Browsing by Subject "LAKE"

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  • Luoto, Tomi P.; Kivila, E. Henriikka; Kotrys, Bartosz; Plociennik, Mateusz; Rantala, Marttiina; Nevalainen, Liisa (2020)
    Independent Arctic records of temperature and precipitation from the same proxy archives are rare. Nevertheless, they are important for providing detailed information on long-term climate changes and temperature-precipitation relationships in the context of large-scale atmospheric dynamics. Here, we used chironomid and cladoceran fossil assemblages to reconstruct summer air-temperature and water-level changes, during the past 400 years, in a small lake located in Finnish Lapland. Temperatures remained persistently cold over the Little Ice Age (LIA), but increased in the 20th century. After a cooler phase in the 1970s, the climate rapidly warmed to the record-high temperatures of the most recent decades. The lake-level reconstruction suggested persistently wet conditions for the LIA, followed by a dry period between similar to 1910 and 1970 CE, when the lake apparently became almost dry. Since the 1980s, the lake level has returned to a similar position as during the IAA. The temperature development was consistent with earlier records, but a significant local feature was found in the lake-level reconstruction the LIA appears to have been continuously wet, without the generally depicted dry phase during the 18th and 19th centuries. Therefore, the results suggest local precipitation patterns and enforce the concept of spatially divergent LIA conditions.
  • Li, Xuefei; Wahlroos, Outi Marjatta; Haapanala, Sami; Pumpanen, Jukka; Vasander, Harri; Ojala, Anne; Vesala, Timo; Mammarella, Ivan (2020)
    Many wetlands have been drained due to urbanization, agriculture, forestry or other purposes, which has resulted in a loss of their ecosystem services. To protect receiving waters and to achieve services such as flood control and storm water quality mitigation, new wetlands are created in urbanized areas. However, our knowledge of greenhouse gas exchange in newly created wetlands in urban areas is currently limited. In this paper we present measurements carried out at a created urban wetland in Southern Finland in the boreal climate. We conducted measurements of ecosystem CO2 flux and CH4 flux (FCH4) at the created storm water wetland Gateway in Nummela, Vihti, Southern Finland, using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. The measurements were commenced the fourth year after construction and lasted for 1 full year and two subsequent growing seasons. Besides ecosystemscale fluxes measured by the EC tower, the diffusive CO2 and CH4 fluxes from the open-water areas (FwCO(2) and FwCH(4), respectively) were modelled based on measurements of CO2 and CH4 concentration in the water. Fluxes from the vegetated areas were estimated by applying a simple mixing model using the above-mentioned fluxes and the footprintweighted fractional area. The half-hourly footprint-weighted contribution of diffusive fluxes from open water ranged from 0% to 25.5% in 2013. The annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the studied wetland was 8.0 g C-CO2 m(-2) yr(-1), with the 95% confidence interval between 18:9 and 34.9 g C-CO2 m(-2) yr(-1), and FCH4 was 3.9 g C-CH4 m(-2) yr(-1), with the 95% confidence interval between 3.75 and 4.07 g C-CH4 m(-2) yr(-1). The ecosystem sequestered CO2 during summer months (June-August), while the rest of the year it was a CO2 source. CH4 displayed strong seasonal dynamics, higher in summer and lower in winter, with a sporadic emission episode in the end of May 2013. Both CH4 and CO2 fluxes, especially those obtained from vegetated areas, exhibited strong diurnal cycles during summer with synchronized peaks around noon. The annual FwCO(2) was 297.5 g C-CO2 m(-2) yr(-1) and FwCH(4) was 1.73 g C-CH4 m(-2) yr(-1). The peak diffusive CH4 flux was 137.6 nmol C-CH4 m(-2) s(-1), which was synchronized with the FCH4. Overall, during the monitored time period, the established storm water wetland had a climate-warming effect with 0.263 kgCO(2)-eqm(-2) yr(-1) of which 89% was contributed by CH4. The radiative forcing of the open-water areas exceeded that of the vegetation areas (1.194 and 0.111 kgCO(2)-eqm(-2) yr(-1), respectively), which implies that, when considering solely the climate impact of a created wetland over a 100-year horizon, it would be more beneficial to design and establish wetlands with large patches of emergent vegetation and to limit the areas of open water to the minimum necessitated by other desired ecosystem services.
