Browsing by Subject "LEAVES"

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  • Stepanova, Elena V.; Nagornaya, Marina O.; Filimonov, Victor D.; Valiev, Rashid R.; Belyanin, Maxim L.; Drozdova, Anna K.; Cherepanov, Victor N. (2018)
    Abstract In the present work we report that acetyl groups of per – acetylated aryl glycosides have different reactivity during the acidic deacetylation using HCl/EtOH in CHCl3, which leads to preferential deacetylation at O-3, O-4 and O-6. Thereby, the one-step preparation of 2-O-acetyl aryl glycosides with simple aglycon was accomplished for the first time. It was proved that the found reagent is to be general and unique for the preparation of series of 2-О-acetyl aryl glycosides. We have determined the influence of both carbohydrate moiety and the aglycon on the selectivity of deacetylation reaction by kinetic experiments. Using DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and semi-empirical АМ1 methods we have found that the highest activation barrier is for 2-О-acetyl group. This completely explains the least reactivity of 2-О-acetyl group.
  • Jawhari, Fatima Zahra; El Moussaoui, Abdelfattah; Bourhia, Mohammed; Imtara, Hamada; Mechchate, Hamza; Es-Safi, Imane; Ullah, Riaz; Ezzeldin, Essam; Mostafa, Gamal A.; Grafov, Andriy; Ibenmoussa, Samir; Bousta, Dalila; Bari, Amina (2020)
    Background: Anacyclus pyrethrum (A. pyrethrum) is a wild species belonging to the family Asteraceae, which is used in traditional medicines. Aim of the study: This work was undertaken to study the chemical composition, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing properties of hydroalcoholic extracts of different parts (roots, seeds, leaves, and capitula) of A. pyrethrum. Material and Methods: The phytochemical analysis of the studied extracts was conducted by GC-MS. The analgesic activity was evaluated in mice using acetic acid and formaldehyde methods. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested using the inhibitory method of edema induced in rats. The healing activity of the hydroethanolic extracts was explored by excision and incision wound healing models in rats. Results: The phytochemical analysis of the studied plant extracts affirmed the presence of interesting compounds, including some newly detected elements, such as sarcosine, N-(trifluoroacetyl)-butyl ester, levulinic acid, malonic acid, palmitic acid, morphinan-6-One, 4,5.alpha.-epoxy-3-hydroxy-17-methyl, 2,4-undecadiene-8,10-diyne-N-tyramide, and isovaleric acid. The extracts of different parts (roots, seeds, leaves, and capitula) exhibited promising anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and wound healing effects, with percentages of inhibition up to 98%, 94%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: This study might contribute towards the well-being of society as it provides evidence on the potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing properties of A. pyrethrum.
  • Tian, Wenxin; Tang, Lingli; Chen, Yuwei; Li, Ziyang; Zhu, Jiajia; Jiang, Changhui; Hu, Peilun; He, Wenjing; Wu, Haohao; Pan, Miaomiao; Lu, Jing; Hyyppa, Juha (2021)
    Hyperspectral LiDAR (HSL) is a new remote sensing detection method with high spatial and spectral information detection ability. In the process of laser scanning, the laser echo intensity is affected by many factors. Therefore, it is necessary to calibrate the backscatter intensity data of HSL. Laser incidence angle is one of the important factors that affect the backscatter intensity of the target. This paper studied the radiometric calibration method of incidence angle effect for HSL. The reflectance of natural surfaces can be simulated as a combination of specular reflection and diffuse reflection. The linear combination of the Lambertian model and Beckmann model provides a comprehensive theory that can be applied to various surface conditions, from glossy to rough surfaces. Therefore, an adaptive threshold radiometric calibration method (Lambertian-Beckmann model) is proposed to solve the problem caused by the incident angle effect. The relationship between backscatter intensity and incident angle of HSL is studied by combining theory with experiments, and the model successfully quantifies the difference between diffuse and specular reflectance coefficients. Compared with the Lambertian model, the proposed model has higher calibration accuracy, and the average improvement rate to the samples in this study was 22.67%. Compared with the results before calibration with the incidence angle of less than 70 degrees, the average improvement rate of the Lambertian-Beckmann model was 62.26%. Moreover, we also found that the green leaves have an obvious specular reflection effect near 650-720 nm, which might be related to the inner microstructure of chlorophyll. The Lambertian-Beckmann model was more helpful to the calibration of leaves in the visible wavelength range. This is a meaningful and a breakthrough exploration for HSL.
