Browsing by Subject "LABOR-MARKET"

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  • Komp-Leukkunen, Kathrin Susanne (2019)
    Life-courses describe people’s activities from the cradle to the grave. Because life-courses are typically complex, models are used to simplify their description. The most commonly used model is tripartite, representing lives in subsequent periods of education, work, and retirement. However, researchers criticize this model as limited in the activities considered, overly simplistic in the activity sequence, and blind to variation between life-courses. This article explores working age life-courses, which typically show high diversity. Multichannel sequence and cluster analyses are conducted on people’s activities from age 15 to 65. Data stem from the life-history interviews of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, capturing cohorts born before 1945. Findings show that three out of four working age life-courses are in line with the tripartite model. This share is particularly high among men, the cohort born 1935 to 1944, and in Northern and Eastern Europe. In contrast, a considerable share of women spent their working age on homemaking, especially women born before 1935, and those living in Southern Europe. Finally, a smaller number of men spent their working age on paid work, followed by a period of illness or of non-employment. The working age life-course patterns identified are used to develop alternative life-course models. However, for a parsimonious solution, the use of two models suffices. A combination of the tripartite model and the model equating middle age to homemaking captures the lives of more than nine out of ten older Europeans. The prevalence of working age life-course patterns in a population is country-specific, and the country differences align with the welfare regimes. This perspective makes working age life-courses characteristics of a society that can be used to map social inequalities at the macro-level and capture social change over time.
  • Ostergren, Olof; Lundberg, Olle; Artnik, Barbara; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Kalediene, Ramune; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; de Gelder, Rianne; Mackenbach, Johan P. (2017)
    Objective The aim of this paper is to empirically evaluate whether widening educational inequalities in mortality are related to the substantive shifts that have occurred in the educational distribution. Materials and methods Data on education and mortality from 18 European populations across several decades were collected and harmonized as part of the Demetriq project. Using a fixed-effects approach to account for time trends and national variation in mortality, we formally test whether the magnitude of relative inequalities in mortality by education is associated with the gender and age-group specific proportion of high and low educated respectively. Results The results suggest that in populations with larger proportions of high educated and smaller proportions of low educated, the excess mortality among intermediate and low educated is larger, all other things being equal. Conclusion We conclude that the widening educational inequalities in mortality being observed in recent decades may in part be attributed to educational expansion.
  • Ahmad, Akhlaq (2020)
    This article presents the findings of a field experiment on ethnic discrimination against second-generation immigrants in the Finnish labour market. Five job applicants of Finnish, English, Iraqi, Russian and Somali origin sent equivalent job applications to each of 1000 publicly advertised vacancies. They all had identical qualifications, but differed in one respect, that is, their name. The findings strongly suggest the existence of ethnic hierarchical orderings in the labour market. They reflect that locally gained human capital not only does not equalise employment opportunities for immigrants as such but also rewards them differentially based on their origin, with non-European applicants being the least preferred choices. The findings also reveal that discrimination did not only manifest itself in low callback rates for immigrants but also the order in which employers contacted the different applicants. In a further set of 200 job openings tested in which applicants of immigrant origin had two years more experience than the Finnish candidate, the systematic differences in patterns of callback rates remained the same. Drawing on empirical observations, the article suggests that ethnic hierarches prevailing in society can also extend to the realm of labour markets resulting in unequal employment chances for otherwise equal job applicants.
  • Tuononen, Tarja; Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari (2019)
    A successful transition from university to working life requires that graduates are able to employ their education and academic competences in real working-life contexts. Our previous research showed that graduates varied in how they were able to reflect on their competences at the time of graduation. The present longitudinal mixed-method study follows the same graduates and explores their evaluations of the usefulness of university education and career success, three years after graduation. The follow-up data consisted of 57 graduates' survey answers analysed by quantitative and qualitative methods. The results showed that graduates who were able to describe and evaluate more competences at the time of graduation perceived their current jobs to correspond more to their education. Graduates with more limited evaluations of their competences, on the other hand, had experienced more challenges related to employment and were more uncertain of their goals. The results also showed that having diverse competences and an ability to recognise them at the time of graduation is important for later career success and may also be related to what kind of challenges graduates face in working life.
  • Eikemo, Terje A.; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Kulik, Margarete C.; Kulhanova, Ivana; Toch-Marquardt, Marlen; Menvielle, Gwenn; Looman, Caspar; Jasilionis, Domantas; Martikainen, Pekka; Lundberg, Olle; Mackenbach, Johan P.; EURO-GBD-SE Consortium (2014)
  • Shin, Young-Kyu; Bockerman, Petri (2019)
    The literature on the Ghent system has focused on the link between voluntary unemployment insurance and union membership in terms of industrial relations. Less attention has been paid to unemployment benefits and employees' decision-making concerning unemployment insurance, even though the core function of the Ghent system is to provide unemployment insurance. This paper examines both of the options that precarious workers (i.e., part-timers, temporary employees, and low-skilled service employees) choose regarding unemployment insurance membership and the change in union density after the Ghent system reform in Finland. First, the results show that the growth of the independent unemployment insurance fund was the main reason for declining union density in the 2000s and early 2010s. Second, in terms of precarious workers, we find that the emergence of the independent fund has affected their choices about unemployment insurance membership and that their choices depend on the type of precarious employment they have. Moreover, part-timers and temporary employees younger than 35 years of age are much less likely to enroll in unemployment insurance than older employees who have the same types of employment contracts.
  • Tuononen, Tarja; Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari (Routledge - Taylor & Francis Group, 2017)
    New Perspectives on Learning and Instruction
  • Dudel, Christian; Myrskylae, Mikko (2017)
    A key concern about population aging is the decline in the size of the economically active population. Working longer is a potential remedy. However, little is known about the length of working life and how it relates to macroeconomic conditions. We use the U.S. Health and Retirement Study for 1992-2011 and multistate life tables to analyze working life expectancy at age 50 and study the impact of the Great Recession in 2007-2009. Despite declines of one to two years following the recession, in 2008-2011, American men aged 50 still spent 13 years, or two-fifths of their remaining life, working; American women of the same age spent 11 years, or one-third of their remaining life, in employment. Although educational differences in working life expectancy have been stable since the mid-1990s, racial differences started changing after the onset of the Great Recession. Our results show that although Americans generally work longer than people in other countries, considerable subpopulation heterogeneity exists. We also find that the time trends are fluctuating, which may prove troublesome as the population ages. Policies targeting the weakest performing groups may be needed to increase the total population trends.