Browsing by Subject "LABOR"

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  • Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Diaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernandez-Llamazares, Alvaro; Gallois, Sandrine (2020)
    Although subsistence hunting is cross-culturally an activity led and practiced mostly by men, a rich body of literature shows that in many small-scale societies women also engage in hunting in varied and often inconspicuous ways. Using data collected among two contemporary forager-horticulturalist societies facing rapid change (the Tsimane' of Bolivia and the Baka of Cameroon), we compare the technological and social characteristics of hunting trips led by women and men and analyze the specific socioeconomic characteristics that facilitate or constrain women's engagement in hunting. Results from interviews on daily activities with 121 Tsimane' (63 women and 58 men) and 159 Baka (83 women and 76 men) show that Tsimane' and Baka women participate in subsistence hunting, albeit using different techniques and in different social contexts than men. We also found differences in the individual and household socioeconomic profiles of Tsimane' and Baka women who hunt and those who do not hunt. Moreover, the characteristics that differentiate hunter and non-hunter women vary from one society to the other, suggesting that gender roles in relation to hunting are fluid and likely to change, not only across societies, but also as societies change.
  • Pursi, Annukka; Lipponen, Lasse; Sajaniemi, Nina (2018)
    The purpose of this single case study was to investigate emotional and playful stance taking in adults and very young children as they engage in joint make-believe play activity in a natural Finnish group-care setting. Drawing on the sequential approach of conversation analysis (CA), the study represents an effort to understand play in an early childhood education (ECE) setting from both children's and adults' perspectives at the same time. The results suggest that the interplay of emotional and playful stance taking in make-believe play produces emotional transitions in interaction. These transitions can be understood as interactional accomplishments that offer children and adults the possibility to align and affiliate themselves with their own and each other's emotional experiences and to explore personal reflections of the emotionally heightened real-life trajectories in a shared make-believe play frame. Based on these findings, it is argued that creating and maintaining emotionally heightened joint play with very young children requires adults' emotional involvement and delicately calibrated participation through leading, following and leading by following. Further empirical study is needed to investigate sequences in which playful and emotional stance taking stand in a non-aligning and non-affiliating relationship. Such research could reveal problem-remedy sequences more evidently and provide important further development of ECE theory and practice for children under the age of three.
  • Hujala, Anneli; Oksman, Erja (2018)
    Cross-boundary collaboration, both multiprofessional and interorganizational, is needed when providing integrated care for people with multiple problems, who need services at the same time from diverse care providers. Multiple problems of clients also pose extra challenges for interaction between care professionals and clients. Emotional dynamics are always present in everyday interaction between human beings, but seldom explicitly addressed in research on integrated care. The aim of this reflective paper is to illustrate the emotional dimensions of integrated care in light of the experiences of care professionals in the context of care for people with multiple complex problems. The paper draws on a Finnish study on integrated care reflecting its findings from the perspective of emotional labor. The difficult life situations of people with multiple complex problems form an emotional burden, which is mirrored in the interaction between clients and professionals and affects relational dynamics among professionals. Professionals' fear of emotions and the different feeling rules' of care professions and sectors pose extra challenges to professionals' collaboration in this emotionally loaded context. Alongside the structural and functional aspects of integrated care, it is important that emotions embedded in everyday cross-boundary collaboration are recognized and taken into account in order to ensure the success of integrated care.
  • Hakulinen, Christian; Elovainio, Marko; Arffman, Martti; Lumme, Sonja; Suokas, Kimmo; Pirkola, Sami; Keskimäki, Ilmo; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Böckerman, Petri (2020)
    Objective: Individuals with severe mental disorders have an impaired ability to work and are likely to receive income transfer payments as their main source of income. However, the magnitude of this phenomenon remains unclear. Using longitudinal population cohort register data, the authors conducted a case-control study to examine the levels of employment and personal income before and after a first hospitalization for a serious mental disorder. Methods: All individuals (N=50,551) who had been hospitalized for schizophrenia, other nonaffective psychosis, or bipolar disorder in Finland between 1988 and 2015 were identified and matched with five randomly selected participants who were the same sex and who had the same birth year and month. Employment status and earnings, income transfer payments, and total income in euros were measured annually from 1988 to 2015. Results: Individuals with serious mental disorders had notably low levels of employment before, and especially after, the diagnosis of a severe mental disorder. Their total income was mostly constituted of transfer payments, and this was especially true for those diagnosed as having schizophrenia. More than half of all individuals with a serious mental disorder did not have any employment earnings after they received the diagnosis. Conclusions: The current study shows how most individuals in Finland depend solely on income transfer payments after an onset of a severe mental disorder.