  • Liu, Miao; Liu, Xiucheng; Du, Xuhua; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ulo; Li, Chunyang (2021)
    Synergistic regulation in leaf architecture and photosynthesis is essential for salt tolerance. However, how plant sex and inorganic nitrogen sources alter salt stress-dependent photosynthesis remains unknown. Leaf anatomical characteristics and photosynthesis of Populus cathayana Rehder females and males were investigated under salt stress conditions combined with nitrate NO3- and ammonium NH4+ supplies to clarify the underlying mechanisms. In salt-stressed females, we observed an increased mesophyll spongy cell density, a reduced chloroplast density, a decreased surface area of chloroplasts adjacent to the intercellular air space (S-c/S) and an increased mesophyll cell area per transverse section width (S/W), consequently causing mesophyll conductance (g(m)) and photosynthesis inhibition, especially under NH4+ supply. Conversely, males with a greater mesophyll palisade tissue thickness and chloroplast density, but a lower spongy cell density had lower S/W and higher S-c/S, and higher g(m) and photosynthesis. NH4+-fed females had a lower CO2 conductance through cell wall and stromal conductance perpendicular to the cell wall, but a higher chloroplast conductance from the cell wall (g(cyt1)) than females supplied with NO3-, whereas males had a higher chloroplast conductance and lower CO2 conductance through cell wall when supplied with NO3- instead of NH4+ under salt stress. These findings indicate sex-specific strategies in coping with salt stress related to leaf anatomy and g(m) under both types of nitrogen supplies, which may contribute to sex-specific CO2 capture and niche segregation.
  • Raudsepp, Piret; Koskar, Julia; Anton, Dea; Meremäe, Kadrin; Kapp, Karmen; Laurson, Peeter; Bleive, Uko; Kaldmäe, Hedi; Roasto, Mati; Püssa, Tõnu (2019)
    BACKGROUND It is important to find plant materials that can inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and other food-spoiling bacteria both in vitro and in situ. The aim of the study was to compare antibacterial and antioxidative activity of selected plant-ethanol infusions: leaves and berries of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.), berries of chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott) and blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L. var. edulis); petioles and dark and light roots of garden rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum L.) for potential use in food matrices as antibacterial and antioxidative additives. RESULTS The strongest bacterial growth inhibition was observed in 96% ethanol infusions of the dark roots of rhubarbs. In 96% ethanol, nine out of ten studied plant infusions had antibacterial effect against L. monocytogenes, but in 20% ethanol only the infusions of dark rhubarb roots had a similar effect. Chokeberry and other berries had the highest antioxidative activity, both in 20% and 96% ethanol infusions. CONCLUSION The combination of dark rhubarb roots or petioles and berries of black chokeberry, blackcurrant or some other anthocyanin-rich berries would have potential as both antibacterial and antioxidative additives in food. (c) 2018 Society of Chemical Industry
  • Hbika, Asmae; Daoudi, Nour Elhouda; Bouyanzer, Abdelhamid; Bouhrim, Mohamed; Mohti, Hicham; Loukili, El Hassania; Mechchate, Hamza; Al-Salahi, Rashad; Nasr, Fahd A.; Bnouham, Mohamed; Zaid, Abdelhamid (2022)
    Artemisia absinthium L. is one of the plants which has been used in folk medicine for many diseases over many centuries. This study aims to analyze the chemical composition of the Artemisia absinthium ethyl acetate and its aqueous extracts and to evaluate their effect on the pancreatic alpha-amylase enzyme and the intestinal alpha-glucosidase enzyme. In this study, the total contents of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and condensed tannins in ethyl acetate and the aqueous extracts of Artemisia absinthium leaves were determined by using spectrophotometric techniques, then the antioxidant capacity of these extracts was examined using three methods, namely, the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging method, the iron reduction method FRAP, and the beta-carotene bleaching method. The determination of the chemical composition of the extracts was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography-the photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD). These extracts were also evaluated for their ability to inhibit the activity of the pancreatic alpha-amylase enzyme, as well as the intestinal alpha-glucosidase enzyme, in vitro and in vivo, thus causing the reduction of blood glucose. The results of this study showed that high polyphenol and flavonoid contents were obtained in ethyl acetate extract with values of 60.34 +/- 0.43 mg GAE/g and 25.842 +/- 0.241 mg QE/g, respectively, compared to the aqueous extract. The results indicated that the aqueous extract had a higher condensed tannin content (3.070 +/- 0.022 mg EC/g) than the ethyl acetate extract (0.987 +/- 0.078 mg EC/g). Ethyl acetate extract showed good DPPH radical scavenging and iron reduction FRAP activity, with an IC50 of 0.167 +/- 0.004 mg/mL and 0.923 +/- 0.0283 mg/mL, respectively. The beta-carotene test indicated that the aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts were able to delay the decoloration of beta-carotene with an inhibition of 48.7% and 48.3%, respectively, which may mean that the extracts have antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of naringenin and caffeic acid as major products in AQE and EAE, respectively. Indeed, this study showed that the aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts significantly inhibited the pancreatic alpha-amylase and intestinal alpha-glucosidase, in vitro. To confirm this result, the inhibitory effect of these plant extracts on the enzymes has been evaluated in vivo. Oral intake of the aqueous extract significantly attenuated starch- and sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in normal rats, and evidently, in STZ-diabetic rats as well. The ethyl acetate extract had no inhibitory activity against the intestinal alpha-glucosidase enzyme in vivo. The antioxidant and the enzyme inhibitory effects may be related to the presence of naringenin and caffeic acid or their synergistic effect with the other compounds in the extracts.
  • Slighoua, Meryem; Mahdi, Ismail; Amrati, Fatima ez-Zahra; Di Cristo, Francesca; Amaghnouje, Amal; Grafov, Andrey; Boucetta, Nabil; Bari, Amina; Bousta, Dalila (2021)
    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Since the dawn of time, medicinal and aromatic plants (AMPs) represent a precious heritage for humanity, especially in developing countries, who exploit their virtues in traditional pharmacopoeia to cope with health problems such as diabetes, kidney stones, ulcer, and digestive disorders. Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. belongs to Apiaceae family. It is traditionally used to treat arterial hypertension, diabetes, cardiac disease, renal disease, and recently reported as a plant endowed with a female anti-infertility effect. Aim of the study: This study aims to evaluate the in vivo effect of hydro-ethanolic extract and polyphenols of Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. on cholesterol, protein and estrogen levels, and characterize the chemical composition of polyphenolic fraction. In addition, acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of tested extract was also investigated. Materials and methods: Chemical composition of polyphenolic fraction was determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD). First, toxicological investigations including sub-acute toxicity were performed by measuring animals' weights daily for four weeks. Afterwards, histopathological examination of livers and kidneys, and serum assay of ASAT and ALAT were also checked. Next, the acute in vivo anti-inflammatory study of the hydro-ethanolic extract and polyphenols of Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. versus Indomethacin was conducted. Furthermore, we evaluated the estrogenic effect of its hydroethanolic extract and the polyphenolic fraction following biochemical assays for the determination of proteins, cholesterol and estrogen levels. Results: The results revealed the presence of some phenolic compounds mainly ferulic acid, gallic acid and quercetin. Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. extracts also showed no evidence of hepatotoxicity nor nephrotoxicity, with remarkable anti-inflammatory activity, as well as a significant estrogenic effect compared to negative control. Conclusion: This study provides a scope of the potential use of Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. extracts in counteracting female infertility issues.
