Browsing by Subject "LABOR"

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  • Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Diaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernandez-Llamazares, Alvaro; Gallois, Sandrine (2020)
    Although subsistence hunting is cross-culturally an activity led and practiced mostly by men, a rich body of literature shows that in many small-scale societies women also engage in hunting in varied and often inconspicuous ways. Using data collected among two contemporary forager-horticulturalist societies facing rapid change (the Tsimane' of Bolivia and the Baka of Cameroon), we compare the technological and social characteristics of hunting trips led by women and men and analyze the specific socioeconomic characteristics that facilitate or constrain women's engagement in hunting. Results from interviews on daily activities with 121 Tsimane' (63 women and 58 men) and 159 Baka (83 women and 76 men) show that Tsimane' and Baka women participate in subsistence hunting, albeit using different techniques and in different social contexts than men. We also found differences in the individual and household socioeconomic profiles of Tsimane' and Baka women who hunt and those who do not hunt. Moreover, the characteristics that differentiate hunter and non-hunter women vary from one society to the other, suggesting that gender roles in relation to hunting are fluid and likely to change, not only across societies, but also as societies change.
  • Pursi, Annukka; Lipponen, Lasse; Sajaniemi, Nina (2018)
    The purpose of this single case study was to investigate emotional and playful stance taking in adults and very young children as they engage in joint make-believe play activity in a natural Finnish group-care setting. Drawing on the sequential approach of conversation analysis (CA), the study represents an effort to understand play in an early childhood education (ECE) setting from both children's and adults' perspectives at the same time. The results suggest that the interplay of emotional and playful stance taking in make-believe play produces emotional transitions in interaction. These transitions can be understood as interactional accomplishments that offer children and adults the possibility to align and affiliate themselves with their own and each other's emotional experiences and to explore personal reflections of the emotionally heightened real-life trajectories in a shared make-believe play frame. Based on these findings, it is argued that creating and maintaining emotionally heightened joint play with very young children requires adults' emotional involvement and delicately calibrated participation through leading, following and leading by following. Further empirical study is needed to investigate sequences in which playful and emotional stance taking stand in a non-aligning and non-affiliating relationship. Such research could reveal problem-remedy sequences more evidently and provide important further development of ECE theory and practice for children under the age of three.
  • Hujala, Anneli; Oksman, Erja (2018)
    Cross-boundary collaboration, both multiprofessional and interorganizational, is needed when providing integrated care for people with multiple problems, who need services at the same time from diverse care providers. Multiple problems of clients also pose extra challenges for interaction between care professionals and clients. Emotional dynamics are always present in everyday interaction between human beings, but seldom explicitly addressed in research on integrated care. The aim of this reflective paper is to illustrate the emotional dimensions of integrated care in light of the experiences of care professionals in the context of care for people with multiple complex problems. The paper draws on a Finnish study on integrated care reflecting its findings from the perspective of emotional labor. The difficult life situations of people with multiple complex problems form an emotional burden, which is mirrored in the interaction between clients and professionals and affects relational dynamics among professionals. Professionals' fear of emotions and the different feeling rules' of care professions and sectors pose extra challenges to professionals' collaboration in this emotionally loaded context. Alongside the structural and functional aspects of integrated care, it is important that emotions embedded in everyday cross-boundary collaboration are recognized and taken into account in order to ensure the success of integrated care.
  • Hakulinen, Christian; Elovainio, Marko; Arffman, Martti; Lumme, Sonja; Suokas, Kimmo; Pirkola, Sami; Keskimäki, Ilmo; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Böckerman, Petri (2020)
    Objective: Individuals with severe mental disorders have an impaired ability to work and are likely to receive income transfer payments as their main source of income. However, the magnitude of this phenomenon remains unclear. Using longitudinal population cohort register data, the authors conducted a case-control study to examine the levels of employment and personal income before and after a first hospitalization for a serious mental disorder. Methods: All individuals (N=50,551) who had been hospitalized for schizophrenia, other nonaffective psychosis, or bipolar disorder in Finland between 1988 and 2015 were identified and matched with five randomly selected participants who were the same sex and who had the same birth year and month. Employment status and earnings, income transfer payments, and total income in euros were measured annually from 1988 to 2015. Results: Individuals with serious mental disorders had notably low levels of employment before, and especially after, the diagnosis of a severe mental disorder. Their total income was mostly constituted of transfer payments, and this was especially true for those diagnosed as having schizophrenia. More than half of all individuals with a serious mental disorder did not have any employment earnings after they received the diagnosis. Conclusions: The current study shows how most individuals in Finland depend solely on income transfer payments after an onset of a severe mental disorder.
