Browsing by Subject "LACTOFERRIN"

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  • Lindford, Andrew; Juteau, Susanna; Jaks, Viljar; Klaas, Mariliis; Lagus, Heli; Vuola, Jyrki; Kankuri, Esko (2021)
    We describe a case of Lichtenberg Figures (LFs) following an electrical injury from a high-voltage switchgear in a 47 year-old electrician. LFs, also known as ferning pattern or keraunographic markings, are a pathognomonic skin sign for lightning strike injuries. Their true pathophysiology has remained a mystery and only once before described following an electical injury. The aim was to characterise the tissue response of LFs by performing untargeted non-labelled proteomics and immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded sections of skin biopsies taken from the area of LFs at presentation and at 3 months follow-up. Our results demonstrated an increase in dermal T-cells and greatly increased expression of the iron-binding glycoprotein lactoferrin by keratinocytes and lymphocytes. These changes in the LF-affected skin were associated with extravasation of red blood cells from dermal vessels. Our results provide an initial molecular and cellular insight into the tissue response associated with LFs.
  • Hukkinen, Maria; Pakarinen, Mikko Petteri; Merras-Salmio, Laura; Koivusalo, Antti; Rintala, Risto; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2016)
    Background: Fecal calprotectin (FC) correlates with endoscopic recurrence of Crohn's disease (CD) in adults but has not been studied among children postoperatively. We aimed to analyze whether FC relates with postoperative CD recurrence in children. Methods: Altogether 51 postoperative endoscopies and FC measurements from 22 patients having undergone surgery for CD at age Results: Ileocecal resection (n = 15), small bowel resection (n = 6), or left hemicolectomy (n = 1) was performed at median age of 15.1 (interquartile range 14.4-17.6) years. Following surgery, FC decreased significantly (659 vs. 103 mu g/g, p = 0.001). During median follow-up of 5.7 (4.2-7.7) years, either endoscopic or histological recurrence occurred in 17 patients (77%). FC > 139 mu g/g at time of endoscopy or FC increase of 79 mu g/g compared to first postoperative value was suggestive of endoscopic recurrence (Rutgeerts score i2-i4), while FC > 101 mu g/g or increase of 21 mu g/g indicated histological recurrence. Best accuracy for prediction of recurrence was obtained by combining FC at endoscopy and the postoperative increase of FC. The corresponding AUROC values were 0.74 (95% 0.58-0.89) for endoscopic recurrence whereas 0.81 (95% CI 0.67-0.95) for histological recurrence. Conclusion: FC is a useful surrogate marker of postoperative recurrence also in pediatric CD patients. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Hamalainen, Anssi; Sipponen, Taina; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2011)
  • EFSA Panel Dietetic Products Nutr (2018)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on whey basic protein isolate as a novel food (NF) pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. The NF is obtained by ion exchange chromatography of skimmed cow's milk. The applicant intends to market the NF in infant and follow-on formulae and meal replacement beverages, dietary foods for special medical purposes and as food supplements. The highest estimated intake of the NF based on the proposed uses and use levels would be 24.8 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day in infants and 27.8 in toddlers. The information provided on composition, specifications, production process and stability of the NF do not raise safety concerns. Taking into account the composition of the NF and the intended use levels, the Panel considers that the consumption of the NF is not nutritionally disadvantageous. The Panel considers that there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of a subchronic 13-week rat study was 2000 mg/kg bw per day. Considering the source, the production process and nature of the NF, the Panel considers the margin of exposure (MOE) of 154 to be sufficient for the adult population (on a high-estimated intake of 13 mg/kg bw). For infants and toddlers, the MOE would be at least 81 and 72, respectively. Taking into account the composition of the NF, its source, the history of consumption of the main components of the NF, the production process and that the NOAEL in a subchronic rat study was the highest dose tested the Panel considers that also the MOE for infants and toddlers are sufficient. The Panel concludes that the novel food ingredient, whey basic protein isolate, is safe under the proposed uses and use levels. (C) 2018 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Raivisto, Teija; Heikkinen, AnnaMaria; Kovanen, Leena; Ruokonen, Hellevi; Kettunen, Kaisa; Tervahartiala, Taina; Haukka, Jari; Sorsa, Timo (2018)