  • Porcar-Castell, Albert; Malenovsky, Zbynek; Magney, Troy; Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Fernandez-Marin, Beatriz; Maignan, Fabienne; Zhang, Yongguang; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Atherton, Jon; Albert, Loren P.; Robson, Thomas Matthew; Zhao, Feng; Garcia-Plazaola, Jose-Ignacio; Ensminger, Ingo; Rajewicz, Paulina A.; Grebe, Steffen; Tikkanen, Mikko; Kellner, James R.; Ihalainen, Janne A.; Rascher, Uwe; Logan, Barry (2021)
    Remote sensing methods enable detection of solar-induced chlorophyll a fluorescence. However, to unleash the full potential of this signal, intensive cross-disciplinary work is required to harmonize biophysical and ecophysiological studies. For decades, the dynamic nature of chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlaF) has provided insight into the biophysics and ecophysiology of the light reactions of photosynthesis from the subcellular to leaf scales. Recent advances in remote sensing methods enable detection of ChlaF induced by sunlight across a range of larger scales, from using instruments mounted on towers above plant canopies to Earth-orbiting satellites. This signal is referred to as solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) and its application promises to overcome spatial constraints on studies of photosynthesis, opening new research directions and opportunities in ecology, ecophysiology, biogeochemistry, agriculture and forestry. However, to unleash the full potential of SIF, intensive cross-disciplinary work is required to harmonize these new advances with the rich history of biophysical and ecophysiological studies of ChlaF, fostering the development of next-generation plant physiological and Earth-system models. Here, we introduce the scale-dependent link between SIF and photosynthesis, with an emphasis on seven remaining scientific challenges, and present a roadmap to facilitate future collaborative research towards new applications of SIF.
  • Wang, Fang; Robson, T Matthew; Casal, Jorge J; Aphalo, Pedro J. (2020)
    The UV-A/blue photoreceptors phototropins and cryptochromes are both known to contribute to stomatal opening (∆gs) in blue light. However, their relative contributions to maintenance of gs in blue light through the whole photoperiod remains unknown. To elucidate this question, Arabidopsis phot1 phot2 and cry1 cry2 mutants (MTs) and their respective wild types (WTs) were irradiated with 200 μmol m-2 s-1 of blue-, green- or red-light (BL, GL or RL) throughout a 11-hour photoperiod. Stomatal conductance (gs) was higher under BL, than under RL or GL. Under RL, gs was not affected by either of the photoreceptor mutations, but under GL gs was slightly lower in cry1 cry2 than its WT. Under BL, the presence of phototropins was essential for rapid stomatal opening at the beginning of the photoperiod, while maximal stomatal opening beyond 3 h of irradiation required both phototropins and cryptochromes. Time courses of whole-plant net carbon assimilation rate (Anet) and the effective quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry (ΦPSII) were consistent with an Anet-independent contribution of BL on gs both in phot1 phot2 and cry1 cry2 mutants. The changing roles of phototropins and cryptochromes through the day may allow more flexible coordination between gs and Anet.
  • Damerau, Annelie; Kakko, Tanja; Tian, Ye; Tuomasjukka, Saska; Sandell, Mari; Hopia, Anu; Yang, Baoru (2020)
    A promising way of processing Baltic herring, Clupea harengus membras, is turning the fish into boneless mince. However, Baltic herring is prone to lipid oxidation, which possesses a challenge for industrial applications. The aim of this work was to study the efficacy of press cakes from Finnish berries and a supercritical CO2 plant extract to limit lipid oxidation during frozen storage of Baltic herring mince and to determine the impact of these additions on consumer acceptance in a fish product. Peroxide value, formation of volatile oxidation products and loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids showed that the tested natural additives decreased oxidation to a greater or similar extent as conventional antioxidants during 10-month storage. While potential of berry press cakes and plant extracts as "green label antioxidants" was shown, consumer study indicated need for further research to reach both optimal antioxidative efficacy and sensory properties.
  • Hurkuck, Miriam; Bruemmer, Christian; Mohr, Karsten; Spott, Oliver; Well, Reinhard; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L. (2015)
    We applied a N-15 dilution technique called Integrated Total Nitrogen Input (ITNI) to quantify annual atmospheric N input into a peatland surrounded by intensive agricultural practices over a 2-year period. Grass species and grass growth effects on atmospheric N deposition were investigated using Lolium multiflorum and Eriophorum vaginatum and different levels of added N resulting in increased biomass production. Plant biomass production was positively correlated with atmospheric N uptake (up to 102.7mg N pot(-1)) when using Lolium multiflorum. In contrast, atmospheric N deposition to Eriophorum vaginatum did not show a clear dependency to produced biomass and ranged from 81.9 to 138.2mgNpot(-1). Both species revealed a relationship between atmospheric N input and total biomass N contents. Airborne N deposition varied from about 24 to 55kgNha(-1)yr(-1). Partitioning of airborne N within the monitor system differed such that most of the deposited N was found in roots of Eriophorum vaginatum while the highest share was allocated in aboveground biomass of Lolium multiflorum. Compared to other approaches determining atmospheric N deposition, ITNI showed highest airborne N input and an up to fivefold exceedance of the ecosystem-specific critical load of 5-10kgNha(-1)yr(-1).