  • Tarvonen, Mikko; Hovi, Petteri; Sainio, Susanna; Vuorela, Piia; Andersson, Sture; Teramo, Kari (2021)
    Aims In previous reports, cardiotocographic (CTG) fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring has shown only limited benefits in decreasing adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether an association exists between the recently reported ZigZag pattern (FHR baseline amplitude changes of > 25 bpm with a duration of 2-30 min) and asphyxia-related neonatal outcomes in GDM pregnancies. Methods Intrapartal CTGs were recorded in a one-year cohort of 5150 singleton childbirths. The following CTG changes were evaluated: ZigZag pattern, saltatory pattern, late decelerations, episodes of tachycardia and bradycardia, reduced variability, and uterine tachysystole. The cohort was divided into three groups: women with GDM, women with normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and women with no OGTT performed. Umbilical artery (UA) blood gases, Apgar scores, neonatal respiratory distress, and neonatal encephalopathy were used as outcome variables. Results GDM was diagnosed in 624 (12.1%), OGTT was normal in 4115 (79.9%), and OGTT was not performed in 411 (8.0%) women. Hypoxia-related ZigZag patterns (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.64-2.34) and late decelerations (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.27-2.13) of FHR, as well as a greater risk of fetal asphyxia (UA pH < 7.10 and/or UA BE < -12.0 meq/L and/or Apgar scores < 7 at 5-min) (OR 6.64, 95% CI 1.84-12.03) were observed in those with GDM compared with those without GDM. Conclusions GDM is associated with intrapartal ZigZag pattern and late decelerations, cord blood acidemia and low 5-min Apgar scores at birth indicating increased occurrence of fetal hypoxia in GDM pregnancies.
  • Tarvonen, Mikko; Hovi, Petteri; Sainio, Susanna; Vuorela, Piia; Andersson, Sture; Teramo, Kari (2021)
    Introduction The aim of the present study was to identify possible associations of fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns during the last 2 hours of labor with fetal asphyxia expressed by umbilical artery acidemia at birth and with neonatal complications in a large obstetric cohort. Material and methods Cardiotocographic recordings from 4988 singleton term childbirths over 1 year were evaluated retrospectively and blinded to the pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in a university teaching hospital in Helsinki, Finland. Umbilical artery pH, base excess and pO(2), low Apgar scores at 5 minutes, need for intubation and resuscitation, early neonatal hypoglycemia, and neonatal encephalopathy were used as outcome variables. According to the severity of the neonatal complications at birth, the cohort was divided into three groups: no complications (Group 1), moderate complications (Group 2) and severe complications (Group 3). Results Of the 4988 deliveries, the ZigZag pattern (FHR baseline amplitude changes of >25 bpm with a duration of 2-30 minutes) occurred in 11.7%, late decelerations in 41.0%, bradycardia episodes in 52.9%, reduced variability in 36.7%, tachycardia episodes in 13.9% and uterine tachysystole in 4.6%. No case of saltatory pattern (baseline amplitude changes of >25 bpm with a duration of >30 minutes) was observed. The presence of the ZigZag pattern or late decelerations, or both, was associated with cord blood acidemia (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-4.7) and severe neonatal complications (Group 3) (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.4-4.9). In contrast, no significant associations existed between the other FHR patterns and severe neonatal complications. ZigZag pattern preceded late decelerations in 88.7% of the cases. A normal FHR preceded the ZigZag pattern in 90.4% of the cases, whereas after ZigZag episodes, a normal FHR pattern was observed in only 0.9%. Conclusions ZigZag pattern and late decelerations during the last 2 hours of labor are significantly associated with cord blood acidemia at birth and neonatal complications. The ZigZag pattern precedes late decelerations, and the fact that normal FHR pattern precedes the ZigZag pattern in the majority of the cases suggests that the ZigZag pattern is an early sign of fetal hypoxia, which emphasizes its clinical importance.