  • Tarvonen, Mikko; Hovi, Petteri; Sainio, Susanna; Vuorela, Piia; Andersson, Sture; Teramo, Kari (2021)
    Introduction The aim of the present study was to identify possible associations of fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns during the last 2 hours of labor with fetal asphyxia expressed by umbilical artery acidemia at birth and with neonatal complications in a large obstetric cohort. Material and methods Cardiotocographic recordings from 4988 singleton term childbirths over 1 year were evaluated retrospectively and blinded to the pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in a university teaching hospital in Helsinki, Finland. Umbilical artery pH, base excess and pO(2), low Apgar scores at 5 minutes, need for intubation and resuscitation, early neonatal hypoglycemia, and neonatal encephalopathy were used as outcome variables. According to the severity of the neonatal complications at birth, the cohort was divided into three groups: no complications (Group 1), moderate complications (Group 2) and severe complications (Group 3). Results Of the 4988 deliveries, the ZigZag pattern (FHR baseline amplitude changes of >25 bpm with a duration of 2-30 minutes) occurred in 11.7%, late decelerations in 41.0%, bradycardia episodes in 52.9%, reduced variability in 36.7%, tachycardia episodes in 13.9% and uterine tachysystole in 4.6%. No case of saltatory pattern (baseline amplitude changes of >25 bpm with a duration of >30 minutes) was observed. The presence of the ZigZag pattern or late decelerations, or both, was associated with cord blood acidemia (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-4.7) and severe neonatal complications (Group 3) (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.4-4.9). In contrast, no significant associations existed between the other FHR patterns and severe neonatal complications. ZigZag pattern preceded late decelerations in 88.7% of the cases. A normal FHR preceded the ZigZag pattern in 90.4% of the cases, whereas after ZigZag episodes, a normal FHR pattern was observed in only 0.9%. Conclusions ZigZag pattern and late decelerations during the last 2 hours of labor are significantly associated with cord blood acidemia at birth and neonatal complications. The ZigZag pattern precedes late decelerations, and the fact that normal FHR pattern precedes the ZigZag pattern in the majority of the cases suggests that the ZigZag pattern is an early sign of fetal hypoxia, which emphasizes its clinical importance.
  • Kelleher, Meredith A.; Lee, Ji Yeon; Roberts, Victoria; Novak, Christopher M.; Baschat, Ahmet A.; Morgan, Terry K.; Novy, Miles J.; Räsänen, Juha P.; Frias, Antonio E.; Burd, Irina (2020)
    BACKGROUND: Ureaplasma parvum infection is a prevalent cause of intrauterine infection associated with preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes, fetal inflammatory response syndrome, and adverse postnatal sequelae. Elucidation of diagnostic and treatment strategies for infection-associated preterm labor may improve perinatal and long-term outcomes for these cases. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effect of intraamniotic Ureaplasma infection on fetal hemodynamic and cardiac function and the effect of maternal antibiotic treatment on these outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Chronically catheterized pregnant rhesus monkeys were assigned to control (n=6), intraamniotic inoculation with Ureaplasma parvum (107 colony-forming units/mL, n=15), and intraamniotic infection plus azithromycin treatment (12.5 mg/kg twice a day intravenously, n=8) groups. At approximately 135 days' gestation (term=165 days), pulsed and color Doppler ultrasonography was used to obtain measurements of fetal hemodynamics (pulsatility index of umbilical artery, ductus venosus, descending aorta, ductus arteriosus, aortic isthmus, right pulmonary artery, middle cerebral artery and cerebroplacental ratio, and left and right ventricular cardiac outputs) and cardiac function (ratio of peak early vs late transmitral flow velocity [marker of ventricular function], Tei index [myocardial performance index]). These indices were stratified by amniotic fluid proinflammatory mediator levels and cardiac histology. RESULTS: Umbilical and fetal pulmonary artery vascular impedances were significantly increased in animals from the intraamniotic inoculation with Ureaplasma parvum group (P1.1) than in those with normal blood flow (P1.6, P CONCLUSION: Fetal hemodynamic alterations were associated with intraamniotic Ureaplasma infection and ameliorated after maternal antibiotic treatment. Doppler ultrasonographic measurements merit continuing investigation as a diagnostic method to identify fetal cardiovascular and hemodynamic compromise associated with intrauterine infection or inflammation and in the evaluation of therapeutic interventions or clinical management of preterm labor.
