Browsing by Subject "LAND-USE CHANGE"

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  • Scridel, Davide; Brambilla, Mattia; Martin, Kathy; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Iemma, Aaron; Matteo, Anderle; Jahnig, Susanne; Caprio, Enrico; Bogliani, Giuseppe; Pedrini, Paolo; Rolando, Antonio; Arlettaz, Raphael; Chamberlain, Dan (2018)
    Mountain regions are globally important areas for biodiversity but are subject to multiple human-induced threats, including climate change, which has been more severe at higher elevations. We reviewed evidence for impacts of climate change on Holarctic mountain bird populations in terms of physiology, phenology, trophic interactions, demography and observed and projected distribution shifts, including effects of other factors that interact with climate change. We developed an objective classification of high-elevation, mountain specialist and generalist species, based on the proportion oftheir breeding range occurring in mountain regions. Our review found evidence of responses of mountain bird populations to climate (extreme weather events, temperature, rainfall and snow) and environmental (i.e. land use) change, but we know little about either the underlying mechanisms or the synergistic effects of climate and land use. Long-term studies assessing reproductive success or survival of mountain birds in relation to climate change were rare. Few studies have considered shifts in elevational distribution over time and a meta-analysis did not find a consistent direction in elevation change. A meta-analysis carried out on future projections of distribution shifts suggested that birds whose breeding distributions are largely restricted to mountains are likely to be more negatively impacted than other species. Adaptation responses to climate change rely mostly on managing and extending current protected areas for both species already present, and for expected colonizing species that are losing habitat and climate space at lower elevation. However, developing effective management actions requires an improvement in the current knowledge of mountain species ecology, in the quality of climate data and in understanding the role of interacting factors. Furthermore, the evidence was mostly based on widespread species rather than mountain specialists. Scientists should provide valuable tools to assess the status of mountain birds, for example through the development of a mountain bird population index, and policy-makers should influence legislation to develop efficient agri-environment schemes and forestry practices for mountain birds, as well as to regulate leisure activities at higher elevations.
  • Fraixedas, Sara; Linden, Andreas; Piha, Markus; Cabeza, Mar; Gregory, Richard; Lehikoinen, Aleksi (2020)
    The current loss of biodiversity has been broadly acknowledged as the main cause of ecosystem change. To halt this trend, several international agreements have been made, and various biodiversity metrics have been developed to evaluate whether the targets of these agreements are being met. The process of developing good indicators is not trivial. Indicators should be able to synthesize and communicate our current knowledge, but they also need to meet both scientific and practical criteria. Since it would not be practical to monitor all species, indicators are mainly built on the monitoring of some well-known taxa, such as birds. Here we systematically review the wide spectrum of bird biodiversity indicators (hereafter indicators) available to: i) evaluate recent methodological advances; ii) identify current knowledge gaps jeopardizing indicator interpretation and use in guiding decision-making; and iii) examine challenges in their applicability across different spatial and temporal contexts. We pay particular attention to indicator characteristics such as site and species selection, spatial, seasonal and habitat coverage, and statistical issues in developing indicators and tools to tackle them, to provide specific recommendations for the future construction of indicators. Several methodological advances have recently been made to enhance the process of indicator development, including multiple ways to select sites and species to increase their robustness. However, we found that there are strong spatial, seasonal and habitat biases among the selected indicators. Most of them are from Europe, using mainly census data from the breeding season and typically covering farmland and forest habitats. The major challenges that we detected in their applicability were related to the modelling of the statistical uncertainty associated to the indicator. We recommend the use of quantitative methods in site and species selection procedures whenever possible. Current indicators should be expanded to areas outside Europe and to less studied habitats and should not neglect monitoring work outside the breeding season. Time-series analyses studying temporal trends and using multi-species data should in general account for temporal autocorrelation as well as for phylogenetic correlation. Multi-species hierarchical models are a good alternative for analysing and constructing indicators, but they need to include annual random effects allowing for unexplained annual variation in the average status of the community, i.e. the indicator target. Despite methodological and context-specific differences in the indicators reviewed, most of them seem to highlight the urgent need of devising strategic climate and conservation policies to improve the status and trends of biodiversity.