  • Luoma, S.; Okkonen, J.; Korkka-Niemi, K.; Hendriksson, N.; Backman, B. (2015)
    The groundwater in a shallow, unconfined, low-lying coastal aquifer in Santala, southern Finland, was chemically characterised by integrating multivariate statistical approaches, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), based on the stable isotopes delta H-2 and delta O-18, hydrogeochemistry and field monitoring data. PCA and HCA yielded similar results and classified groundwater samples into six distinct groups that revealed the factors controlling temporal and spatial variations in the groundwater geochemistry, such as the geology, anthropogenic sources from human activities, climate and surface water. High temporal variation in groundwater chemistry directly corresponded to precipitation. With an increase in precipitation, KMnO4 consumption, EC, alkalinity and Ca concentrations also increased in most wells, while Fe, Al, Mn and SO4 were occasionally increased during spring after the snowmelt under specific geological conditions. The continued increase in NO3 and metal concentrations in groundwater indicates the potential contamination risk to the aquifer. Stable isotopes of delta O-18 and delta H-2 indicate groundwater recharge directly from meteoric water, with an insignificant contribution from lake water, and no seawater intrusion into the aquifer. Groundwater geochemistry suggests that local seawater intrusion is temporarily able to take place in the sulfate reduction zone along the freshwater and seawater mixed zone in the low-lying coastal area, but the contribution of seawater was found to be very low. The influence of lake water could be observed from higher levels of KMnO4 consumption in wells near the lake. The integration of PCA and HCA with conventional classification of groundwater types, as well as with the hydrogeochemical data, provided useful tools to identify the vulnerable groundwater areas representing the impacts of both natural and human activities on water quality and the understanding of complex groundwater flow system for the aquifer vulnerability assessment and groundwater management in the future.
  • Luoto, Tomi P.; Kotrys, Bartosz; Plociennik, Mateusz (2019)
    Understanding local patterns and large-scale processes in past climate necessitates a detailed network of temperature reconstructions. In this study, a merged temperature inference model using fossil chironomid (Diptera: Chironomidae) datasets from Finland and Poland was constructed to fill the lack of an applicable training set for East European sites. The developed weighted averaging partial least squares (WA-PLS) inference model showed favorable performance statistics, suggesting that the model can be useful for downcore reconstructions. The combined calibration model includes 212 sites, 142 taxa, and a temperature gradient of 11.3-20.1 degrees C. The 2-component WA-PLS model has a cross-validated coefficient of determination of 0.88 and a root mean squared prediction error of 0.88 degrees C. We tested the new East European temperature transfer function in chironomid stratigraphies from a Finnish high-resolution short-core sediment record and a Polish paleolake (Zabieniec) covering the past similar to 20 000 yr. In the Finnish site, the chironomid-inferred temperatures correlated closely with the observed instrumental temperatures, showing improved accuracy compared to estimates by the original Finnish calibration model. In addition, the long-core reconstruction from the Polish site showed logical results in its general trends compared to existing knowledge on the past regional climate trends; however, it had distinct differences when compared with hemispheric climate oscillations. Hence, based on these findings, the new temperature model will enable more detailed examination of long-term temperature variability in Eastern Europe, and consequently, reliable identification of local and regional climate variability of the past.