  • Macharey, Georg; Toijonen, Anna; Hinnenberg, Pia; Gissler, Mika; Heinonen, Seppo; Ziller, Volker (2020)
    Purpose To determine whether there is an association between term cesarean breech delivery in the first pregnancy and maternal and neonatal morbidities in the subsequent pregnancy and delivery. Methods We conducted a retrospective, nationwide Finnish population-based cohort study, including all deliveries from January 2000 to December 2017. We included all women with the first two consecutive singleton deliveries of which the first one was a breech delivery regardless of mode of delivery (n = 11,953), and constructed a data set in which the first two deliveries for these women were connected. The outcomes of the second delivery of the women with a first pregnancy that resulted in cesarean breech delivery at term were compared with women whose first pregnancy resulted in a vaginal breech delivery at term. P-value, odds ratio, and adjusted odds ratio were calculated. Results Neonates of a subsequent delivery after cesarean breech delivery had an increased risk for arterial umbilical cord pH below seven, a higher rate of a 5 min APGAR score <7 and a higher rate of neonatal intensive care unit admission. The women with a history of cesarean section with the fetus in breech presentation were more often in need of a blood transfusion and suffered more often a uterus rupture. In this group, the second delivery was more often a planned cesarean section, an emergency cesarean section, or an instrumental vaginal delivery. Conclusions Primary cesarean breech section in the first pregnancy is associated with adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes in the subsequent delivery.
  • Hakulinen, Christian; McGrath, John J.; Timmerman, Allan; Skipper, Niels; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Agerbo, Esben (2019)
    Purpose Individuals with schizophrenia have been reported to have low employment rates. We examined the associations of schizophrenia with employment, income, and status of cohabitation from a work life course perspective. Methods Nationwide cohort study including all individuals (n = 2,390,127) born in Denmark between 1955 and 1991, who were alive at their 25th birthday. Diagnosis of schizophrenia (yes/no) between ages 15 and 25 was used as an exposure. Employment status, annual wage or self-employment earnings, level of education, and cohabitant status from the age of 25–61 (years 1980–2016) were used as outcomes. Results Schizophrenia diagnosis between ages 15 and 25 (n = 9448) was associated with higher odds of not being employed (at the age of 30: OR 39.4, 95% CI 36.5–42.6), having no secondary or higher education (7.4, 7.0–7.8), and living alone (7.6, 7.2–8.1). These odds ratios were two-to-three times lower and decreasing over time for those individuals who did not receive treatment in a psychiatric inpatient or outpatient clinic for schizophrenia after the age of 25. Between ages 25–61, individuals with schizophrenia have cumulative earning of $224,000, which is 14% of the amount that the individuals who have not been diagnosed with schizophrenia earn. Conclusions Individuals with schizophrenia are at high risk of being outside the labour market and living alone throughout their entire life, resulting in an enormous societal loss in earnings. Individuals with less chronic course of schizophrenia had a gradual but substantial improvement throughout their work life.
  • Charitsis, Vassilis; Fyrberg Yngfalk, Anna; Skålén, Per (2019)
    While previous critical marketing research on co-creation has focused on how consumers' cognitive and social abilities are governed, this article focuses on how firms' marketing strategies attempt to govern every aspect of consumers' lives. By drawing on a biopolitical framework and a study of Nike+, a marketing system for runners which Nike has developed around its self-tracking devices, three biopolitical marketing dimensions were identified: the gamification of the running experience, the transformation of running into a competitive activity and the conversion of running into a social activity. In identifying these marketing dimensions, the study demonstrates how self-tracking affordances are deployed in the development of a biopolitical marketing environment that tames, captures and appropriates value from different aspects of consumers' lives, including - and combining - their social behaviours, cognitive capacities and bodily conducts. This article contributes to critical studies of value co-creation by focusing on the tamed self-tracking body as a resource for value creation, but also by demonstrating that consumers engage, through cognitive labour, in the production of the biopolitical environment that leads to their exploitation.