Browsing by Subject "LESIONS"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 37
  • Arczewska, Katarzyna D.; Tomazella, Gisele G.; Lindvall, Jessica M.; Kassahun, Henok; Maglioni, Silvia; Torgovnick, Alessandro; Henriksson, Johan; Matilainen, Olli; Marquis, Bryce J.; Nelson, Bryant C.; Jaruga, Pawel; Babaie, Eshrat; Holmberg, Carina; Burglin, Thomas R.; Ventura, Natascia; Thiede, Bernd; Nilsen, Hilde (2013)
  • Kontturi, Miia; Junni, Reijo; Kujala-Wirth, Minna; Malinen, Erja; Seuna, Eija; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Soveri, Timo; Simojoki, Heli (2020)
    Several Finnish dairy herds have suffered from outbreaks of interdigital phlegmon (IP). In these new types of outbreaks, morbidity was high and clinical signs severe, resulting in substantial economic losses for affected farms. In our study, we visited 18 free stall dairy herds experiencing an outbreak of IP and 3 control herds without a similar outbreak. From a total of 203 sampled cows, 60 suffered from acute stage IP. We demonstrated that acute phase response of bovine IP was evident and therefore an appropriate analgesic should be administered in the treatment of affected animals. The response was most apparent in herds with high morbidity in IP and with a bacterial infection comprising Fusobacterium necrophorum and Dichelobacter nodosus, indicating that combination of these two bacterial species affect the severity of the disease.
  • Rademakers, Timo; van der Vorst, Emiel P. C.; Daissormont, Isabelle T. M. N.; Otten, Jeroen J. T.; Theodorou, Kosta; Theelen, Thomas L.; Gijbels, Marion; Anisimov, Andrey; Nurmi, Harri; Lindeman, Jan H. N.; Schober, Andreas; Heeneman, Sylvia; Alitalo, Kari; Biessen, Erik A. L. (2017)
    During plaque progression, inflammatory cells progressively accumulate in the adventitia, paralleled by an increased presence of leaky vasa vasorum. We here show that next to vasa vasorum, also the adventitial lymphatic capillary bed is expanding during plaque development in humans and mouse models of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we investigated the role of lymphatics in atherosclerosis progression. Dissection of plaque draining lymph node and lymphatic vessel in atherosclerotic ApoE(-/-)mice aggravated plaque formation, which was accompanied by increased intimal and adventitial CD3(+) T cell numbers. Likewise, inhibition of VEGF-C/D dependent lymphangiogenesis by AAV aided gene transfer of hVEGFR3-Ig fusion protein resulted in CD3(+) T cell enrichment in plaque intima and adventitia. hVEGFR3-Ig gene transfer did not compromise adventitial lymphatic density, pointing to VEGF-C/D independent lymphangiogenesis. We were able to identify the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis, which has previously been shown to indirectly activate VEGFR3, as a likely pathway, in that its focal silencing attenuated lymphangiogenesis and augmented T cell presence. Taken together, our study not only shows profound, partly CXCL12/CXCR4 mediated, expansion of lymph capillaries in the adventitia of atherosclerotic plaque in humans and mice, but also is the first to attribute an important role of lymphatics in plaque T cell accumulation and development.