  • Ning, Wenxin; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena; Jilbert, Thomas Stephen; Åkesson, Christine; Slomp, Caroline P.; Andren, Elinor; Broström, Anne; Filipsson, Helena L. (2018)
    Coastal environments have experienced large ecological changes as a result of human activities over the last 100-200 years. To understand the severity and potential consequences of such changes, paleoenvironmental records provide important contextual information. The Baltic Sea coastal zone is naturally a vulnerable system and subject to significant human-induced impacts. To put the recent environmental degradation in the Baltic coastal zone into a long-term perspective, and to assess the natural and anthropogenic drivers of environmental change, we present sedimentary records covering the last 1000 years obtained from a coastal inlet (Gasfjarden) and a nearby lake (Lake Storsjon) in Sweden. We investigate the links between a pollen-based land cover reconstruction from Lake Storsjon and paleoenvironmental variables from Gasfjarden itself, including diatom assemblages, organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents, stable C and N isotopic ratios, and biogenic silica contents. The Lake Storsjon record shows that regional land use was characterized by small-scale agricultural activity between 900 and 1400 CE, which slightly intensified between 1400 and 1800 CE. Substantial expansion of cropland was observed between 1800 and 1950 CE, before afforestation between 1950 and 2010 CE. From the Gasfjarden record, prior to 1800 CE, relatively minor changes in the diatom and geochemical proxies were found. The onset of cultural eutrophication in Gasfjarden can be traced to the 1800s and intensified land use is identified as the main driver. Anthropogenic activities in the 20th century have caused unprecedented ecosystem changes in the coastal inlet, as reflected in the diatom composition and geochemical proxies. (c) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Jonsson, Ragnar; Rinaldi, Francesca; Pilli, Roberto; Fiorese, Giulia; Hurmekoski, Elias; Cazzaniga, Noemi; Robert, Nicolas; Camia, Andrea (2021)
    This study adds to the scientific literature dealing with the climate change mitigation implications of wood substitution. Its main scientific contribution rests with the modelling approach. By fully integrating forest resource and wood-product markets modelling in quantitative scenario analysis, we account for international trade in wood products as well as impacts on EU forests and forest-based sector employment of an increased EU uptake of wood-based construction and/or biochemicals and biofuels. Our results confirm the crucial role of the sawmilling industry in the forest-based bioeconomy. Thus, boosting wood-based construction in the EU would be most effective in increasing EU production and employment—in logging and solid wood-products manufacturing, but also in sectors using sawmilling byproducts as feedstock. Vertical integration in wood-based biorefineries should thus be advantageous. The positive EU climate-change mitigation effects of increased carbon storage in harvested wood products (HWP) and material substitution from increased wood construction are more than offset by reduced net forests carbon sinks by 2030, due to increased EU harvests. Further, increased EU imports, resulting in lower consumption of sawnwood outside the EU, would reduce extra-EU long-life HWP carbon storage and substitution of GHG-intensive materials, highlighting the need for concerted international climate change mitigation
  • Virkkala, Raimo; Aalto, Juha; Heikkinen, Risto; Rajasärkkä, Ari; Kuusela, Saija; Leikola, Niko; Luoto, Miska (2020)
    Increased attention is being paid to the ecological drivers and conservation measures which could mitigate climate change-induced pressures for species survival, potentially helping populations to remain in their present-day locations longer. One important buffering mechanism against climate change may be provided by the heterogeneity in topography and consequent local climate conditions. However, the buffering capacity of this topoclimate has so far been insufficiently studied based on empirical survey data across multiple sites and species. Here, we studied whether the fine-grained air temperature variation of protected areas (PAs) affects the population changes of declining northern forest bird species. Importantly to our study, in PAs harmful land use, such as logging, is not allowed, enabling the detection of the effects of temperature buffering, even at relatively moderate levels of topographic variation. Our survey data from 129 PAs located in the boreal zone in Finland show that the density of northern forest species was higher in topographically heterogeneous PAs than in topographically more homogeneous PAs. Moreover, local temperature variation had a significant effect on the density change of northern forest birds from 1981-1999 to 2000-2017, indicating that change in bird density was generally smaller in PAs with higher topographic variation. Thus, we found a clear buffering effect stemming from the local temperature variation of PAs in the population trends of northern forest birds.
  • Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Brotons, Lluis; Calladine, John; Campedelli, Tommaso; Escandell, Virginia; Flousek, Jiri; Grueneberg, Christoph; Haas, Fredrik; Harris, Sarah; Herrando, Sergi; Husby, Magne; Jiguet, Frederic; Kalas, John Atle; Lindstrom, Ake; Lorrilliere, Romain; Molina, Blas; Pladevall, Clara; Calvi, Gianpiero; Sattler, Thomas; Schmid, Hans; Sirkiä, Päivi M.; Teufelbauer, Norbert; Trautmann, Sven (2019)
    Mountain areas often hold special species communities, and they are high on the list of conservation concern. Global warming and changes in human land use, such as grazing pressure and afforestation, have been suggested to be major threats for biodiversity in the mountain areas, affecting species abundance and causing distribution shifts towards mountaintops. Population shifts towards poles and mountaintops have been documented in several areas, indicating that climate change is one of the key drivers of species' distribution changes. Despite the high conservation concern, relatively little is known about the population trends of species in mountain areas due to low accessibility and difficult working conditions. Thanks to the recent improvement of bird monitoring schemes around Europe, we can here report a first account of population trends of 44 bird species from four major European mountain regions: Fennoscandia, UK upland, south-western (Iberia) and south-central mountains (Alps), covering 12 countries. Overall, the mountain bird species declined significantly (-7%) during 2002-2014, which is similar to the declining rate in common birds in Europe during the same period. Mountain specialists showed a significant -10% decline in population numbers. The slope for mountain generalists was also negative, but not significantly so. The slopes of specialists and generalists did not differ from each other. Fennoscandian and Iberian populations were on average declining, while in United Kingdom and Alps, trends were nonsignificant. Temperature change or migratory behaviour was not significantly associated with regional population trends of species. Alpine habitats are highly vulnerable to climate change, and this is certainly one of the main drivers of mountain bird population trends. However, observed declines can also be partly linked with local land use practices. More efforts should be undertaken to identify the causes of decline and to increase conservation efforts for these populations.
  • Cai, Xiaoqing; Lin, Ziwen; Penttinen, Petri; Li, Yongfu; Li, Yongchun; Luo, Yu; Yue, Tian; Jiang, Peikun; Fu, Weijun (2018)
    Converting natural forests to plantations would markedly change soil physiochemical and biological properties, as a consequence of changing plant vegetative coverage and management practices. However, the effects of such land-use change on the soil nutrient pools and related enzymes activities still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of conversion from natural evergreen broadleaf forests to Moso bamboo plantations on the pool sizes and forms of soil N, P and K, microbial biomass, and nutrient cycling related enzyme activities. Soil samples from four adjacent evergreen broadleaf forest-Moso bamboo plantation pairs were collected from a subtropical region in Zhejiang Province, China. The soil organic C (SOC), total N (TN), total P (TP) and total K (TK) concentrations and stocks and different N, P and K forms were measured, and the microbial biomass C (MBC), microbial biomass N (MBN), microbial biomass P (MBP) and four soil enzymes (protease, urease, acid phosphatase and catalase) were determined. The results showed that converting broadleaf forests to Moso bamboo plantations decreased the concentration and stock of SOC but increased those of TK in both soil layers (0-20 and 20-40 cm), and such land-use change increased the concentration and stock of TN and TP only in the 0-20 cm soil layer (P <0.05). This land-use conversion increased the concentrations of NH4+-N, NO3- N, resin-Pi, NaHCO3-P-1, NaOH-P-i, HCl-P-i, available K and slowly available K, but decreased the concentrations of water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON), NaHCO3-P-o and NaOH-P-o (P <0.05). Further, this land-use change decreased the microbial biomass and activities of protease, urease, acid phosphatase and catalase (P <0.05). In addition, the acid phosphatase activity correlated positively with the concentrations of MBP and NaHCO3-P-o, and the activities of urease and protease correlated positively with the concentrations of MBN and WSON (P <0.01). To conclude, converting natural broadleaf forests to Moso bamboo plantations had positive effects on soil inorganic N, P and K pools, and negative effects on soil organic N and P pools, and on N- and P-cycling related enzyme activities. Therefore, management practices that increase organic nutrient pools and microbial activity are needed to be developed to mitigate the depletion of organic nutrient pools after the land-use conversion.
