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  • Cajanus, Kristiina; Neuvonen, Mikko; Koskela, Outi; Kaunisto, Mari A.; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Niemi, Mikko; Kalso, Eija (2018)
    We investigated factors affecting analgesic oxycodone concentrations after breast cancer surgery in 1,000 women. Preoperatively, we studied heat and cold pain sensitivities and anxiety scores. Postoperatively, rest and motion pain intensities were measured and intravenous oxycodone was administered until satisfactory analgesia. At this point, the mean oxycodone concentration (variation coefficient) was 33.3 ng/mL (66%) and it was 21.7 ng/mL (69%) when the patient requested oxycodone again. At both time points, the concentrations varied >100-fold between individuals. The analgesic oxycodone concentration was increased by 21.3% per motion pain intensity score on a 0-10 scale and by 22.3% if axillary clearance was performed instead of sentinel node biopsy (P <0.001). Forty-seven women who were older and less anxious than others (P <0.01) required no oxycodone. Anxiety, age, chronic pain, or preoperative pain sensitivity were not independently associated with the analgesic oxycodone concentration. CYP2D6 and CYP3A genotypes did not affect analgesic concentration or duration of analgesia.
  • Seppänen, H.; Puolakkainen, P. (2020)
    Background: Acute pancreatitis is a common disease, the incidence of which is 75-100/100,000/year in Finland. The worldwide incidence of acute pancreatitis is increasing. The identified mildcases usually show rapid recovery with conservative treatment allowing early discharge. Severe cases need early intensive care to reduce the risk of serious complications such as multi-organ failure. The revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was introduced in 2012-2013. A recurrent acute pancreatitis is defined as two or more well-documented separate attacks of acute pancreatitis with complete resolution in between. Alcoholic pancreatitis is the most common recurrent acute pancreatitis type. Methods: In this review current severity classifications and literature on the prevention of recurrent acute pancreatitis are analyzed. Results: The severity of the disease is classified as mild, moderately severe, and severe acute pancreatitis. Novel entities include acute peripancreatic fluid collections in mild acute pancreatitis and acute necrotic collections in necrotizing acute pancreatitis lesser than 4 weeks after the onset and pancreatic pseudocyst in mild acute pancreatitis and walled-off necrosis in necrotizing acute pancreatitis more than 4 weeks after the onset of the disease. After the first attack of alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis, 46% of the patients develop at least one recurrence within 10- to 20-year follow-up. With repeated intervention against alcohol consumption, it is possible to reduce the recurrences. Removing the gall bladder after biliary pancreatitis is the key preventing recurrences. In mild cases, even during the index admission; in severe cases, it is recommended to wait until the inflammatory changes have resolved. Of total, 59% of the idiopathic pancreatitis had sludge of stones in the gall bladder. In other etiologies, addressing the etiological factor may prevent recurrent acute pancreatitis. Conclusions: This review describes current use of novel severity classifications and also different possibilities to prevent recurrent acute pancreatitis with different etiologies including idiopathic.
  • Rainio, Mia; Lindström, Outi; Udd, Marianne; Haapamäki, Carola; Nordin, Arno; Kylänpää, Leena (2018)
    Iatrogenic bile duct injury (BDI) is a common complication after cholecystectomy. Patients are mainly treated endoscopically, but the optimal treatment method has remained unclear. The aim was to analyze endoscopic treatment in BDI after cholecystectomy and to explore endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES), with or without stenting, as the primary treatment for an Amsterdam type A bile leak. All patients referred to Helsinki University Hospital endoscopy unit due to a suspected BDI between the years 2004 and 2014 were included in this retrospective study. To collect the data, all ERC reports were reviewed. Of the 99 BDI patients, 94 (95%) had bile leak of whom 11 had concomitant stricture. Ninety-three percent of all patients were treated endoscopically. Seventy-one patients had native papillae and a leak in the cystic duct or peripheral radicals. They were treated with ES (ES group, n = 50) or with sphincterotomy and stenting (EST group, n = 21). There was no difference between the closure time of the fistula (p = 0.179), in the time of discharge from hospital (p = 0.298), or in the primary healing rate between the ES group and the EST group (45/50 vs 19/21 patients, p = 0.951). After the right patient selection, the success rate of endoscopic treatment can approach 100% for Amsterdam type A bile leak. ES is an effective and cost-effective single procedure with success rate similar to EST. It may be considered as a first-line therapy for the management of Amsterdam type A leaks.
  • Kuusniemi, Kristiina; Pöyhiä, Reino (2016)
    This paper is a summary of presentations on postoperative pain control by the authors at the 2014 PainForum meeting in People's Republic of China. Postoperative pain is often untreated or undertreated and may lead to subsequent chronic pain syndromes. As more procedures migrate to the outpatient setting, postoperative pain control will become increasingly more challenging. Evidence-based guidelines for postoperative pain control recommend pain assessment using validated tools on a consistent basis. In this regard, consistency may be more important than the specific tool selected. Many hospitals have introduced a multidisciplinary acute pain service (APS), which has been associated with improved patient satisfaction and fewer adverse events. Patient education is an important component of postoperative pain control, which may be most effective when clinicians chose a multimodal approach, such as paracetamol (acetaminophen) and opioids. Opioids are a mainstay of postoperative pain control but require careful monitoring and management of side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and somnolence. Opioids may be administered using patient-controlled analgesia systems. Protocols for postoperative pain control can be very helpful to establish benchmarks for pain management and assure that clinicians adhere to evidence-based standards. The future of postoperative pain control around the world will likely involve more and better established APSs and greater communication between patients and clinicians about postoperative pain. The changes necessary to implement and move forward with APSs is not a single step but rather one of continuous improvement and ongoing change.