  • Laaksonen, Kristina; Helle, Liisa; Parkkonen, Lauri; Kirveskari, Erika; Mäkelä, Jyrki; Mustanoja, Satu; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Kaste, Markku; Forss, Nina (2013)
  • Mäkelä, Kati; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Sihvo, Hanna-Kaisa; Bergman, Paula; Sutinen, Eva; Ollila, Hely; Kaarteenaho, Riitta; Myllärniemi, Marjukka (2021)
    A large number of fibroblast foci (FF) predict mortality in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Other prognostic histological markers have not been identified. Artificial intelligence (AI) offers a possibility to quantitate possible prognostic histological features in IPF. We aimed to test the use of AI in IPF lung tissue samples by quantitating FF, interstitial mononuclear inflammation, and intra-alveolar macrophages with a deep convolutional neural network (CNN). Lung tissue samples of 71 patients with IPF from the FinnishIPF registry were analyzed by an AI model developed in the Aiforia® platform. The model was trained to detect tissue, air spaces, FF, interstitial mononuclear inflammation, and intra-alveolar macrophages with 20 samples. For survival analysis, cut-point values for high and low values of histological parameters were determined with maximally selected rank statistics. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. A large area of FF predicted poor prognosis in IPF (p = 0.01). High numbers of interstitial mononuclear inflammatory cells and intra-alveolar macrophages were associated with prolonged survival (p = 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively). Of lung function values, low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide was connected to a high density of FF (p = 0.03) and a high forced vital capacity of predicted was associated with a high intra-alveolar macrophage density (p = 0.03). The deep CNN detected histological features that are difficult to quantitate manually. Interstitial mononuclear inflammation and intra-alveolar macrophages were novel prognostic histological biomarkers in IPF. Evaluating histological features with AI provides novel information on the prognostic estimation of IPF.
  • Arola, Anne; Laakso, Hanna M.; Pitkänen, Johanna; Koikkalainen, Juha; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Korvenoja, Antti; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Melkas, Susanna; Jokinen, Hanna (2021)
    Background and purpose Cerebral small vessel disease is characterized by progressive white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and cognitive decline. However, variability exists in how individuals maintain cognitive capabilities despite significant neuropathology. The relationships between individual cognitive reserve, psychological resilience and cognitive functioning were examined in subjects with varying degrees of WMH. Methods In the Helsinki Small Vessel Disease Study, 152 subjects (aged 65-75 years) underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, evaluation of subjective cognitive complaints and brain magnetic resonance imaging with volumetric WMH evaluation. Cognitive reserve was determined by education (years) and the modified Cognitive Reserve Scale (mCRS). Psychological resilience was evaluated with the Resilience Scale 14. Results The mCRS total score correlated significantly with years of education (r = 0.23, p < 0.01), but it was not related to age, sex or WMH volume. Together, mCRS score and education were associated with performance in a wide range of cognitive domains including processing speed, executive functions, working memory, verbal memory, visuospatial perception and verbal reasoning. Independently of education, the mCRS score had incremental predictive value on delayed verbal recall and subjective cognitive complaints. Psychological resilience was not significantly related to age, education, sex, WMH severity or cognitive test scores, but it was associated with subjective cognitive complaints. Conclusions Cognitive reserve has strong and consistent associations with cognitive functioning in subjects with WMH. Education is widely associated with objective cognitive functioning, whereas lifetime engagement in cognitively stimulating leisure activities (mCRS) has independent predictive value on memory performance and subjective cognitive complaints. Psychological resilience is strongly associated with subjective, but not objective, cognitive functioning.