  • Schenk, Frederik; Bennike, Ole; Valiranta, Minna; Avery, Rachael; Björck, Svante; Wohlfarth, Barbara (2020)
    The global climate transition from the Lateglacial to the Early Holocene is dominated by a rapid warming trend driven by an increase in orbital summer insolation over high northern latitudes and related feedbacks. The warming trend was interrupted by several abrupt shifts between colder (stadial) and warmer (interstadial) climate states following instabilities of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in response to rapidly melting ice sheets. The sequence of abrupt shifts between extreme climate states had profound impacts on ecosystems which make it challenging to reliably quantify state variables like July temperatures within a non-analogue climate envelope. For Europe, there is increasing albeit inconclusive evidence for higher stadial summer temperatures than initially thought. Here we present a comprehensive floral compilation of plant macrofossils from lake sediment cores of 15 sites from S-Scandinavia covering the period similar to 15 to 11 ka BP. We find evidence for a continued presence of plant species indicating high July temperatures throughout the last deglaciation. The presence of hemiboreal plants in close vicinity to the southern margin of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet implies a strong thermal summer forcing for the rapid ice sheet melt. Consistent with some recent studies, we do not find evidence for a general stadial summer cooling, which indicates that other reasons than summer temperatures caused drastic setbacks in proxy signals possibly driven by extreme winter cooling and/or shorter warm seasons. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Aakala, Tuomas (2018)
    Wildfires virtually disappeared from the Fennoscandian forests in the 20th century, but have left persistent legacies in forest structure. Here, I reconstructed past fires in three northern boreal landscapes (each 2 km x 2 km) from fire scars, and described the fire regime for the past 300 years. The average fire cycles (1700-1999) were 72 and 156 years in Pinus sylvestris-dominated landscapes, and 579 years in a Picea abies-dominated landscape. At the site level, the number of fires was clearly related to soil hydraulic properties. Age structures from 1800 live and dead trees showed strong cohorts associated with large fires in two of the landscapes. Although tree growth and regeneration in sub-arctic regions are considered highly climate-sensitive, fires have been a major driver of forest dynamics in these areas. Continued absence of fires will lead to considerable changes in the forest structure and species composition in the future.
  • Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Rissanen, Antti J.; Hietanen, Susanna; Jilbert, Tom (2020)
    Methane is produced microbially in vast quantities in sediments throughout the world's oceans. However, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) provides a near-quantitative sink for the produced methane and is primarily responsible for preventing methane emissions from the oceans to the atmosphere. AOM is a complex microbial process that involves several different microbial groups and metabolic pathways. The role of different electron acceptors in AOM has been studied for decades, yet large uncertainties remain, especially in terms of understanding the processes in natural settings. This study reports whole-core incubation methane oxidation rates along an estuarine gradient ranging from near fresh water to brackish conditions, and investigates the potential role of different electron acceptors in AOM. Microbial community structure involved in different methane processes is also studied in the same estuarine system using high throughput sequencing tools. Methane oxidation in the sediments was active in three distinct depth layers throughout the studied transect, with total oxidation rates increasing seawards. We find extensive evidence of non-sulphate AOM throughout the transect. The highest absolute AOM rates were observed below the sulphate-methane transition zone (SMTZ), strongly implicating the role of alternative electron acceptors (most likely iron and manganese oxides). However, oxidation rates were ultimately limited by methane availability. ANME-2a/b were the most abundant microbial phyla associated with AOM throughout the study sites, followed by ANME-2d in much lower abundances. Similarly to oxidation rates, highest abundances of microbial groups commonly associated with AOM were found well below the SMTZ, further reinforcing the importance of non-sulphate AOM in this system.