  • Sancho-Reinoso, Alexis; Saxinger, Gertrude; Fink, Christoph; Povoroznyuk, Olga; Wentzel, Sigrid Irene; Illmeier, Gertraud; Schweitzer, Peter; Krasnoshtanova, Natalia; Kuklina, Vera (2022)
    The construction of railroad infrastructure in East Siberia and the Russian Far East was a key aspect of Soviet industrialization during the 1970s and 1980s. Although built primarily for freight transportation, the Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM) and the Amur-Yakutsk Mainline (AYaM) have also been used for passenger transport and have thus contributed to increased mobility and heightened local expectations about future mobility. This article presents the results of an extensive survey carried out in the BAM/AYaM region, which maps experiences of individual mobility, including usage-related needs, practices, and expectations. The findings show low levels of satisfaction differing across the region’s social and spatial diversity. The paper argues that hierarchies of mobility prevail at two related levels in the BAM/AYaM region: 1) the state’s regional development policies favor industrial development, focusing on freight transportation while neglecting local passengers’ needs for improved individual mobility; and 2) intersectional structural conditions along lines of diversity, such as gender, age, ethnicity, and place of residence, result in mobility disadvantage and lower mobility satisfaction. These hierarchies are embedded in the broader social and spatial inequality structures in the Russian Federation.
  • Toijonen, Anna; Hinnenberg, Pia; Gissler, Mika; Heinonen, Seppo; Macharey, Georg (2022)
    The objective of this retrospective, nationwide Finnish population-based cohort study was to determine whether there is an association between preterm caesarean breech delivery in the first pregnancy and maternal and neonatal morbidity in the subsequent pregnancy and delivery. We identified all singleton preterm breech birth in Finland from 2000 to 2017 (n = 1259) and constructed a data set of the first two deliveries for these women. We compared outcomes of the following pregnancy and delivery among women with a previous preterm caesarean breech section with the outcomes of women with one previous vaginal preterm breech birth. p Value, odds ratio, and adjusted odds ratio were calculated. Neonates of women with a previous caesarean preterm breech delivery had an increased risk for arterial umbilical cord pH below seven (1.2% versus 0%; p value .024) and a higher rate of neonatal intensive care unit admission [22.9% versus 15% adjusted OR 1.57 (1.13-2.18); p value
  • Kelleher, Meredith A.; Lee, Ji Yeon; Roberts, Victoria; Novak, Christopher M.; Baschat, Ahmet A.; Morgan, Terry K.; Novy, Miles J.; Räsänen, Juha P.; Frias, Antonio E.; Burd, Irina (2020)
    BACKGROUND: Ureaplasma parvum infection is a prevalent cause of intrauterine infection associated with preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes, fetal inflammatory response syndrome, and adverse postnatal sequelae. Elucidation of diagnostic and treatment strategies for infection-associated preterm labor may improve perinatal and long-term outcomes for these cases. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effect of intraamniotic Ureaplasma infection on fetal hemodynamic and cardiac function and the effect of maternal antibiotic treatment on these outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Chronically catheterized pregnant rhesus monkeys were assigned to control (n=6), intraamniotic inoculation with Ureaplasma parvum (107 colony-forming units/mL, n=15), and intraamniotic infection plus azithromycin treatment (12.5 mg/kg twice a day intravenously, n=8) groups. At approximately 135 days' gestation (term=165 days), pulsed and color Doppler ultrasonography was used to obtain measurements of fetal hemodynamics (pulsatility index of umbilical artery, ductus venosus, descending aorta, ductus arteriosus, aortic isthmus, right pulmonary artery, middle cerebral artery and cerebroplacental ratio, and left and right ventricular cardiac outputs) and cardiac function (ratio of peak early vs late transmitral flow velocity [marker of ventricular function], Tei index [myocardial performance index]). These indices were stratified by amniotic fluid proinflammatory mediator levels and cardiac histology. RESULTS: Umbilical and fetal pulmonary artery vascular impedances were significantly increased in animals from the intraamniotic inoculation with Ureaplasma parvum group (P1.1) than in those with normal blood flow (P1.6, P CONCLUSION: Fetal hemodynamic alterations were associated with intraamniotic Ureaplasma infection and ameliorated after maternal antibiotic treatment. Doppler ultrasonographic measurements merit continuing investigation as a diagnostic method to identify fetal cardiovascular and hemodynamic compromise associated with intrauterine infection or inflammation and in the evaluation of therapeutic interventions or clinical management of preterm labor.