  • Paju, Susanna; Pietiäinen, Milla; Liljestrand, John; Lahdentausta, Laura; Salminen, Aino; Kallio, Elisa; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko (2021)
    Aim To study the prevalence of carotid artery calcification (CAC) in relation to apical and marginal periodontitis, subgingival dysbiotic bacterial species and serum and saliva immune responses against them. In addition, the aim was to analyse the association of CAC with angiographically verified coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality. Methodology In the present random Parogene cohort, the patients had an indication for coronary angiography. Apical and marginal periodontitis were diagnosed during clinical and radiographic oral examinations, and CAC on panoramic radiographs (n = 492). Presence and severity of CAD were registered from angiography. Subgingival dysbiotic bacterial species were quantitated using checkerboard DNA-DNA-hybridization, and serum and saliva antibody levels were determined by immunoassays. The cohort was followed-up for 10 years or until death (median 9.9, range 0.21-10.4) via linkage to the national death register. The statistical models were adjusted for age, gender, smoking, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Results A total of 102 (20.7%) patients had detectable CAC, which was moderate in 81 (16.4%) and severe in 21 (4.3%). CAC was associated (OR, 95% CI) with severe apical periodontitis (2.25, 1.15-4.41), root canal fillings (1.15, 1.04-1.26), alveolar bone loss (2.66, 1.21-5.84), severe periodontal inflammation (2.23, 1.11-4.47), high level of gram-negative subgingival species (2.73, 1.34-5.50), saliva IgG against dysbiotic species (1.05, 1.01-1.10/unit) and severe (2.58, 1.36-4.90) and chronic (2.13, 1.15-3.93) CAD. A total of 105 (20.7%) patients died during the follow-up and 53 (10.4%) deaths were because of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Severe CAC predicted worse survival with HRs (95% CI) of 3.08 (1.58-6.06) for all-cause and 3.43 (1.42-8.25) for CVD death. Conclusions CAC on panoramic tomography was associated with (i) apical and marginal periodontitis and dysbiotic bacterial species giving rise to an immunological response, and with (ii) severe, chronic CAD and increased mortality. The results further emphasize the role of oral infections in CAD and the importance of referring a patient with CAC for a cardiovascular evaluation.
  • Stepanova, P.; Srinivasan, V.; Lindholm, D.; Voutilainen, M. H. (2020)
    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a progressive loss of medium spiny neurons in the striatum and aggregation of mutant huntingtin in the striatal and cortical neurons. Currently, there are no rational therapies for the treatment of the disease. Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) located protein with neurotrophic factor (NTF) properties, protecting and restoring the function of dopaminergic neurons in animal models of PD more effectively than other NTFs. CDNF is currently in phase I-II clinical trials on PD patients. Here we have studied whether CDNF has beneficial effects on striatal neurons in in vitro and in vivo models of HD. CDNF was able to protect striatal neurons from quinolinic acid (QA)-induced cell death in vitro via increasing the IRE1 alpha/XBP1 signalling pathway in the ER. A single intrastriatal CDNF injection protected against the deleterious effects of QA in a rat model of HD. CDNF improved motor coordination and decreased ataxia in QA-toxin treated rats, and stimulated the neurogenesis by increasing doublecortin (DCX)-positive and NeuN-positive cells in the striatum. These results show that CDNF positively affects striatal neuron viability reduced by QA and signifies CDNF as a promising drug candidate for the treatment of HD.
  • Vohlonen, Ilkka; Härkönen, Matti; Malila, Nea; Pukkala, Eero; Sipponen, Pentti; Koistinen, Veli; Hakama, Matti (2017)
    Background: Objective was to quantify biases in screening for gastric cancer when comparing attenders to nonattenders using serum pepsinogen I (SPGI) level as primary test.Methods: In mid 1990s, all men aged 51-65 years from two Finnish cities were invited to SPGI screening. Mortality and premature mortality in attenders were compared to nonattenders. Efficacy of screening was studied by 15 years' follow-up of standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and potential years of life lost (PYLL) due to gastric cancer. Bias due to selective attendance was quantified using corrective coefficients based on total cancer incidence and mortality, and gastric cancer-specific incidence and mortality for total population and nonattenders.Results: In 1994-1996, men aged 51-65 years (16,872) were invited to SPGI assay and 12,175 men (72%) attended. SPGI was 25 microg/l or less in 610 (5%) men, indicating severe atrophic gastritis (AG). Post-screening gastroscopy was performed to 435 men with low SPGI. Of these, 168 men were referred for treatment due to abnormal focal lesions. Attributable proportions in reductions of SMR and PYLL from gastric cancer due to screening were 59% and 67%. After correcting for selective participation, attributable proportions were reduced to 23% and 39%.Conclusions: Biomarker screening by low SPGI among middle-aged men followed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy decreased long-term and premature mortality due to gastric cancer. However, in spite of methodological corrections done, the results do not justify any firm conclusions or recommend general screening programs. Randomized trials are warranted for this purpose.