  • Peltomaa, Elina T.; Taipale, Sami (2020)
    The uptake of dissolved organic compounds, that is, osmotrophy, has been shown to be an efficient nutritional strategy for algae. However, this mode of nutrition may affect the biochemical composition, for example, the fatty acid (FA) contents, of algal cells. This study focused on the osmotrophic assimilation of glucose and leucine by selected seven algal strains belonging to chlorophytes, chrysophytes, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates and euglenoids. Our laboratory experiments with stable isotope labeling showed that osmotrophy occurred in four of the selected seven strains. However, only three of these produced long chain omega-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 omega 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 omega 3). High glucose content (5 mg L-1) affected negatively on the total FAs of Mallomonas kalinae and the total omega-3 FAs of Cryptomonas sp. Further, glucose assimilation explained 35% (negative effect) and leucine assimilation 48% (positive effect) of the variation of EPA, DHA and the FAs related to their synthesis in Cryptomonas sp. Moderate glucose concentration (2 mg L-1) was found to enhance the growth of Cryptomonas ozolinii, whereas low leucine (20 mu g L-1) enhanced the growth of M. kalinae. However, no systematic effect of osmotrophy on growth rates was detected. Our study shows that osmotrophic assimilation of algae is species and compound specific, and that the effects of the assimilated compounds on algal metabolism also varies depending on the species.
  • Kainz, M. J.; Hager, H.H.; Rasconi, S.; Kahilainen, K. K.; Amundsen, P. -A.; Hayden, B. (2017)
    Trophic transfer and retention of dietary compounds are vital for somatic development, reproduction, and survival of aquatic consumers. In this field study, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, and fatty acids (FA) contents in invertebrates and fishes of pre-alpine Lake Lunz, Austria, were used to (1) identify the resource use and trophic level of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), pike (Esox lucius), perch (Perca fluviatilis), brown trout (Salmo trutta), roach (Rutilus rutilus), and minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) and (2) examine how polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; i.e., omega-3 and -6 PUFA) are related to total lipid status, littoral-pelagic reliance, and trophic position. Stable isotope data suggest that pike, perch, and minnow derived most of their energy from littoral resources, but minnows differed from pike and perch in their trophic position and PUFA composition. The co-occurrence of cyprinids, percids, and pike segregated these fishes into more lipid-rich (roach, minnow) and lipid-poor (pike, percids) species. Although the relatively lipid-poor pike and percids occupied a higher trophic position than cyprinids, there was a concurrent, total lipid-dependent decline in omega-3 and -6 PUFA in these predatory fishes. Results of this lake food-web study demonstrated that total lipids in fish community, littoral-pelagic reliance, and trophic position explained omega-3 and -6 PUFA in dorsal muscle tissues. Omega-3 and -6 PUFA in these fishes decreased with increasing trophic position, demonstrating that these essential FAs did not biomagnify with increasing trophic level. Finally, this lake food-web study provides evidence of fish community-level relationship between total lipid status and PUFA or stable isotope ratios, whereas the strength of such relationships was less strong at the species level.
  • Jakobsson, Martin; O'Regan, Matt; Morth, Carl-Magnus; Stranne, Christian; Weidner, Elizabeth; Hansson, Jim; Gyllencreutz, Richard; Humborg, Christoph; Elfwing, Tina; Norkko, Alf; Norkko, Joanna; Nilsson, Bjorn; Sjöström, Arne (2020)
    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) influences ocean chemistry, circulation, and the spreading of nutrients and pollutants; it also shapes sea floor morphology. In the Baltic Sea, SGD was linked to the development of terraces and semicircular depressions mapped in an area of the southern Stockholm archipelago, Sweden, in the 1990s. We mapped additional parts of the Stockholm archipelago, areas in Blekinge, southern Sweden, and southern Finland using high-resolution multibeam sonars and sub-bottom profilers to investigate if the sea floor morphological features discovered in the 1990s are widespread and to further address the hypothesis linking their formation to SGD. Sediment coring and sea floor photography conducted with a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and divers add additional information to the geophysical mapping results. We find that terraces, with general bathymetric expressions of about 1 m and lateral extents of sometimes > 100 m, are widespread in the surveyed areas of the Baltic Sea and are consistently formed in glacial clay. Semicircular depressions, however, are only found in a limited part of a surveyed area east of the island of Asko, southern Stockholm archipelago. While submarine terraces can be produced by several processes, we interpret our results to be in support of the basic hypothesis of terrace formation initially proposed in the 1990s; i.e. groundwater flows through siltier, more permeable layers in glacial clay to discharge at the sea floor, leading to the formation of a sharp terrace when the clay layers above seepage zones are undermined enough to collapse. By linking the terraces to a specific geologic setting, our study further refines the formation hypothesis and thereby forms the foundation for a future assessment of SGD in the Baltic Sea that may use marine geological mapping as a starting point. We propose that SGD through the submarine sea floor terraces is plausible and could be intermittent and linked to periods of higher groundwater levels, implying that to quantify the contribution of freshwater to the Baltic Sea through this potential mechanism, more complex hydrogeological studies are required.
