Browsing by Subject "LEADERSHIP"

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  • Szebeni, Zea; Salojärvi, Virpi (2022)
    The Prime Minister of Hungary, Viktor Orban, is considered to be one example of the rise of populism during the 2010s in Europe. During the decade that he has been in government, Hungary has been a forerunner in terms of democratic decline. In parallel, throughout this period, political communication has increasingly shifted online, and politicians are now actively using social media to gain political capital. Despite the growing literature on online political communication, visual political communication remains underrepresented. Orban's case offers a unique opportunity to examine what authoritarian populism and maintenance of illiberalism look like when a regime has been in power for more than 10 years. Using visual discourse analysis, we analyzed 131 visuals of Viktor Orban's Instagram from 2019. We argue that by using the symbols of nationalism and masculinity, Orban attempts to embody the features of an "ordinary man" and also simultaneously conveys statesmanship through outlining "us" in ethno-nationalistic terms, in an effort to strengthen his party's message, renew its hegemonic position, and to remain in power. This is in stark contrast to the communication of the Hungarian government, which relies heavily on "othering" and the construction of "them" in legacy and social media.
  • Paakkanen, Miia; Martela, Frank; Hakanen, Jari; Uusitalo, Lotta; Pessi , Anne (2021)
    Compassion is in high demand within organizational research, with important implications for leadership, well-being, and productivity. However, thus far only meditation-based interventions have been implemented to increase compassion in organizations. Our aim was to explore whether compassion could be increased among managers through improving their emotional skills. We implemented a quasi-randomized controlled trial with pre-test and post-test design of a new emotional skills cultivation training among managers, measuring the treatment group (N = 68), the control group (N = 90), and their followers (N = 85 and N = 72). Compared to the control group, the managers exhibited significantly increased sense of emotional skills, with some evidence for an improved sense of compassion. We also found that emotional skills mediated the impact of participating in the intervention group and compassion. Additionally, servant leadership behaviors in the intervention group improved following the intervention. These results demonstrate that instead of being something innate, compassion is a skill that can be increased through training emotional skills, with observable benefits for the organization.
  • Clavert, Maria; Löfström, Erika; Niemi, Hannele; Nevgi, Anne (2018)
    In the face of organizational transformations, academics are given a role as informal ‘change agents’ in their discipline-specific communities of practice (DCoP). Simultaneous participation in pedagogically oriented communities of practice (PCoP) enables them to promote pedagogical development through brokering at community interfaces. This empirical study explores academics’ experiences of acting as informal change agents at the interfaces of DCoP and PCoP during an organizational transition phase of three years. The longitudinal data were collected with interviews of 13 academics from the fields of science and technology. The findings reveal a variety of pedagogical development activities related to shared meanings, practices, identities, and ways of belonging. The activities are aligned with the organizational transition process and enabled by collegial support. The findings indicate that lack of supportive formal leadership may terminate the informal development activities. The resulting model of change agency provides a novel approach to pedagogical development in higher education.
  • Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Mattila, Markku; Lähdesmäki, Merja; Suutari, Timo (2019)
    Purpose In this paper, the following research question is addressed: Why do business organisations recruit employees with a foreign background? This was examined in terms of the values that guide organisations and their management. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach The study focused on two businesses in Finland that are pioneers in the recruitment of immigrants. A case study approach was adopted. The research data consist of interviews and documentary data. The data were analysed using content analysis in accordance with grounded theory. Findings Companies can act as an enabling force in the integration of immigrants into the local labour market, especially when the company's value basis extends beyond only economic values. Research limitations/implications - The study was conducted only in two case companies in Finland. Practical implications - Companies have the potential to affect local people's attitudes towards immigrants as workers. This is important because many western societies are likely to face a labour shortage in the future due to the ageing population and low birth rate. Originality/value Prior research has mostly investigated the topic from the viewpoints of the immigrants themselves and of policy makers. The value of this study is that it makes the employers' viewpoint visible. The dominant theories applied in the field of immigrant recruitment are inadequate to explain employers' behaviour because of their underlying assumption of the overwhelming importance of economic values in decision making.
  • Berthelsen, Hanne; Hakanen, Jari J.; Westerlund, Hugo (2018)
    Aim This study aims at investigating the nomological validity of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) by using an extension of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model with aspects of work ability as outcome. Material and methods The study design is cross-sectional. All staff working at public dental organizations in four regions of Sweden were invited to complete an electronic questionnaire (75% response rate, n = 1345). The questionnaire was based on COPSOQ II scales, the Utrecht Work Engagement scale, and the one-item Work Ability Score in combination with a proprietary item. The data was analysed by Structural Equation Modelling. Results This study contributed to the literature by showing that: A) The scale characteristics were satisfactory and the construct validity of COPSOQ instrument could be integrated in the JD-R framework; B) Job resources arising from leadership may be a driver of the two processes included in the JD-R model; and C) Both the health impairment and motivational processes were associated with WA, and the results suggested that leadership may impact WA, in particularly by securing task resources. Conclusion In conclusion, the nomological validity of COPSOQ was supported as the JD-R model can be operationalized by the instrument. This may be helpful for transferral of complex survey results and work life theories to practitioners in the field.