  • Hedenbjork-Lager, Anders; Hamberg, Kristina; Paakkonen, Virve; Tjaderhane, Leo; Ericson, Dan (2016)
    Objective: Dental caries is a process driven by acids produced by oral microorganisms followed by degradation of the dentine collagen matrix by proteolytic enzymes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to contribute to caries by degrading collagen. The aim of this study was to develop a method for generating demineralized dentine matrix substrate (DDM) maintaining MMP-8 bioactivity and no interference with later assays. Such a substrate would allow study of the effects of various treatments on MMP-8 activity and collagen degradation in demineralized dentine. Design: Human dentine was powderized in a tissue grinder and frozen (-80 degrees C). The powder was demineralized in dialysis tubes, using EDTA or acetic acid. The demineralized dentine matrix (DDM) was harvested and analyzed for collagen content using SDS-PAGE. The DDM was subsequently suspended in PBS or TESCA buffer. Protein, MMP-8 (ELISA) and collagen (HYP) was analyzed directly or after 1 wk. Results: EDTA or acid demineralization of dentine using dialysis yielded a substrate rich in collagen coupled with preserved MMP-8 activity. Collagen degraded in room temperature, assessed by higher HYP amounts in the soluble fraction of DDM after one wk, indicating that the methods used preserved active DDM-components after the demineralization process. Conclusions: The presented demineralization methods both provided insoluble DDM substrates suitable for further intervention studies. However, it was found that the substrates differed depending on the demineralization method and buffers used. This needs further study to find an optimal technique for generating DDM with retained proteins as well as enzymatic bioactivity. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Athanasiou, Antonios; Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Efthimiou, Orestis; Kalliala, Ilkka; Naci, Huseyin; Bowden, Sarah; Paraskevaidi, Maria; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre; Bennett, Philip; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Salanti, Georgia; Kyrgiou, Maria (2019)
    Introduction Local treatments for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and microinvasive disease remove or ablate a cone-shaped part of the uterine cervix containing the abnormal cells. A trend toward less radical techniques has raised concerns that this may adversely impact the rates of precancerous and cancerous recurrence. However, there has been no strong evidence to support such claims. We hereby describe a protocol of a systematic review and network meta-analysis that will update the evidence and compare all relevant treatments in terms of efficacy and complications. Methods and analysis Literature searches in electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE) or trial registries will identify published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies comparing the efficacy and complications among different excisional and ablative techniques. The excisional techniques include cold knife, laser or Fischer cone, large loop or needle excision of the transformation zone and the ablative radical point diathermy, cryotherapy, cold coagulation or laser ablation. The primary outcome will be residual/recurrent disease defined as abnormal histology or cytology of any grade, while secondary outcomes will include treatment failure rates defined as high-grade histology or cytology, histologically confirmed CIN1+ or histologically confirmed CIN2+, human papillomavirus positivity rates, involved margins rates, bleeding and cervical stenosis rates. We will assess the risk of bias in RCTs and observational studies using tools developed by the Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors will independently assess study eligibility, abstract the data and assess the risk of bias. Random-effects meta-analyses and network meta-analyses will be conducted using the OR for dichotomous outcomes and the mean difference for continuous outcomes. The quality of the evidence for the primary outcome will be assessed using the CINeMA (Confidence In Network Meta-Analysis) tool. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required. We will disseminate findings to clinicians, policy-makers, patients and the public. PROSPERO registration number CRD42018115508.