  • Horton, Alexander J.; Nygren, Anja; Miguel, Diaz Perera; Kummu, Matti (2021)
    Anthropogenic activities are altering flood frequency-magnitude distributions along many of the world's large rivers. Yet isolating the impact of any single factor amongst the multitudes of competing anthropogenic drivers is a persistent challenge. The Usumacinta River in southeastern Mexico provides an opportunity to study the anthropogenic driver of tropical forest conversion in isolation, as the long meteorological and discharge records capture the river's response to large-scale agricultural expansion without interference from development activities such as dams or channel modifications. We analyse continuous daily time series of precipitation, temperature, and discharge to identify long-term trends, and employ a novel approach to disentangle the signal of deforestation by normalising daily discharges by 90-day mean precipitation volumes from the contributing area in order to account for climatic variability. We also identify an anthropogenic signature of tropical forest conversion at the intra-annual scale, reproduce this signal using a distributed hydrological model (VMOD), and demonstrate that the continued conversion of tropical forest to agricultural land use will further exacerbate large-scale flooding. We find statistically significant increasing trends in annual minimum, mean, and maximum discharges that are not evident in either precipitation or temperature records, with mean monthly discharges increasing between 7% and 75% in the past decades. Model results demonstrate that forest cover loss is responsible for raising the 10-year return peak discharge by 25%, while the total conversion of forest to agricultural use would result in an additional 18% rise. These findings highlight the need for an integrated basin-wide approach to land management that considers the impacts of agricultural expansion on increased flood prevalence, and the economic and social costs involved.
  • Kauppi, Pekka E.; Sandström, Vilma; Lipponen, Antti (2018)
    A universal turnaround has been detected in many countries of the World from shrinking to expanding forests. The forest area of western Europe expanded already in the 19th century. Such early trends of forest resources cannot be associated with the rapid rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide nor with the anthropogenic climate change, which have taken place since the mid 20th century. Modern, most recent spatial patterns of forest expansions and contractions do not correlate with the geography of climate trends nor with dry versus moist areas. Instead, the forest resources trends of nations correlate positively with UNDP Human Development Index. This indicates that forest resources of nations have improved along with progress in human well-being. Highly developed countries apply modern agricultural methods on good farmlands and abandon marginal lands, which become available for forest expansion. Developed countries invest in sustainable programs of forest management and nature protection. Our findings are significant for predicting the future of the terrestrial carbon sink. They suggest that the large sink of carbon recently observed in forests of the World will persist, if the well-being of people continues to improve. However, despite the positive trends in domestic forests, developed nations increasingly outsource their biomass needs abroad through international trade, and all nations rely on unsustainable energy use and wasteful patterns of material consumption.
  • Mod, Heidi K.; Scherrer, Daniel; Di Cola, Valeria; Broennimann, Olivier; Blandenier, Quentin; Breiner, Frank T.; Buri, Aline; Goudet, Jerome; Guex, Nicolas; Lara, Enrique; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Niculita-Hirzel, Helene; Pagni, Marco; Pellissier, Loic; Pinto-Figueroa, Eric; Sanders, Ian R.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Seppey, Christophe V. W.; Singer, David; Ursenbacher, Sylvain; Yashiro, Erika; van der Meer, Jan R.; Guisan, Antoine (2020)
    Assessing the degree to which climate explains the spatial distributions of different taxonomic and functional groups is essential for anticipating the effects of climate change on ecosystems. Most effort so far has focused on above-ground organisms, which offer only a partial view on the response of biodiversity to environmental gradients. Here including both above- and below-ground organisms, we quantified the degree of topoclimatic control on the occurrence patterns of >1,500 taxa and phylotypes along a c. 3,000 m elevation gradient, by fitting species distribution models. Higher model performances for animals and plants than for soil microbes (fungi, bacteria and protists) suggest that the direct influence of topoclimate is stronger on above-ground species than on below-ground microorganisms. Accordingly, direct climate change effects are predicted to be stronger for above-ground than for below-ground taxa, whereas factors expressing local soil microclimate and geochemistry are likely more important to explain and forecast the occurrence patterns of soil microbiota. Detailed mapping and future scenarios of soil microclimate and microhabitats, together with comparative studies of interacting and ecologically dependent above- and below-ground biota, are thus needed to understand and realistically forecast the future distribution of ecosystems.
  • Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Page, Susan E.; Vasander, Harri (2016)
    Agricultural and other land uses on ombrotrophic lowland tropical peat swamps typically lead to reduced vegetation biomass and water table drawdown. We review what is known about greenhouse gas (GHG) dynamics in natural and degraded tropical peat systems in south-east Asia, and on this basis consider what can be expected in terms of GHG dynamics under restored conditions. Only limited in situ data are available on the effects of restoration and the consequences for peat carbon (C) dynamics. Hydrological restoration seeks to bring the water table closer to the peat surface and thus re-create near-natural water table conditions, in order to reduce wildfire risk and associated fire impacts on the peat C store, as well as to reduce aerobic peat decomposition rates. However, zero emissions are unlikely to be achieved due to the notable potential for carbon dioxide (CO2) production from anaerobic peat decomposition processes. Increased vegetation cover (ideally woody plants) resulting from restoration will increase shading and reduce peat surface temperatures, and this may in turn reduce aerobic decomposition rates. An increase in litter deposition rate will compensate for C losses by peat decomposition but also increase the supply of labile C, which may prime decomposition, especially in peat enriched with recalcitrant substrates. The response of tropical peatland GHG emissions to peatland restoration will also vary according to previous land use and land use intensity.
  • Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Kerojoki, Otto; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Limin, Suwido; Vasander, Harri (2014)
    Vast areas of deforested tropical peatlands do not receive noteworthy shading by vegetation, which increases the amount of solar radiation reaching the peat surface. Peat temperature dynamics and heterotrophic carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes were monitored under four shading conditions, i.e. unshaded, 28%, 51% and 90% shading at experiment sites established on reclaimed fallow agricultural- and degraded sites in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Groundwater tables on the sites were at about 50 cm depth, the sites were maintained vegetation free and root ingrowth to gas flux monitoring locations was prevented. Half of the four shading areas received NPK-fertilization 50 kg ha−1 for each of N, P and K during the experiment and the other half was unfertilized. Increases in shading created a lasting decrease in peat temperatures, and decreased diurnal temperature fluctuations, in comparison to less shaded plots. The largest peat temperature difference in the topmost 50 cm peat profile was between the unshaded and 90% shaded surface, where the average temperatures at 5 cm depth differed up to 3.7 °C, and diurnal temperatures at 5 cm depth varied up to 4.2 °C in the unshaded and 0.4 °C in the 90% shaded conditions. Highest impacts on the heterotrophic CO2 fluxes caused by the treatments were on agricultural land, where 90% shading from the full exposure resulted in a 33% lower CO2 emission average on the unfertilized plots and a 66% lower emission average on the fertilized plots. Correlation between peat temperature and CO2 flux suggested an approximately 8% (unfertilized) and 25% (fertilized) emissions change for each 1 °C temperature change at 5 cm depth on the agricultural land. CO2 flux responses to the treatments remained low on degraded peatland. Fertilized conditions negatively correlated with N2O efflux with increases in temperature, suggesting a 12–36% lower efflux for each 1 °C increase in peat temperature (at 5 cm depth) at the sites. Despite the apparently similar landscapes of fallow agricultural land and degraded peatland sites, the differences in greenhouse gas dynamics are expected to be an outcome of the long-term management differences.
  • Di Minin, Enrico; Soutullo, Alvaro; Bartesaghi, Lucia; Rios, Mariana; Szephegyi, Maria Nube; Moilanen, Atte (2017)
    Gaps in research exist for country-wide analyses to identify areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services to help reach Aichi Target 11 in developing countries. Here we provide a spatial conservation prioritization approach that ranks landowners for maximizing the representation of biodiversity features and ecosystem services, while exploring the trade-offs with agricultural and commercial forestry production and land cost, using Uruguay as a case study. Specifically, we explored four policy scenarios, ranging from a business as usual scenario where only biodiversity and ecosystem services were included in the analysis to a potentially unsustainable scenario where expansion of alternative land uses and economic development would be given higher priority over biodiversity and ecosystem services. At the 17% land target proposed for conservation, the representation levels for biodiversity and ecosystem services were, on average, higher under the business as usual scenario. However, a small addition to the proposed target (from 17 to 20%) allowed to meet same representation levels for biodiversity and ecosystem services, while decreasing conflict with agricultural and commercial forestry production and opportunity costs to local landowners. Under the unsustainable scenario, a striking 41% addition to the conservation target (from 17 to 58%) was needed to meet same representation levels for threatened ecosystems and ecosystem services, which are crucial to sustain human well-being. Our results highlight that more realistic and potentially higher conservation targets, than politically set targets, can be achieved at the country level when sustainable development needs are also accounted for. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Jauhiainen, J.; Silvennoinen, H.; Hamalainen, R.; Kusin, K.; Limin, S.; Raison, R. J.; Vasander, H. (2012)
  • Stern, T.; Ranacher, L.; Mair, C.; Berghäll, S.; Lähtinen, K.; Forsblom, M.; Toppinen, A. (2018)
    New innovations are called for to renew the European forest sector into bioeconomy. However, little research exists on how the industry innovativeness is publicly perceived. Using data collected with an online questionnaire in four European countries, we investigate perceptions related to forest sector innovations on 13 current and new bioeconomy-related products and services. Altogether, 218 valid responses were received in 2015, and the data were analysed using descriptive statistics, performance-importance analysis, and Gartner's innovation hype cycle. Based on our results, the respondents were in the strongest agreement that the forest sector has since the year 2000 has produced innovations related to wood building systems, construction materials, and wood composites. In the next 15 years, they foresaw a decline in innovations related to biofuels and paper products. The European forest sector also has future potential in wood construction, which is likely related to international policy targets related to carbon mitigation and capture. The observed variation in perceptions among the respondents on forest sector innovativeness calls for strengthening industry R&D, as well as by improving societal awareness of ongoing innovation projects by developing better communication.