    Background. Dental caries is the most common infection in the world and is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Environmental factors are largely known, but the role of genetic factors is quite unknown. The aim was to investigate the genetic background of caries in Finnish adolescents. Materials and Methods. This study was carried out at the Kotka Health Center in Eastern Finland. 94 participants aged 15-17 years gave approval for the saliva and DNA analyses. However, one was excluded in DNA analysis; thus, the overall number of participants in analysis was 93. Caries status was recorded clinically and from bite-wing X-rays to all 94 participants. Genomic DNA was extracted by genomic QIAamp (R) DNA Blood Mini Kit and genotyped for polymorphisms. The results were analyzed using additive and logistic regression models. Results. No significant associations between caries and the genes studied were found. However, SNPs in DDX39B and MPO showed association tendencies but were not statistically significant after false discovery rate (FDR) analysis. SNPs in VDR, LTA, and MMP3 were not statistically significant with initial caries lesions after FDR analysis. Conclusion. The present study could not demonstrate statistically significant associations between caries and the genes studied. Further studies with larger populations are needed.
  • Hyvärinen, Kati; Tuomainen, Anita M.; Laitinen, Saara; Alfthan, Georg; Salminen, Irma; Leinonen, Maija; Saikku, Pekka; Kovanen, Petri T.; Jauhiainen, Matti; Pussinen, Pirkko J. (2013)
  • Passov, Arie; Petäjä, Liisa; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Suojaranta, Raili; Vento, Antti; Andersson, Sture; Pettilä, Ville; Schramko, Alexey; Pesonen, Eero (2019)
    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after heart surgery. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is produced in injured kidney. NGAL has been used as an early plasma biomarker for AKI in patients undergoing heart surgery. Neutrophils contain all isoforms (25-kDa, 45-kDa and 145-kDa) but the kidney produces almost exclusively the 25-kDa isoform of NGAL. We investigated first, whether there is association between NGAL and neutrophil activation, and second whether activated neutrophils are a significant source of circulating NGAL in plasma in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods: Two separate patient cohorts were studied: 1) the "kinetic cohort" (n = 29) and 2) the "FINNAKI cohort" (n = 306). As NGAL is strictly co-localized with lactoferrin in neutrophils, NGAL and lactoferrin were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all patients. In sixty-one patients of the "FINNAKI cohort" Western blot was used to separate NGAL isoforms according to their molecular size. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H, Pearson's and Spearman's tests were used as appropriate. Results: There was strong intraoperative association between NGAL and lactoferrin at all four time-points in the "kinetic cohort". In the "FINNAKI cohort", NGAL and lactoferrin concentrations correlated preoperatively (R = 0.59, p <0.001) and at admission to the intensive care unit (R = 0.69, p <0.001). At admission to intensive care unit, concentrations of NGAL and lactoferrin were higher in AKI than in non-AKI patients (NGAL: p <0.001; lactoferrin: p <0.029). In Western blot analyses, neutrophil specific 45-kDa isoform (median 41% [IQR 33.3-53.1]) and mostly neutrophil derived 145-kDa isoform (median 53.5% [IQR 44.0-64.9%]) together represented over 90% of total NGAL in plasma. Potentially kidney derived NGAL isoform (25-kDa) accounted for only 0.9% (IQR 0.3 - 3.0%) of total NGAL in plasma. There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of NGAL isomers between AKI and non-AKI patients. Conclusions: Plasma NGAL during cardiac surgery is associated with neutrophil activation. Based on molecular size, the majority of circulating NGAL is derived from neutrophils. Neutrophil activation is a confounding factor when interpreting increased plasma NGAL in cardiac surgery.