  • Lei, Jing; Ye, Gang; Pertovaara, Antti; You, Hao-Jun (2020)
    Here we investigated variations of endogenous descending modulation of nociception and therapeutic effects of intramuscular (i.m.) heating-needle stimulation in early stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by unilateral microinjection of 3.5 mu l of 2.5 mu g/mu l 6-hydroxydopamine into the rat striatum. Paw withdrawal reflexes to noxious mechanical and heat stimuli in PD rats with and without exposure to i.m. 5.8% saline induced muscle nociception were evaluated. Experimental PD had no influence on mechanical or heat sensitivity in the baseline condition, whereas descending facilitation was stronger and descending inhibition was weaker in PD rats than vehicle-treated or naive rats during muscle nociception (P <0.05). Striatal administration of 5 mu g of dopamine failed to reverse the PD-associated changes in descending facilitation or inhibition, whereas dopamine in the thalamic mediodorsal (MD) nucleus and ventromedial (VM) nucleus significantly decreased the increase in descending facilitation and reversed the attenuation in descending inhibition, respectively (P <0.05). I.m. 43 degrees C of heating-needle stimulation had no effects on the enhanced descending facilitation in PD rats, but it markedly increased descending inhibition and reversed the increase in the number of apomorphine-induced body rotations (P <0.05), which effects were dose-dependently attenuated by raclopride, a dopamine 2 receptor antagonist, in the thalamic VM nucleus (P <0.05). The results indicate that the early-stage PD is associated with enhanced descending facilitation and weakened descending inhibition. From clinical perspective, 43 degrees C heat therapeutic regime promises to selectively enhance descending inhibition that is accompanied by improvement of motor dysfunction in PD. (c) 2020 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Mansikka, Eriika; Hervonen, Kaisa; Kaukinen, Katri; Ilus, Tuire; Oksanen, Pia; Lindfors, Katri; Laurila, Kaija; Hietikko, Minna; Taavela, Juha; Jernman, Juha; Saavalainen, Päivi; Reunala, Timo; Salmi, Teea (2019)
    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an extraintestinal manifestation of celiac disease causing an itchy, blistering rash. Granular IgA deposits in the skin are pathognomonic for DH, and the treatment of choice is a lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD). Preliminary evidence suggests that there are patients with DH who redevelop gluten tolerance after adherence to a GFD treatment. To evaluate this, we performed a 12-month gluten challenge with skin and small-bowel mucosal biopsy samples in 19 patients with DH who had adhered to a GFD for a mean of 23 years. Prechallenge biopsy was negative for skin IgA and transglutaminase 3 deposits in 16 patients (84%) and indicated normal villous height-to-crypt depth ratios in the small bowel mucosa in all 19 patients. The gluten challenge caused a relapse of the rash in 15 patients (79%) in a mean of 5.6 months; of these 15 patients, 13 had skin IgA and transglutaminase 3 deposits, and 12 had small-bowel villous atrophy. In addition, three patients without rash or immune deposits in the skin developed villous atrophy, whereas one patient persisted without any signs of relapse. In conclusion, 95% of the patients with DH were unable to tolerate gluten even after long-term adherence to a GFD. Therefore, lifelong GFD treatment remains justified in all patients with DH.
  • Jaakola, Anna; Roger, Michel; Faucher, Marie-Claude; Syrjanen, Kari; Grenman, Seija; Syrjänen, Stina; Louvanto, Karolina (2021)
    BackroundHuman leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G may have an important role in the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Our aim was to evaluate the role of HLA-G in the outcome of genital and oral HPV infections in women.MethodsAnalyses included 306 women from the Finnish Family HPV-study and were followed-up for six years. Genital and oral samples were tested for 24 different HPV types with multiplex HPV genotyping. HLA-G alleles were determined through direct DNA-sequencing. Unconditional logistic regression was used to determine the associations between HLA-G genotypes and HPV infection outcomes.ResultsTen HLA-G alleles were identified. Most common HLA-G genotypes were the wild type G*01:01:01/01:01:01 (31.3%) followed by G*01:01:01/01:01:02 (26.8%). G*01:01:01/01:01:01 genotype was associated with increased risk of oral HPV infections by any HPV type or single-type with OR=1.86 (95% CI 1.14-3.04, P=0.01) and 2.22 (95% CI 1.14-3.71, P=0.02), respectively. G*04:01+ allele and the G*01:01:01/01:04:01 genotype both protected from any and single oral HPV infections; OR=0.46 (95% CI 0.23-0.89, P=0.02) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.23-0.97, P=0.03), respectively. G*01:01:02/01:04:01 genotype increased significantly the risk of infertility and its treatments, with respective OR=5.06 (95% CI 1.22-21.02, P=0.03) and OR=9.07 (95% CI 1.22-39.50, P=0.03). Both HLA-G alleles and genotypes showed several significant associations with the outcomes of oral HPV infections, but none of them had any impact on the outcomes of genital HPV infections in these women.ConclusionsThe host HLA-G genotypes appear to impact the outcomes of oral HPV infections in women but have little if any effect on genital HPV status or infection outcomes.