  • Solanki, Twinkle; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio; Robson, T Matthew; Fernandez-Marin, Beatriz (2022)
    Evergreen plants growing at high latitudes or high elevations may experience freezing events in their photosynthetic tissues. Freezing events can have physical and physiological effects on the leaves which alter leaf optical properties affecting remote and proximal sensing parameters. We froze leaves of six alpine plant species (Soldanella alpina, Ranunculus kuepferi, Luzula nutans, Gentiana acaulis, Geum montanum, and Centaurea uniflora) and three evergreen forest understorey species (Hepatica nobilis, Fragaria vesca and Oxalis acetosella), and assessed their spectral transmittance and optically measured pigments, as well as photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) as an indicator of freezing damage. Upon freezing, leaves of all the species transmitted more photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and some species had increased ultraviolet-A (UV-A) transmittance. These differences were less pronounced in alpine than in understorey species, which may be related to higher chlorophyll degradation, visible as reduced leaf chlorophyll content upon freezing in the latter species. Among these understorey forbs, the thin leaves of O. acetosella displayed the largest reduction in chlorophyll (−79%). This study provides insights into how freezing changes the leaf optical properties of wild plants which could be used to set a baseline for upscaling optical reflectance data from remote sensing. Changes in leaf transmittance may also serve to indicate photosynthetic sufficiency and physiological tolerance of freezing events, but experimental research is required to establish this functional association.
  • Wasonga, Daniel; Kleemola, Jouko; Alakukku, Laura; Mäkelä, Pirjo (2020)
    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) experiences intermittent water deficit and suffers from potassium (K) deficiency that seriously constrains its yield in the tropics. Currently, the interaction effect between deficit irrigation and K fertigation on growth and yield of cassava is unknown, especially during the early growth phase. Therefore, pot experiments were conducted under controlled greenhouse conditions using cassava cuttings. Treatments initiated at 30 days after planting included three irrigation doses (30%, 60%, 100% pot capacity) and five K (0.01, 1, 4, 16, and 32 mM) concentrations. The plants were harvested 90 days after planting. Decreasing irrigation dose to 30% together with 16 mM K lowered the leaf water potential by 69%, leaf osmotic potential by 41%, photosynthesis by 35%, stomatal conductance by 41%, water usage by 50%, leaf area by 17%, and whole-plant dry mass by 41%, compared with full-irrigated plants. Lowering the K concentration below 16 mM reduced the values further. Notably, growth and yield were decreased the least compared with optimal, when irrigation dose was decreased to 60% together with 16 mM K. The results demonstrate that deficit irrigation strategies could be utilized to develop management practices to improve cassava productivity by means of K fertigation under low moisture conditions.
  • Rajewicz, Paulina A.; Atherton, Jon; Alonso, Luis; Porcar-Castell, Albert (2019)
    Successful measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) spectral properties (typically in the wavelength range of 650-850 nm) across plant species, environmental conditions, and stress levels are a first step towards establishing a quantitative link between solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), which can only be measured at discrete ChlF spectral bands, and photosynthetic functionality. Despite its importance and significance, the various methodologies for the estimation of leaf-level ChlF spectral properties have not yet been compared, especially when applied to leaves with complex morphology, such as needles. Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, a first comparison of protocols for measuring leaf-level ChlF spectra: a custom-made system designed to measure ChlF spectra at ambient and 77 K temperatures (optical chamber, OC), the widely used FluoWat leaf clip (FW), and an integrating sphere setup (IS). We test the three methods under low-light conditions, across two broadleaf species and one needle-like species. For the conifer, we characterize the effect of needle arrangements: one needle, three needles, and needle mats with as little gap fraction as technically possible. We also introduce a simple baseline correction method to account for non-fluorescence-related contributions to spectral measurements. Baseline correction was found especially useful in recovering the spectra nearby the filter cut-off. Results show that the shape of the leaf-level ChlF spectra remained largely unaffected by the measurement methodology and geometry in OC and FW methods. Substantially smaller red/far-red ratios were observed in the IS method. The comparison of needle arrangements indicated that needle mats could be a practical solution to investigate temporal changes in ChlF spectra of needle-like leaves as they produced more reproducible results and higher signals.
