, Juha; Bunevich, Aleksey; Sprem, Nikica; Paule, Ladislav; Danilkin, Aleksey; Kholodova, Marina; Zvychaynaya, Elena; Kashinina, Nadezhda; Pokorny, Bostjan; Flajsman, Katarina; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Djan, Mihajla; Ristic, Zoran; Novak, Lubos; Kusza, Szilvia; Miller, Christine; Tsaparis, Dimitris; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Shkvyria, Maryna; Suchentrunk, Franz; Kutal, Miroslav; Lavadinovic, Vukan; Snjegota, Dragana; Krapal, Ana-Maria; Danila, Gabriel; Veeroja, Rauno; Dulko, Elzbieta; Jedrzejewska, Bogumila (2022)
    To provide the most comprehensive picture of species phylogeny and phylogeography of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), we analyzed mtDNA control region (610 bp) of 1469 samples of roe deer from Central and Eastern Europe and included into the analyses additional 1541 mtDNA sequences from GenBank from other regions of the continent. We detected two mtDNA lineages of the species: European and Siberian (an introgression of C. pygargus mtDNA into C. capreolus). The Siberian lineage was most frequent in the eastern part of the continent and declined toward Central Europe. The European lineage contained three clades (Central, Eastern, and Western) composed of several haplogroups, many of which were separated in space. The Western clade appeared to have a discontinuous range from Portugal to Russia. Most of the haplogroups in the Central and the Eastern clades were under expansion during the Weichselian glacial period before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), while the expansion time of the Western clade overlapped with the Eemian interglacial. The high genetic diversity of extant roe deer is the result of their survival during the LGM probably in a large, contiguous range spanning from the Iberian Peninsula to the Caucasus Mts and in two northern refugia.
  • Vakkari, Pekka; Rusanen, Mari; Heikkinen, Juha; Huotari, Tea; Karkkainen, Katri (2020)
    The genetic structure of populations at the edge of species distribution is important for species adaptation to environmental changes. Small populations may experience non-random mating and differentiation due to genetic drift but larger populations, too, may have low effective size, e.g., due to the within-population structure. We studied spatial population structure of pedunculate oak,Quercus robur, at the northern edge of the species' global distribution, where oak populations are experiencing rapid climatic and anthropogenic changes. Using 12 microsatellite markers, we analyzed genetic differentiation of seven small to medium size populations (census sizes 57-305 reproducing trees) and four populations for within-population genetic structures. Genetic differentiation among seven populations was low (Fst = 0.07). We found a strong spatial genetic structure in each of the four populations. Spatial autocorrelation was significant in all populations and its intensity (Sp) was higher than those reported in more southern oak populations. Significant genetic patchiness was revealed by Bayesian structuring and a high amount of spatially aggregated full and half sibs was detected by sibship reconstruction. Meta-analysis of isoenzyme and SSR data extracted from the (GD)(2)database suggested northwards decreasing trend in the expected heterozygosity and an effective number of alleles, thus supporting the central-marginal hypothesis in oak populations. We suggest that the fragmented distribution and location of Finnish pedunculate oak populations at the species' northern margin facilitate the formation of within-population genetic structures. Information on the existence of spatial genetic structures can help conservation managers to design gene conservation activities and to avoid too strong family structures in the sampling of seeds and cuttings for afforestation and tree improvement purposes.
  • Arora, Himanshu; Sharma, Abhishek; Poczai, Peter; Sharma, Satyawati; Haron, Farah Farhanah; Gafur, Abdul; Sayyed, R. Z. (2022)
    Fungal infections transmitted through the soil continue to pose a threat to a variety of horticultural and agricultural products, including tomato and chilli. The indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides has resulted in a slew of unintended consequences for the surrounding ecosystem. To achieve sustainable productivity, experts have turned their attention to natural alternatives. Due to their biodegradability, varied mode of action, and minimal toxicity to non-target organisms, plant-derived protectants (PDPs) are being hailed as a superior replacement for plant pesticides. This review outlines PDPs' critical functions (including formulations) in regulating soil-borne fungal diseases, keeping tomato and chilli pathogens in the spotlight. An in-depth examination of the impact of PDPs on pathogen activity will be a priority. Additionally, this review emphasises the advantages of the in silico approach over conventional approaches for screening plants' secondary metabolites with target-specific fungicidal activity. Despite the recent advances in our understanding of the fungicidal capabilities of various PDPs, it is taking much longer for that information to be applied to commercially available pesticides. The restrictions to solving this issue can be lifted by breakthroughs in formulation technology, governmental support, and a willingness to pursue green alternatives among farmers and industries.