  • Koppatz, Hanna; Nordin, Arno; Scheinin, Tom; Sallinen, Ville (2018)
    Background: Cholecystectomy is usually carried out for benign indications. Most perform routine histopathologic examination to detect incidental gallbladder cancer (GBC). Methods: Cholecystectomies performed at four hospitals in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area during 2010-2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with preoperative suspicion of neoplasia, active malignancy, or in whom cholecystectomy was performed as a secondary procedure were excluded. Results: A total of 2034 cholecystectomies were included. In ten patients (0.5%), GBC was identified, each with an associated macroscopic finding, including local hardness (n = 1), a thickened wall (n = 5), acute inflammation and necrosis (n = 1), or suspected neoplasia (n = 3). No GBC was found in macroscopically normal gallbladders (n = 1464). Of the ten patients with GBC, five underwent subsequent liver resection, four had metastatic disease, and one had locally advanced inoperable disease. Three of the five patients who underwent liver resection were alive and disease-free at final follow-up (median 48 months). The remaining seven patients with GBC died of the disease, with a median survival of 14 months (range 10-48 months). Conclusions: Routine histopathologic examination of a macroscopically normal gallbladder does not improve diagnosis of GBC. A histopathological examination is, however, mandatory when a macroscopic abnormality is present.
  • Sartelli, Massimo; Coccolini, Federico; Kluger, Yoram; Agastra, Ervis; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.; Abbas, Ashraf El Sayed; Ansaloni, Luca; Adesunkanmi, Abdulrashid Kayode; Atanasov, Boyko; Augustin, Goran; Bala, Miklosh; Baraket, Oussama; Baral, Suman; Biffl, Walter L.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Ceresoli, Marco; Cerutti, Elisabetta; Chiara, Osvaldo; Cicuttin, Enrico; Chiarugi, Massimo; Coimbra, Raul; Colak, Elif; Corsi, Daniela; Cortese, Francesco; Cui, Yunfeng; Damaskos, Dimitris; Angelis, Nicola De'; Delibegovic, Samir; Demetrashvili, Zaza; De Simone, Belinda; de Jonge, Stijn W.; Dhingra, Sameer; Di Bella, Stefano; Di Marzo, Francesco; Di Saverio, Salomone; Dogjani, Agron; Duane, Therese M.; Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Fugazzola, Paola; Galante, Joseph M.; Gachabayov, Mahir; Ghnnam, Wagih; Gkiokas, George; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Griffiths, Ewen A.; Hardcastle, Timothy C.; Hecker, Andreas; Herzog, Torsten; Kabir, Syed Mohammad Umar; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Khokha, Vladimir; Kim, Peter K.; Il Kim, Jae; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Kong, Victor; Koshy, Renol M.; Kryvoruchko, Igor A.; Inaba, Kenji; Isik, Arda; Iskandar, Katia; Ivatury, Rao; Labricciosa, Francesco M.; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Leppäniemi, Ari; Litvin, Andrey; Luppi, Davide; Machain, Gustavo M.; Maier, Ronald; Marinis, Athanasios; Marmorale, Cristina; Marwah, Sanjay; Mesina, Cristian; Moore, Ernest E.; Moore, Frederick A.; Negoi, Ionut; Olaoye, Iyiade; Ordonez, Carlos A.; Ouadii, Mouaqit; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Perrone, Gennaro; Pikoulis, Manos; Pintar, Tadeja; Pipitone, Giuseppe; Podda, Mauro; Rasa, Kemal; Ribeiro, Julival; Rodrigues, Gabriel; Rubio-Perez, Ines; Sall, Ibrahima; Sato, Norio; Sawyer, Robert G.; Lohse, Helmut Segovia; Sganga, Gabriele; Shelat, Vishal G.; Stephens, Ian; Sugrue, Michael; Tarasconi, Antonio; Tochie, Joel Noutakdie; Tolonen, Matti; Tomadze, Gia; Ulrych, Jan; Vereczkei, Andras; Viaggi, Bruno; Gurioli, Chiara; Casella, Claudio; Pagani, Leonardo; Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Catena, Fausto (2021)
    Intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) are common surgical emergencies and have been reported as major contributors to non-trauma deaths in hospitals worldwide. The cornerstones of effective treatment of IAIs include early recognition, adequate source control, appropriate antimicrobial therapy, and prompt physiologic stabilization using a critical care environment, combined with an optimal surgical approach. Together, the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES), the Global Alliance for Infections in Surgery (GAIS), the Surgical Infection Society-Europe (SIS-E), the World Surgical Infection Society (WSIS), and the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) have jointly completed an international multi-society document in order to facilitate clinical management of patients with IAIs worldwide building evidence-based clinical pathways for the most common IAIs. An extensive non-systematic review was conducted using the PubMed and MEDLINE databases, limited to the English language. The resulting information was shared by an international task force from 46 countries with different clinical backgrounds. The aim of the document is to promote global standards of care in IAIs providing guidance to clinicians by describing reasonable approaches to the management of IAIs.