  • Christensen, Henrik Serup; Järvi, Theodora; Mattila, Mikko; von Schoultz, Åsa (2021)
    Candidate endorsements affect the likelihood that people vote for a candidate since they reduce the efforts devoted to vote choices. However, the effects of endorsements from different sources remain under-explored. Furthermore, the effects of endorsements are believed to vary with the level of political sophistication, as voters with low sophistication are more reliant on such shortcuts, but it is unclear whether these differences are similar for different sources. We study the effects of endorsements from three different sources – family and close friends, networks on social media and Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) – on candidate favorability. We do so with a choice-based conjoint experiment embedded in a survey from Finland (n = 1021), where we also examine differences in effects across political sophistication (political interest, frequency of political discussions, internal political efficacy, party identification, and voting in the last parliamentary election). The results show that endorsements from VAAs and family and friends have positive effects while social media networks do not. We do not find systematic differences in effects across levels of political sophistication no matter how we operationalize it. This shows that it is important to consider the source of an endorsement to appreciate the effect, no matter who is the recipient.
  • Wolfram, Marc; van der Heijden , Jeroen; Juhola, Sirkku Kaarina; Patterson, James (2019)
    Over the past decade, diverse urban governance innovations and experiments have emerged with the declared aim to foster climate change mitigation and adaptation, involving actors at multiple levels and scales. This urban turn in environmental governance has been accompanied by normative claims and high expectations regarding a leading role of cities in coping with climate change. However, while time pressures for effective action are growing, little is known about the social learning processes involved in such urban climate governance innovations, and what they actually contribute to achieve the required transformations in urban systems. Therefore, this special issue presents eight selected papers that explore learning in urban climate governance practices in a variety of local, national and international contexts. Their findings point to a more ambiguous role of these practices as they tend to support incremental adjustments rather than deeper social learning for radical systemic change. Against this backdrop we propose a heuristic distinguishing basic modes and sources in governance learning that aims to facilitate future empirical research and comparison, thus filling a critical theory gap. Using this framework for interpretation illustrates that urban climate governance learning urgently requires more openness, parallel processes, exogenous sources, as well as novel meta-learning practices.
  • Tikkanen, Lotta; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Soini, Tiina; Pietarinen, Janne (2017)
    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of how national board administrators, more precisely, officials at the Finnish National Board of Education (FNBE) have perceived the primary influencing factors, or "regulators", of the national core curriculum reform and the success of the implementation. The alignment between the identified regulators was also explored. Design/methodology/approach - Altogether, 23 FNBE officials participated in this mixed methods study. Findings - The results showed that the officials perceived the core curriculum reform as a systemic entity: the reform was implemented using a top-down and bottom-up strategy, and several regulators were identified at different levels of the education system. The officials also viewed the implementation as successful, and identified more promoting than hindering factors in it. However, they emphasised regulators at the administrative level, whereas regulators at the district or national levels were less often identified. They also highlighted the importance of orchestrating collaboration in comparison with the other regulators. Practical implications - The results imply that in addition to considering separate determinants of reform success, it is important to pay attention to sufficient alignment between the regulators at different levels of the education system in order to better understand and promote the implementation of a large-scale reform. Originality/value - This study provides new knowledge on national board administrators' perspectives on what regulates the implementation of a large-scale curriculum reform.
  • Gluschkoff, Kia; Kaihlanen, Anu; Palojoki, Sari; Laukka, Elina; Hyppönen, Hannele; Karhe, Liisa; Saranto, Kaija; Heponiemi, Tarja (2021)
    Factors influencing the reporting of patient safety incidents that result from health information technology (HIT) failure are poorly understood. We examined whether organizational justice is associated with the non-reporting of HIT system-related safety incidents among registered nurses. Cross-sectional survey data were collected from nurses (N = 1399) who reported encountering a HIT system-related patient safety incident within the past 12 months. Selecting one or more reasons for not filing an incident report from a predefined list of potential reasons was used as an indicator for non-reporting. Logistic regression models were fit to predict the reason-specific likelihood of non-reporting with organizational justice. High organizational justice was associated with a reduced likelihood of non-reporting if non-reporting occurred because reporting was too hard or took too much time (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.96), because the reporting had no impact on the organization's processes (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.76), because the respondent was worried about the consequences (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.87), or because the respondent was not required to file a report (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.89). Justice was not associated with non-reporting if it occurred due to the lack of access to a reporting system, because no actual harm was caused to the patient, or some other, non-specified reason. The associations were robust to adjustment for several nurse and work characteristics. The results suggest that non-reporting of HIT system-related safety incidents is less common in a high-justice work environment. Fair treatment of nurses may encourage their reporting of safety incidents.
  • Kaltiainen, Janne Petteri; Lipponen, Jukka Mauri Tapani; Holtz, Brian C. (2017)
  • Siirala, Eriikka; Suhonen, Henry; Salanterä, Sanna; Junttila, Kristiina (2019)
    AimTo describe the nurse manager's role in perioperative settings. BackgroundThe nurse manager's role is complex and its content unclear. Research in this area is scarce. We need to better understand what this role is to support the nurse manager's work and decision-making with information systems. EvaluationAn integrative literature review was conducted in May 2018. Databases CINAHL, Cochrane, PubMed and Web of Science were used together with a manual search. The review followed a framework especially designed for integrative reviews. Quality of the literature was analysed with an assessment tool. Nine studies published between 2001 and 2016 were included in the final review. Key issueThe findings from the review indicate that the nurse manager's role requires education and experience, and manifests in skills and tasks. A bachelor's degree with perioperative specialisation is the minimum educational requirement for a nurse manager. ConclusionResearch lacks a clear description of the nurse manager's role in perioperative settings. However, the role evolves by education. More education provides advanced skills and, thereby, more demanding tasks. Information technology could provide useful support for task management. Implications for Nursing ManagementThese findings can be used to better answer the current and future demands of the nurse manager's work.