  • Vanhatalo, Anni; Ghirardo, Andrea; Juurola, Eija; Schnitzler, Joerg-Peter; Zimmer, Ina; Hellen, Heidi; Hakola, Hannele; Baeck, Jaana (2018)
    Seasonal variations in monoterpene emissions from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) are well documented, and emissions are often shown to follow the incident temperatures due to effects on compound volatility. Recent studies have indicated a link between monoterpene emissions and physiological drivers such as photosynthetic capacity during needle development. The complex interplay between the dynamic changes in the biosynthetic capacity to produce monoterpenes and the temperature-dependent evaporation process of volatiles from internal storage reservoirs has not yet been studied under field conditions. In this study, we analysed the relationships between needle monoterpene synthase activities, endogenous monoterpene storage pools and monoterpene emissions of needles in two consecutive years at a boreal forest site in Finland. The results showed changes in the monoterpene synthase activity of needles, linked to seasonality and needle ontogenesis, while the pool of stored monoterpenes (about 0.5% of dry weight) did not change considerably as a function of needle aging. Monoterpene emissions did not correlate directly with enzyme activity or the storage pool size. We observed notably high plant-to-plant variation in the biosynthesis rates of individual monoterpenes, which did not reflect the storage compound mixture. The enzyme activity producing delta-3-carene was only present in the first months after needle flushing, and decreased with needle age, whereas delta-3-carene was abundant in the endogenous monoterpene pool and dominated the needle emissions. This study emphasizes the seasonal, developmental and intraspecific variability of monoterpene biosynthesis and storage, and calls for more in-depth analyses to reveal how such complex interaction affects monoterpene emissions from pine needles in boreal forests.
  • Zhang, Sheng; Tang, Duoteng; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang (2019)
    Dioecious trees have evolved sex-specific adaptation strategies to cope with inorganic phosphorus (Pi) limitation. Yet, little is known about the effects of Pi limitation on plant metabolism, particularly in dioecious woody plants. To identify potential gender-specific metabolites appearing in response to Pi limitation in poplars, we studied the metabolic and ionomic responses in the roots and leaves of Populus cathayana Rehd males and females exposed to a 60-day period of Pi deficiency. Besides significant decreases in phosphorus contents in both Pi-deficient roots and leaves, the calcium level decreased significantly and the sulfur content increased significantly in Pi-deficient male roots, while the zinc and ferrum contents increased significantly in Pi-deficient female roots. Inorganic P deficiency caused a smaller change in the abscisic acid content, but a significant increase in the jasmonic acid content was detected in both leaves and roots. Salicylic acid significantly decreased under Pi deficiency in male leaves and female roots. Changes were found in phospholipids and phosphorylated metabolites (e.g., fructose-6-phosphate, glycerol-3-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, phosphoric acid and inositol-1-phosphate) in roots and leaves. Both P. cathayana males and females relied on inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent but not on Pi-dependent glycolysis under Pi-deficient conditions. Sex-specific metabolites in leaves were primarily in the category of primary metabolites (e.g., amino acids), while in roots primarily in the category of secondary metabolites (e.g., organic acids) and sugars. The metabolome analysis revealed that sexually different pathways occurred mainly in amino acid metabolism, and the tissue-related differences were in the shikimate pathway and glycolysis. We observed changes in carbon flow, reduced root biomass and increased amino acid contents in P. cathayana males but not in females, which indicated that males have adopted an energy-saving strategy to adapt to Pi deficiency. Thus, this study provides new insights into sex-specific metabolic responses to Pi deficiency.
