Browsing by Subject "LANGUAGES"

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  • Roberts, Sean G.; Killin, Anton; Deb, Angarika; Sheard, Catherine; Greenhill, Simon J.; Sinnemäki, Kaius; Segovia Martín, José; Nölle, Jonas; Berdicevskis, Aleksandrs; Humphreys-Balkwill, Archie; Little, Hannah; Opie, Kit; Jacques, Guillaume; Bromham, Lindell; Tinits, Peeter; Ross, Robert M.; Lee, Sean; Gasser, Emily; Calladine, Jasmine; Spike, Matthew; Mann, Stephen; Shcherbakova, Olena; Singer, Ruth; Zhang, Shuya; Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Kliesch, Christian; Thomas-Colquhoun, Ewan; Skirgård, Hedvig; Tamariz, Monica; Passmore, Sam; Pellard, Thomas; Jordan, Fiona (2020)
    Language is one of the most complex of human traits. There are many hypotheses about how it originated, what factors shaped its diversity, and what ongoing processes drive how it changes. We present the Causal Hypotheses in Evolutionary Linguistics Database (CHIELD, https://chield.excd.org/), a tool for expressing, exploring, and evaluating hypotheses. It allows researchers to integrate multiple theories into a coherent narrative, helping to design future research. We present design goals, a formal specification, and an implementation for this database. Source code is freely available for other fields to take advantage of this tool. Some initial results are presented, including identifying conflicts in theories about gossip and ritual, comparing hypotheses relating population size and morphological complexity, and an author relation network.
  • Koivisto, Aino Loviisa (2019)
    This article discusses a less-studied aspect of repair sequences in conversation, that is, their exit phases. It will be argued that while the most common way of exiting is a resumption of the main activity straight after requested repair, sometimes specific receipt objects are also needed. The focus of the article is on the use of these repair receipts. Two types of motivation for using them as exit devices are discussed: prolongation of the repair sequence and the repairers' critical stance toward the repair initiation. The article will also consider the use of different change-of-state tokens as repair receipts in Finnish conversation. It will be argued that a claim of now-understanding (aa) is the repair receipt proper, enabling sequence closure and resumption of the main activity, while news receipts target the newsworthiness of the information provided in the repair turn, enabling sequence expansion.
  • Jonauskaite, Domicele; Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Dael, Nele; Oberfeld, Daniel; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Al-Rasheed, Abdulrahman S.; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Bogushevskaya, Victoria; Chamseddine, Amer; Chkonia, Eka; Corona, Violeta; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Griber, Yulia A.; Grimshaw, Gina; Hasan, Aya Ahmed; Havelka, Jelena; Hirnstein, Marco; Karlsson, Bodil S. A.; Laurent, Eric; Lindeman, Marjaana; Marquardt, Lynn; Mefoh, Philip; Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia; Pouyan, Niloufar; Roinishvili, Maya; Romanyuk, Lyudmyla; Salgado Montejo, Alejandro; Schrag, Yann; Sultanova, Aygun; Uuskuela, Mari; Vainio, Suvi; Wasowicz, Grazyna; Zdravkovic, Suncica; Zhang, Meng; Mohr, Christine (2020)
    Many of us "see red," "feel blue," or "turn green with envy." Are such color-emotion associations fundamental to our shared cognitive architecture, or are they cultural creations learned through our languages and traditions? To answer these questions, we tested emotional associations of colors in 4,598 participants from 30 nations speaking 22 native languages. Participants associated 20 emotion concepts with 12 color terms. Pattern-similarity analyses revealed universal color-emotion associations (average similarity coefficientr= .88). However, local differences were also apparent. A machine-learning algorithm revealed that nation predicted color-emotion associations above and beyond those observed universally. Similarity was greater when nations were linguistically or geographically close. This study highlights robust universal color-emotion associations, further modulated by linguistic and geographic factors. These results pose further theoretical and empirical questions about the affective properties of color and may inform practice in applied domains, such as well-being and design.