  • Luoto, Tomi P.; Ojala, Antti E. K.; Zajaczkowski, Marek (2019)
    We used fossil Chironomidae assemblages and the transfer function approach to reconstruct summer air temperatures over the past 300 years from a High Arctic lake in Hornsund, Svalbard. Our aims were to compare reconstructed summer temperatures with observed (last 100 years) seasonal temperatures, to determine a potential climate warming break point in the temperature series and to assess the significance and rate of the climate warming trend at the study site. The reconstructed temperatures were consistent with a previous proxy record from Svalbard and showed good correlation with the meteorological observations from Bjornoya and Longyearbyen. From the current palaeoclimate record, we found a significant climate warming threshold in the 1930s, after which the temperatures rapidly increased. We also found that the climate warming trend was strong and statistically significant. Compared with the reconstructed Little Ice Age temperatures in late eighteenth century cooling culmination, the present day summer temperatures are >4 degrees C higher and the temperature increase since the 1930s has been 0.5 degrees C per decade. These results highlight the exceptionally rapid recent warming of southern Svalbard and add invaluable information on the seasonality of High Arctic climate change and Arctic amplification.
  • Virta, Leena; Soininen, Janne; Norkko, Alf (2020)
    The global biodiversity loss has raised interest in the different facets of diversity, and the importance of diversity for ecosystem functions has been recognized. However, our knowledge on seasonal and inter-annual variation in the composition and diversity of communities is still poor. Here, we investigated the seasonal and inter-annual changes in taxonomic and functional community composition and diversity of benthic diatoms in a coastal habitat of the northern Baltic Sea, where seasonal and inter-annual variation of climate is pronounced. We found that the taxonomic and functional alpha diversity remained stable at seasonal and inter-annual level despite strong changes in community composition. However, alpha diversity decreased during an exceptionally warm winter possibly due to disturbances induced by the lack of ice. This may suggest that climate warming and consequently limited ice cover will affect the diversity of benthic communities.
  • Rautio, A.; Kivimäki, A.-L.; Korkka-Niemi, K.; Nygård, M.; Salonen, V.-P.; Lahti, K.; Vahtera, H. (2015)
    A low-altitude aerial infrared (AIR) survey was conducted to identify hydraulic connections between aquifers and rivers and to map spatial surface temperature patterns along boreal rivers. In addition, the stable isotopic compositions (delta O-18, delta D), dissolved silica (DSi) concentrations and electrical conductivity of water in combination with AIR data were used as tracers to verify the observed groundwater discharge into the river system in a boreal catchment. Based on low temperature anomalies in the AIR survey, around 370 groundwater discharge sites were located along the main river channel and its tributaries (203 km altogether). On the basis of the AIR survey, the longitudinal temperature patterns of the studied rivers differed noticeably. The stable isotopes and DSi composition revealed major differences between the studied rivers. The groundwater discharge locations identified in the proximity of 12 municipal water intake plants during the low-flow seasons should be considered as potential risk areas for water intake plants during flood periods (groundwater quality deterioration due to bank infiltration), and should be taken under consideration in river basin management under changing climatic situations.