  • Garate-Escamilla, Homero; Hampe, Arndt; Vizcaino-Palomar, Natalia; Robson, T. Matthew; Garzon, Marta Benito (2019)
    Aim To better understand and more realistically predict future species distribution ranges, it is critical to account for local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in populations' responses to climate. This is challenging because local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity are trait-dependent and traits covary along climatic gradients, with differential consequences for fitness. Our aim is to quantify local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity of vertical and radial growth, leaf flushing and survival across the range of Fagus sylvatica and to estimate the contribution of each trait to explaining the species' occurrence. Location Europe. Time period 1995-2014; 2070. Major taxa studied Fagus sylvatica L. Methods We used vertical and radial growth, flushing phenology and mortality of F. sylvatica L. recorded in the BeechCOSTe52 database (>150,000 trees). Firstly, we performed linear mixed-effect models that related trait variation and covariation to local adaptation (related to the planted populations' climatic origin) and phenotypic plasticity (accounting for the climate of the plantation), and we made spatial predictions under current and representative concentration pathway (RCP 8.5) climates. Secondly, we combined spatial trait predictions in a linear model to explain the occurrence of the species. Results The contribution of plasticity to intraspecific trait variation is always higher than that of local adaptation, suggesting that the species is less sensitive to climate change than expected; different traits constrain beech's distribution in different parts of its range: the northernmost edge is mainly delimited by flushing phenology (mostly driven by photoperiod and temperature), the southern edge by mortality (mainly driven by intolerance to drought), and the eastern edge is characterized by decreasing radial growth (mainly shaped by precipitation-related variables in our model); considering trait covariation improved single-trait predictions. Main conclusions Population responses to climate across large geographical gradients are dependent on trait x environment interactions, indicating that each trait responds differently depending on the local environment.
  • Genetu, Getenesh; Yli-Halla, Markku; Asrat, Mekonnen; Alemayehu, Mihiret (2021)
    The productivity of the faba bean has declined in Ethiopia, owing to poor management practices, such as blanket fertilisation. In 2018, a field experiment was conducted in a Nitisol soil during the main cropping season in Northwestern Ethiopia, to determine the amount of chemical fertiliser and Rhizobium inoculant to be used for the optimum yield within economic feasibility. The experiment consisted of a factorial combination of five rates of blended NPSZnB fertiliser (0, 60, 121, 180 and 240 kg ha(-1)) and three rates of inoculant (0, 500 and 750 g ha(-1)). Sole chemical fertilisation, as well as inoculation, individually produced a seed yield of 2.3-2.5 t ha(-1), about 1.0-1.2 t ha(-1) more than the control. However, the maximum seed yield (3.3 t ha(-1)) was recorded from the combined application of both the chemical fertiliser and the inoculant. The seed yield correlated closely with the number of active nodules (R-2 = 0.78 **), suggesting a substantial contribution of symbiotic N-2 fixation. Inoculation increased the N content of the seed yield by at least 30 kg ha(-1). Chemical fertilisation, containing at least 44 kg ha(-1) of mineral N does not appear to have an adverse effect on N-2 fixation. The combined use of 180 kg ha(-1) blended fertiliser with 750 g ha(-1) inoculant, producing a maximum net profit of 72,918 birr ha(-1) (EUR 2232), is recommended for the study area. This study emphasises that (1) inoculation alone can produce as much seed as the maximum rate of chemical fertilisation, but (2) the maximum yield was produced with a combined use of inoculant and chemical fertiliser, by promoting the vigour of the nodules and N-2 fixation.
  • Korpelainen, Helena; Pietilainen, Maria (2020)
    Sorrel (Rumex acetosaL.) is a perennial, dioecious herb occupying a variety of habitats. Sorrel has been utilized as a wild gathered plant for thousands of years and as a cultivated plant for centuries. Primarily roots but also other tissues have been used in folk remedies since ancient times. In recent investigations, different phytochemical and pharmacological activities ofRumexhave been analyzed, and many bioactive compounds have been detected. Sorrel is also a tasty plant and its leaves are a good source of macronutrients and micronutrients. However, the presence of high levels of oxalic acid reduces the bioavailability of some minerals, especially calcium, when using uncooked plant parts. Further investigations on different sorrel compounds are needed to show their true effect. It is beneficial that sorrel is easily propagated and there are no serious insect or disease problems. A few types ofR. acetosaseeds are presently available commercially, including wild types and a few cultivars.