  • Joensuu, Johanna; Saarijärvi, Hannu; Rouhe, Hanna; Gissler, Mika; Ulander, Veli-Matti; Heinonen, Seppo; Torkki, Paulus; Mikkola, Tomi (2022)
    Objectives The aim of this study was to analyse the relation between the used labour pain relief and childbirth experience measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS).Design A retrospective cohort study.Setting Childbirth in five Helsinki University Hospital delivery units from 2012 to 2018.Primary outcome measure Childbirth experience measured by VAS and classified in three groups (negative VAS=1textendash5, positive VAS=6textendash8 and highly positive=9textendash10).Results The use of epidural or non-epidural compared with non-medical pain relief methods decreased the likelihood to experience highly positive childbirth for primiparous (adjusted OR (aOR)EPIDURAL=0.64, 95.57 to 0.73; and aORNON-EPIDURAL=0.76, 95.66 to 0.87) and multiparous (aOREPIDURAL=0.90, 95.84 to 0.97 and aORNON-EPIDURAL=0.80, 95.74 to 0.86) parturients. The effects of epidural differed between primiparas and multiparas. In multiparas epidural was associated with decreased odds for experiencing negative childbirth compared with the non-medical group (aOR=0.70, 95.57 to 0.87), while the effect of epidural was considered insignificant in primiparas (aOR=1.28, 95.93 to 1.77).Conclusion While the use of medicaltextemdashepidural and non-epiduraltextemdashpain relief methods were not associated with odds for experiencing negative childbirth in primiparas, using epidural helps to avoid negative experience in multiparas. However, the odds for experiencing highly positive childbirth were decreased if the parturients used any medical pain relief for both primiparas and multiparas. Consequently, the effect of pain relief on the childbirth experience is strongly confounded by indication. Thus, the use of pain relief per se plays a limited role in the complex formation of the overall childbirth experience.No data are available. The data was granted to use in this study and is not allowed to reuse without other permission.
  • Kervinen, Kaisa; Holster, Tiina; Saqib, Schahzad; Virtanen, Seppo; Stefanovic, Vedran; Rahkonen, Leena; Nieminen, Pekka; Salonen, Anne; Kalliala, Ilkka (2022)
    Background Vaginal microbiota and its potential contribution to preterm birth is under intense research. However, only few studies have investigated the vaginal microbiota in later stages of pregnancy or at the onset of labour. Methods We used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to analyse cross-sectional vaginal swab samples from 324 Finnish women between 37-42 weeks of gestation, sampled before elective caesarean section, at the onset of spontaneous labour, and in pregnancies lasting >= 41 weeks of gestation. Microbiota data were combined with comprehensive clinical data to identify factors associated with microbiota variation. Findings Vaginal microbiota composition associated strongly with advancing gestational age and parity, i.e. presence of previous deliveries. Absence of previous deliveries was a strong predictor of Lactobacillus crispatus dominated vaginal microbiota, and the relative abundance of L. crispatus was higher in late term pregnancies, especially among nulliparous women. Interpretation This study identified late term pregnancy and reproductive history as factors underlying high abundance of gynaecological health-associated L. crispatus in pregnant women. Our results suggest that the vaginal micro biota affects or reflects the regulation of the duration of gestation and labour onset, with potentially vast clinical utilities. Further studies are needed to address the causality and the mechanisms on how previous labour, but not pregnancy, affects the vaginal microbiota. Parity and gestational age should be accounted for in future studies on vaginal microbiota and reproductive outcomes. Funding This research was supported by EU H2020 programme Sweet Crosstalk ITN (814102), Academy of Finland, State Research Funding, and University of Helsinki. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Minoia, Paola; Jokela, Salla (2022)
    During the past decade, digital platforms like Airbnb and Uber have enabled the development of a new generation of entrepreneurs in tourism and mobility. The mediation of services through digital platforms was initially presented as a form of a sharing economy led by non-professional providers, but it has grown into a new form of capitalist speculation. This special issue presents theoretical and empirical perspectives on platform-mediated tourism by focusing on Airbnb, which is the most notable digital platform specialising in short-term property rental. The case studies included in this issue show that the impacts of short-term renting on neighbourhoods, residents and tourism operators are uneven, but increasingly significant. The authors explore issues of social justice in terms of residents' quality of life, working conditions, the housing market, urban structure, and the morality of operators who navigate through normative loopholes. They also examine the governance challenges caused by the inadequacy of existing legal frameworks to better regulate platform-mediated activities, and the reactions generated by social movements and city governments. With the outbreak of Covid-19, networks of cities are taking action against platforms to regain their control over data that is needed to regulate platform-mediated tourism services.