  • Schipper, Aafke; Hilbers, Jelle P.; Meijer, Johan; Antao, Laura; Benítez‐López, Ana; de Jonge, Melinda; Leemans, Luuk; Scheper, Eddy; Alkemade, Rob; Doelman, Jonathan; Mylius, Sido; Stehfest, Elke; van Vuuren, Detlef; van Zeist, Willem‐Jan; Huijbregts, Mark (2020)
    Scenario-based biodiversity modelling is a powerful approach to evaluate how possible future socio-economic developments may affect biodiversity. Here, we evaluated the changes in terrestrial biodiversity intactness, expressed by the mean species abundance (MSA) metric, resulting from three of the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) combined with different levels of climate change (according to representative concentration pathways [RCPs]): a future oriented towards sustainability (SSP1xRCP2.6), a future determined by a politically divided world (SSP3xRCP6.0) and a future with continued global dependency on fossil fuels (SSP5xRCP8.5). To this end, we first updated the GLOBIO model, which now runs at a spatial resolution of 10 arc-seconds (~300 m), contains new modules for downscaling land use and for quantifying impacts of hunting in the tropics, and updated modules to quantify impacts of climate change, land use, habitat fragmentation and nitrogen pollution. We then used the updated model to project terrestrial biodiversity intactness from 2015 to 2050 as a function of land use and climate changes corresponding with the selected scenarios. We estimated a global area-weighted mean MSA of 0.56 for 2015. Biodiversity intactness declined in all three scenarios, yet the decline was smaller in the sustainability scenario (-0.02) than the regional rivalry and fossil-fuelled development scenarios (-0.06 and -0.05 respectively). We further found considerable variation in projected biodiversity change among different world regions, with large future losses particularly for sub-Saharan Africa. In some scenario-region combinations, we projected future biodiversity recovery due to reduced demands for agricultural land, yet this recovery was counteracted by increased impacts of other pressures (notably climate change and road disturbance). Effective measures to halt or reverse the decline of terrestrial biodiversity should not only reduce land demand (e.g. by increasing agricultural productivity and dietary changes) but also focus on reducing or mitigating the impacts of other pressures.
  • Kröger, Markus; Nygren, Anja (2020)
    The concepts of resource frontier and commodity frontier are often treated interchangeably. This article suggests the benefits of clarifying these concepts because frontiers remain important analytics for understanding drastic land-use changes and other socio-environmental transformations. Based on long-term field research in different parts of South and Central America, we use frontier concepts as heuristic devices to analyze heterogeneous frontier situations and make broader generalizations. Our synchronic and diachronic analyses of frontier dynamics elucidate different frontier modalities and shifting frontier expansions. The concept of commoditizing resource frontier is introduced to explain recent frontier-makings in the Brazilian Amazonia and Cerrado and in the Nicaraguan Rio San Juan. Although earlier frontier research took a short-sighted time perspective and created conceptualizations based on a single modality of a particular period, our longitudinal analysis shows that drastic changes and complex overlappings are the hallmarks of frontier dynamics.