  • Khapugin, Anatoliy A.; Soltys-Lelek, Anna; Fedoronchuk, Nikolay M.; Muldashev, Albert A.; Agafonov, Vladimir A.; Kazmina, Elena S.; Vasjukov, Vladimir M.; Baranova, Olga G.; Buzunova, Irina O.; Teteryuk, Lyudmila; Dubovik, Dmitriy; Gudzinskas, Zigmantas; Kukk, Toomas; Kravchenko, Alexey; Yena, Andrey; Kozhin, Mikhail N.; Sennikov, Alexander N. (2021)
    By the method of data re-collection and re-assessment, we here test the completeness of distribution areas of the species and species aggregates of Rosa in Eastern Europe as mapped in volume 13 of Atlas Florae Europaeae (AFE), and discuss insights into the issues connected with the data. We found many new occurrences which are additions to the published maps: 1068 records of species and 570 records of species aggregates. The new occurrences are listed with references to the sources, and the updated AFE maps are provided. The greatest increase by new native occurrences was revealed for the species that are widespread or taxonomically complicated, and by new alien occurrences for the species that currently expand their secondary distribution areas. The mapping work published in 2004 is considered good, with minor omissions caused by possible oversights and incomplete sampling. The majority of new additions originated in the period after the original data collection. Nearly the same amount of new data originated from larger and smaller herbarium collections, underlining the value of small collections for chorological studies. We found that only ca 20% of new records based on herbarium specimens have been published, thus highlighting the need for data papers for publication of distributional data. The greatest increase by new records based on herbarium specimens was found for insufficiently studied territories (Belarus, central, northern and eastern parts of Russia), whereas the same level of increase for the territories with reasonably good coverage (Latvia) was achieved by observations. We conclude that the overall sparsity of published records in Eastern Europe is caused by a lower level of data collection rather than by poor data availability, and that floristic surveys based on herbarium specimens cannot compete in speed and density of records with observation-based surveys, which may become the main source of distributional information in the future.
  • Amiryousefi, Ali; Hyvönen, Jaakko Tapani; Poczai, Péter (2018)
    Bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara) is a native Old World member of the nightshade family. This European diploid species can be found from marshlands to high mountainous regions and it is a common weed that serves as an alternative host and source of resistance genes against plant pathogens such as late blight (Phytophthora infestans). We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of bittersweet, which is 155,580 bp in length and it is characterized by a typical quadripartite structure composed of a large (85,901 bp) and small (18,449 bp) single-copy region interspersed by two identical inverted repeats (25,615 bp). It consists of 112 unique genes from which 81 are protein-coding, 27 tRNA and four rRNA genes. All bittersweet plastid genes including non-functional ones and even intergenic spacer regions are transcribed in primary plastid transcripts covering 95.22% of the genome. These are later substantially edited in a post-transcriptional phase to activate gene functions. By comparing the bittersweet plastid genome with all available Solanaceae sequences we found that gene content and synteny are highly conserved across the family. During genome comparison we have identified several annotation errors, which we have corrected in a manual curation process then we have identified the major plastid genome structural changes in Solanaceae. Interpreted in a phylogenetic context they seem to provide additional support for larger clades. The plastid genome sequence of bittersweet could help to benchmark Solanaceae plastid genome annotations and could be used as a reference for further studies. Such reliable annotations are important for gene diversity calculations, synteny map constructions and assigning partitions for phylogenetic analysis with de novo sequenced plastomes of Solanaceae.
  • Lappalainen, Jyrki; Malinen, Tommi; Vinni, Mika (2021)
    An accurate estimation of growth is crucial for any fish species that is a target in fishery. We applied a biphasic Lester model for pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) population that is a slow-growing one. In this model, age at maturity divide the growth into immature and matuire phases. Logistic regression models showed that both age and length were significant in males and females when using maturity as a dependent variable, and both of these variables differed between sexes. To estimate how the changes in used age at maturity affect the Lester model parameters, the effects of ages from 10% to 90% probability of maturity were analysed. The gonadosomatic index of males (max. 2%) and females (max. 8.6%) was used to select Lester models that also gave low estimates for the investments in reproduction (g). Low g values were found in the Lester models for ages from 60% to 90% probability of maturity in males, and from 30% to 70% in females.