Browsing by Subject "LEARNERS"

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  • Vincze, Laszlo; MacIntyre, Peter (2017)
    By integrating the social context model of L2 acquisition with the pyramid model of willingness to communicate in L2, this study examined aspects of the psychological process underlying willingness to communicate (WTC) in Slovak among young Hungarian speakers in Southern Slovakia. The data was collected among Hungarian-speaking secondary school students (N = 310). The results indicated that frequent and pleasant contact with Slovak speakers was related to higher proficiency in Slovak and lower anxiety to use Slovak, and these increased the willingness to communicate in Slovak. However, it was also demonstrated that accent stigmatization moderated the relationship between perceived L2 proficiency and L2 use anxiety. Anxiety was more closely related to proficiency among those who perceived less accent stigmatization than among those who perceived more stigma because of their Hungarian accent. The theoretical implications of these findings for the role of the intergroup context in developing accent stigmatization, and the link between accent stigmatization, L2 use anxiety and willingness to communicate in the majority language are discussed.
  • Roberts, Sean G.; Killin, Anton; Deb, Angarika; Sheard, Catherine; Greenhill, Simon J.; Sinnemäki, Kaius; Segovia Martín, José; Nölle, Jonas; Berdicevskis, Aleksandrs; Humphreys-Balkwill, Archie; Little, Hannah; Opie, Kit; Jacques, Guillaume; Bromham, Lindell; Tinits, Peeter; Ross, Robert M.; Lee, Sean; Gasser, Emily; Calladine, Jasmine; Spike, Matthew; Mann, Stephen; Shcherbakova, Olena; Singer, Ruth; Zhang, Shuya; Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Kliesch, Christian; Thomas-Colquhoun, Ewan; Skirgård, Hedvig; Tamariz, Monica; Passmore, Sam; Pellard, Thomas; Jordan, Fiona (2020)
    Language is one of the most complex of human traits. There are many hypotheses about how it originated, what factors shaped its diversity, and what ongoing processes drive how it changes. We present the Causal Hypotheses in Evolutionary Linguistics Database (CHIELD, https://chield.excd.org/), a tool for expressing, exploring, and evaluating hypotheses. It allows researchers to integrate multiple theories into a coherent narrative, helping to design future research. We present design goals, a formal specification, and an implementation for this database. Source code is freely available for other fields to take advantage of this tool. Some initial results are presented, including identifying conflicts in theories about gossip and ritual, comparing hypotheses relating population size and morphological complexity, and an author relation network.
  • Pyörälä, Eeva; Mäenpää, Saana; Heinonen, Leo; Folger, Daniel; Masalin, Teemu; Hervonen, Heikki (2019)
    BackgroundStudents use mobile devices extensively in their everyday life, and the new technology is adopted in study usage. Since 2013, the University of Helsinki has given new medical and dental students iPads for study use. Simultaneously, an action research project on mobile learning started focusing on these students' mobile device usage throughout their study years. Note taking is crucial in academic studies, but the research evidence in this area is scarce. The aims of this study were to explore medical and dental students' self-reported study uses of mobile devices and their best practices of mobile note taking.MethodAn action research project began in 2013 and followed the first student cohort (124 medical and 52 dental students) with iPads from the first until the fifth study year. We explored students' descriptions of their most important study uses of mobile devices and their perceptions of note taking with iPads. The longitudinal data were collected with online questionnaires over the years. The answers to open-ended questions were examined using qualitative content analysis. The findings were triangulated with another question on note taking and focus-group interviews.ResultsThe response rates varied between 73 and 95%. Note taking was the most frequently and consistently reported study use of iPads during the study years. While taking notes, students processed the new information in an accomplished way and personalised the digital learning materials by making comments, underlining, marking images and drawing. The visual nature of their learning materials stimulated learning. Students organised the notes for retention in their personalised digital library. In the clinical studies, medical students faced the teachers' resistance and ambivalence to mobile device usage. This hindered the full-scale benefit of the novel technology in the clinical context.ConclusionsEfficient digital note taking practices were pivotal to students in becoming mobile learners. Having all their notes and learning materials organised in their personal digital libraries enabled the students to retrieve them anywhere, anytime, both when studying for examinations and treating patients in the clinical practice. The challenges the medical students met using mobile devices in the clinical setting require further studies.