  • Rego, Carla; Boieiro, Mario; Rigal, François; Ribeiro, Servio; Cardoso, Pedro; Borges, Paulo A.V. (2019)
    Oceanic islands have been providing important insights on the structuring of ecological communities and, under the context of the present biodiversity crisis, they are paramount to assess the effects of biological invasions on community assembly. In this study we compare the taxonomic and functional diversity of insect herbivore assemblages associated with the dominant tree species of Azorean native forests and investigate the ecological processes that may have originated current patterns of plant-herbivore associations. Five dominant trees-Erica azorica, Ilex perado subsp. azorica, Juniperus brevifolia, Laurus azorica and Vaccinium cylindraceum-were sampled in the remnants of the native forest of Terceira Island (Azores) using a standardised methodology. The taxonomic and functional diversity of insect herbivore assemblages was assessed using complementary metrics and beta diversity partitioning analysis (species replacement and richness differences) aiming to evaluate the variation in insect herbivore assemblages within and between the study plant species. Sixty two insect species, mostly bugs (Hemiptera) and caterpillars (Lepidoptera), were found in the five study plants with indigenous (endemic and native non-endemic) insects occurring with higher species richness and abundance than introduced ones. Species replacement was the most important component of insect herbivore taxonomic beta diversity while differences in trait richness played a major role on functional beta diversity. The endemic E. azorica stands out from the other study plants by having associated a very distinct insect herbivore assemblage with a particular set of functional attributes, mainly composed by large bodied and long shaped species that feed by chewing. Despite the progressive biotic homogenization witnessed in the Azores during the last few decades, several strong associations between the endemic trees and their indigenous insect herbivores remain.
  • Selier, Sarah-Anne Jeanetta; Slotow, Rob; Di Minin, Enrico (2016)
    Unprecedented poaching levels triggered by demand for ivory in Far East Asia are threatening the persistence of African elephant Loxodonta africana. Southern African countries make an important contribution to elephant conservation and could soon become the last stronghold of elephant conservation in Africa. While the ecological factors affecting elephant distribution and densities have extensively been accounted for, there is a need to understand which socioeconomic factors affect elephant numbers in order to prevent conflict over limited space and resources with humans. We used elephant count data from aerial surveys for seven years in a generalized linear model, which accounted for temporal correlation, to investigate the effect of six socioeconomic and ecological variables on the number of elephant at the country level in the Greater Mapungubwe Transfrontier Conservation Area (GMTFCA). Important factors in predicting elephant numbers were the proportion of total land surface under cultivation, human population density and the number of tourists visiting the country. Specifically, elephant numbers were higher where the proportion of total land surface under cultivation was the lowest; where population density was the lowest and where tourist numbers had increased over the years. Our results confirm that human disturbance is affecting elephant numbers, but highlight that the benefits provided by ecotourism could help enhance elephant conservation. While future studies should include larger areas and more detailed data at the site level, we stress that the development of coordinated legislation and policies to improve land-use planning are needed to reduce the impact of increasing human populations and agriculture on elephant.