  • Macharey, Georg; Toijonen, Anna; Hinnenberg, Pia; Gissler, Mika; Heinonen, Seppo; Ziller, Volker (2020)
    Purpose To determine whether there is an association between term cesarean breech delivery in the first pregnancy and maternal and neonatal morbidities in the subsequent pregnancy and delivery. Methods We conducted a retrospective, nationwide Finnish population-based cohort study, including all deliveries from January 2000 to December 2017. We included all women with the first two consecutive singleton deliveries of which the first one was a breech delivery regardless of mode of delivery (n = 11,953), and constructed a data set in which the first two deliveries for these women were connected. The outcomes of the second delivery of the women with a first pregnancy that resulted in cesarean breech delivery at term were compared with women whose first pregnancy resulted in a vaginal breech delivery at term. P-value, odds ratio, and adjusted odds ratio were calculated. Results Neonates of a subsequent delivery after cesarean breech delivery had an increased risk for arterial umbilical cord pH below seven, a higher rate of a 5 min APGAR score <7 and a higher rate of neonatal intensive care unit admission. The women with a history of cesarean section with the fetus in breech presentation were more often in need of a blood transfusion and suffered more often a uterus rupture. In this group, the second delivery was more often a planned cesarean section, an emergency cesarean section, or an instrumental vaginal delivery. Conclusions Primary cesarean breech section in the first pregnancy is associated with adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes in the subsequent delivery.
  • Hakulinen, Christian; McGrath, John J.; Timmerman, Allan; Skipper, Niels; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Agerbo, Esben (2019)
    Purpose Individuals with schizophrenia have been reported to have low employment rates. We examined the associations of schizophrenia with employment, income, and status of cohabitation from a work life course perspective. Methods Nationwide cohort study including all individuals (n = 2,390,127) born in Denmark between 1955 and 1991, who were alive at their 25th birthday. Diagnosis of schizophrenia (yes/no) between ages 15 and 25 was used as an exposure. Employment status, annual wage or self-employment earnings, level of education, and cohabitant status from the age of 25–61 (years 1980–2016) were used as outcomes. Results Schizophrenia diagnosis between ages 15 and 25 (n = 9448) was associated with higher odds of not being employed (at the age of 30: OR 39.4, 95% CI 36.5–42.6), having no secondary or higher education (7.4, 7.0–7.8), and living alone (7.6, 7.2–8.1). These odds ratios were two-to-three times lower and decreasing over time for those individuals who did not receive treatment in a psychiatric inpatient or outpatient clinic for schizophrenia after the age of 25. Between ages 25–61, individuals with schizophrenia have cumulative earning of $224,000, which is 14% of the amount that the individuals who have not been diagnosed with schizophrenia earn. Conclusions Individuals with schizophrenia are at high risk of being outside the labour market and living alone throughout their entire life, resulting in an enormous societal loss in earnings. Individuals with less chronic course of schizophrenia had a gradual but substantial improvement throughout their work life.
  • Munkejord, Mai Camilla; Ness, Tove M.; Gao, I-An (2021)
    For the past three decades, to meet the increasing need for long-term care, the Taiwanese government’s primary approach has been to import migrant care workers. In this article, we analyse qualitative interview data produced in an Indigenous community. Drawing on Kittay’s feminist dependency theory, we explore the interrelationships and collaborative efforts between live-in carers and their employers. Three types of relationships were identified: ‘unsupportive relationships’, where the live-in carer was treated as a servant; ‘supportive relationships’, where the live-in carer was treated as a care worker; and ‘semi-supportive relationships’, where the live-in carer was treated as a carer-servant. In conclusion, the article sheds light on how the live-in carer arrangement could be practised in ways that allow live-in carers and thereby their care recipients to thrive.
  • Charitsis, Vassilis; Fyrberg Yngfalk, Anna; Skålén, Per (2019)
    While previous critical marketing research on co-creation has focused on how consumers' cognitive and social abilities are governed, this article focuses on how firms' marketing strategies attempt to govern every aspect of consumers' lives. By drawing on a biopolitical framework and a study of Nike+, a marketing system for runners which Nike has developed around its self-tracking devices, three biopolitical marketing dimensions were identified: the gamification of the running experience, the transformation of running into a competitive activity and the conversion of running into a social activity. In identifying these marketing dimensions, the study demonstrates how self-tracking affordances are deployed in the development of a biopolitical marketing environment that tames, captures and appropriates value from different aspects of consumers' lives, including - and combining - their social behaviours, cognitive capacities and bodily conducts. This article contributes to critical studies of value co-creation by focusing on the tamed self-tracking body as a resource for value creation, but also by demonstrating that consumers engage, through cognitive labour, in the production of the biopolitical environment that leads to their exploitation.