  • Wang, Linping; Poque, Sylvain; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2019)
    Background Virus diseases caused by co-infection with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweetpotato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) are a severe problem in the production of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.). Traditional molecular virus detection methods include nucleic acid-based and serological tests. In this study, we aimed to validate the use of a non-destructive imaging-based plant phenotype platform to study plant-virus synergism in sweetpotato by comparing four virus treatments with two healthy controls. Results By monitoring physiological and morphological effects of viral infection in sweetpotato over 29 days, we quantified photosynthetic performance from chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) imaging and leaf thermography from thermal infrared (TIR) imaging among sweetpotatoes. Moreover, the differences among different treatments observed from ChlF and TIR imaging were related to virus accumulation and distribution in sweetpotato. These findings were further validated at the molecular level by related gene expression in both photosynthesis and carbon fixation pathways. Conclusion Our study validated for the first time the use of ChlF- and TIR-based imaging systems to distinguish the severity of virus diseases related to SPFMV and SPCSV in sweetpotato. In addition, we demonstrated that the operating efficiency of PSII and photochemical quenching were the most sensitive parameters for the quantification of virus effects compared with maximum quantum efficiency, non-photochemical quenching, and leaf temperature.
  • Liu, Meihua; Korpelainen, Helena; Dong, Lianchun; Yi, Lita (2019)
    Combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and acid rain on physiological characteristics in Eleocarpus glabripetalus seedlings were investigated under controlled conditions. The single Cd treatment and the combined Cd and acid rain treatment increased growth at low Cd concentrations, while decreased growth and photosynthesis at high Cd2+ concentrations. A low Cd2+ concentration (50 mg kg(-1)) combined with different acid rain treatments increased the seedling biomass. A high Cd2+ concentration (100 mg kg(-1)) under different acid rain treatments significantly decreased the biomass, the Fe content, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters. Relative electric conductivity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and peroxidase (POD) activity were increased while the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and catalase (CAT) activity were significantly lower at high Cd2+ concentration under acid rain. The results indicated that the combination of a high concentration of Cd2+ and acid rain aggravated the toxic effect of Cd2+ or acid rain alone on the growth and physiological parameters of E. glabripetalus due to serious damage to the chloroplast structure. These results provide novel insights into the combined effects of Cd(2+ )and acid rain on woody plants and might also serve as a guide to evaluate forest restoration and biological safety in areas with Cd2+ and acid rain pollution.
  • Wasonga, Daniel O.; Kleemola, Jouko; Alakukku, Laura; Mäkelä, Pirjo S. A. (2020)
    Water deficit limits cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) productivity in drought-prone areas and alters the nutritive quality of the crop. Potassium (K) may mitigate the effects of water deficit and improve the nutritional content of cassava, which would alleviate malnutrition among the human population in the tropics who depend on cassava as a staple food. Pot experiments were conducted under controlled glasshouse conditions to investigate the influence of deficit irrigation and K fertigation on the nutritive and anti-nutritive quality of biofortified cassava during the early growth phase. Treatments initiated at 30 days after planting were three irrigation doses (30, 60, 100% pot capacity) that were split to five K (0.01, 1, 4, 16, and 32 mM) concentrations. Plants were harvested at 90 days after planting, and the starch, energy, carotenoid, crude protein, fiber, minerals, and cyanide concentration of the leaves and roots were determined. Irrigation and K treatments showed significant (P <0.05) interactions for starch, carotenoid, energy, and cyanide concentration. An irrigation dose of 30% together with 0.01 mM K resulted in the lowest starch, carotenoid, energy, and fiber content, but highest cyanide concentration, relative to full-irrigated (100%) plants together with 16 mM K. When the K application rate was 16 mM the best nutritional quality was obtained, with the lowest cyanide concentration, regardless of irrigation dose. Moreover, nutritional traits showed strong positive associations, whereas cyanide concentration correlated negatively with all the nutritional traits. Notably, an irrigation dose of 60% together with 16 mM K reduced the nutritional content the least and showed minimal increase in cyanide concentration. The results indicate that K fertigation with adjusted irrigation may improve the dietary quality of young cassava and reduce antinutrients, which could enhance the nutrient bioavailability of cassava grown in drought-prone areas.