  • Hudson, Lawrence N.; Newbold, Tim; Contu, Sara; Hill, Samantha L. L.; Lysenko, Igor; De Palma, Adriana; Phillips, Helen R. P.; Senior, Rebecca A.; Bennett, Dominic J.; Booth, Hollie; Choimes, Argyrios; Correia, David L. P.; Day, Julie; Echeverria-Londono, Susy; Garon, Morgan; Harrison, Michelle L. K.; Ingram, Daniel J.; Jung, Martin; Kemp, Victoria; Kirkpatrick, Lucinda; Martin, Callum D.; Pan, Yuan; White, Hannah J.; Aben, Job; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Adum, Gilbert B.; Aguilar-Barquero, Virginia; Aizen, Marcelo A.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Arbelaez-Cortes, Enrique; Armbrecht, Inge; Azhar, Badrul; Azpiroz, Adrian B.; Baeten, Lander; Baldi, Andras; Banks, John E.; Barlow, Jos; Batary, Peter; Bates, Adam J.; Bayne, Erin M.; Beja, Pedro; Berg, Ake; Berry, Nicholas J.; Bicknell, Jake E.; Bihn, Jochen H.; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin; Boekhout, Teun; Boutin, Celine; Bouyer, Jeremy; Brearley, Francis Q.; Brito, Isabel; Brunet, Joerg; Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Buscardo, Erika; Cabra-Garcia, Jimmy; Calvino-Cancela, Maria; Cameron, Sydney A.; Cancello, Eliana M.; Carrijo, Tiago F.; Carvalho, Anelena L.; Castro, Helena; Castro-Luna, Alejandro A.; Cerda, Rolando; Cerezo, Alexis; Chauvat, Matthieu; Clarke, Frank M.; Cleary, Daniel F. R.; Connop, Stuart P.; D'Aniello, Biagio; da Silva, Pedro Giovani; Darvill, Ben; Dauber, Jens; Dejean, Alain; Diekoetter, Tim; Dominguez-Haydar, Yamileth; Dormann, Carsten F.; Dumont, Bertrand; Dures, Simon G.; Dynesius, Mats; Edenius, Lars; Elek, Zoltan; Entling, Martin H.; Farwig, Nina; Fayle, Tom M.; Felicioli, Antonio; Felton, Annika M.; Ficetola, Gentile F.; Filgueiras, Bruno K. C.; Fonte, Steven J.; Fraser, Lauchlan H.; Fukuda, Daisuke; Furlani, Dario; Ganzhorn, Joerg U.; Garden, Jenni G.; Gheler-Costa, Carla; Giordani, Paolo; Giordano, Simonetta; Gottschalk, Marco S.; Goulson, Dave; Gove, Aaron D.; Grogan, James; Hanley, Mick E.; Hanson, Thor; Hashim, Nor R.; Hawes, Joseph E.; Hebert, Christian; Helden, Alvin J.; Henden, John-Andre; Hernandez, Lionel; Herzog, Felix; Higuera-Diaz, Diego; Hilje, Branko; Horgan, Finbarr G.; Horvath, Roland; Hylander, Kristoffer; Isaacs-Cubides, Paola; Ishitani, Masahiro; Jacobs, Carmen T.; Jaramillo, Victor J.; Jauker, Birgit; Jonsell, Mats; Jung, Thomas S.; Kapoor, Vena; Kati, Vassiliki; Katovai, Eric; Kessler, Michael; Knop, Eva; Kolb, Annette; Koroesi, Adam; Lachat, Thibault; Lantschner, Victoria; Le Feon, Violette; LeBuhn, Gretchen; Legare, Jean-Philippe; Letcher, Susan G.; Littlewood, Nick A.; Lopez-Quintero, Carlos A.; Louhaichi, Mounir; Loevei, Gabor L.; Lucas-Borja, Manuel Esteban; Luja, Victor H.; Maeto, Kaoru; Magura, Tibor; Mallari, Neil Aldrin; Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Marshall, E. J. P.; Martinez, Eliana; Mayfield, Margaret M.; Mikusinski, Grzegorz; Milder, Jeffrey C.; Miller, James R.; Morales, Carolina L.; Muchane, Mary N.; Muchane, Muchai; Naidoo, Robin; Nakamura, Akihiro; Naoe, Shoji; Nates-Parra, Guiomar; Navarrete Gutierrez, Dario A.; Neuschulz, Eike L.; Noreika, Norbertas; Norfolk, Olivia; Noriega, Jorge Ari; Noeske, Nicole M.; O'Dea, Niall; Oduro, William; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Oke, Chris O.; Osgathorpe, Lynne M.; Paritsis, Juan; Parra-H, Alejandro; Pelegrin, Nicolas; Peres, Carlos A.; Persson, Anna S.; Petanidou, Theodora; Phalan, Ben; Philips, T. Keith; Poveda, Katja; Power, Eileen F.; Presley, Steven J.; Proenca, Vania; Quaranta, Marino; Quintero, Carolina; Redpath-Downing, Nicola A.; Reid, J. Leighton; Reis, Yana T.; Ribeiro, Danilo B.; Richardson, Barbara A.; Richardson, Michael J.; Robles, Carolina A.; Roembke, Joerg; Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad; Rosselli, Loreta; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Roulston, T'ai H.; Rousseau, Laurent; Sadler, Jonathan P.; Safian, Szabolcs; Saldana-Vazquez, Romeo A.; Samnegard, Ulrika; Schueepp, Christof; Schweiger, Oliver; Sedlock, Jodi L.; Shahabuddin, Ghazala; Sheil, Douglas; Silva, Fernando A. B.; Slade, Eleanor M.; Smith-Pardo, Allan H.; Sodhi, Navjot S.; Somarriba, Eduardo J.; Sosa, Ramon A.; Stout, Jane C.; Struebig, Matthew J.; Sung, Yik-Hei; Threlfall, Caragh G.; Tonietto, Rebecca; Tothmeresz, Bela; Tscharntke, Teja; Turner, Edgar C.; Tylianakis, Jason M.; Vanbergen, Adam J.; Vassilev, Kiril; Verboven, Hans A. F.; Vergara, Carlos H.; Vergara, Pablo M.; Verhulst, Jort; Walker, Tony R.; Wang, Yanping; Watling, James I.; Wells, Konstans; Williams, Christopher D.; Willig, Michael R.; Woinarski, John C. Z.; Wolf, Jan H. D.; Woodcock, Ben A.; Yu, Douglas W.; Zaitsev, Andrey S.; Collen, Ben; Ewers, Rob M.; Mace, Georgina M.; Purves, Drew W.; Scharlemann, Joern P. W.; Purvis, Andy (2014)