  • Cserni, Gabor; Floris, Giuseppe; Koufopoulos, Nektarios; Kovacs, Aniko; Nonni, Afroditi; Regitnig, Peter; Ståhls, Anders; Varga, Zsuzsanna (2017)
    Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast is known to produce intracellular mucin and has been recognized in single-case reports to show extracellular mucin production, as well. This latter morphology is not only rare but must also be under- or misdiagnosed. The aim was to better characterize this entity. Cases of lobular cancers demonstrating extracellular mucin formation were identified in a multi-institutional effort and their clinical and morphologic features were assessed. Immunohistochemistry was used to characterize the E-cadherin-membrane complex, neuroendocrine differentiation, and to some extent, mucin formation. All but one of the eight cases occurred in postmenopausal patients. Extracellular mucin production was present in 5 to 50% of the tumour samples and rarely also appeared in nodal and distant metastases. The tumours were completely E-cadherin negative and showed cytoplasmic p120 positivity. The majority (n = 6/8) was also completely negative for beta-catenin, but two tumours displayed focal beta-catenin positivity in the mucinous area. MUC1 and MUC2 expression was observed in all and 7/8 tumours, respectively; neuroendocrine differentiation was present in only one. Invasive lobular carcinoma with extracellular mucin formation is a rare morphologic variant of lobular carcinoma prone to be misdiagnosed and warranting further studies.
  • Nam, Jinhan; Koppinen, Tapani K.; Voutilainen, Merja H. (2021)
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive autoimmune disease characterized by T-cell mediated demyelination in central nervous system (CNS). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a widely used in vivo disease model of MS. Glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone (dex) function as immunosuppressants and are commonly used to treat acute exacerbations of MS. Dex is also often used as a positive control in EAE studies, as it has been shown to promote motor behavior, inhibit immune cell infiltration into the CNS and regulate the activation of glial cell in EAE. This study further validated the effects of intravenously administrated dex by time-dependent fashion in EAE. Dex postponed clinical signs and motor defects in early stages of EAE. Histological analysis revealed that the degeneration of myelin and axons, as well as the infiltration of peripheral immune cells into the white matter of spinal cord was inhibited by dex in early stages of EAE. Additionally, dex-treatment delayed the neuroinflammatory activation of microglia and astrocytes. Furthermore, this study analyzed the expression of the neurotrophic factor mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) in EAE, and the effect of treatment with dex on MANF-expression. We show that in dex-treated EAE mice expression MANF increased within myelinated areas of spinal cord white matter. We also show that intravenous administration with hMANF in EAE mice improved clinical signs and motor behavior in the early stage of EAE. Our report gives insight to the progression of EAE by providing a time-dependent analysis. Moreover, this study investigates the link between MANF and the EAE model, and shows that MANF is a potential drug candidate for MS.
  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Resendiz-Nieves, Julio; Colasanti, Roberto; Collan, Juhani; Hernesniemi, Juha (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Vascular pineal malformations are rare and technically demanding lesions. Because the locations of these lesions, endovascular techniques and radiosurgery have been increasingly used in the recent decades to accomplish safe occlusion. Nevertheless, microsurgical treatment may be required sometimes. METHODS: We present a retrospective review of the vascular pineal malformations operated by the senior author. Moreover, we report illustrative cases for the various types of vascular lesions with a careful analysis of the different microsurgical stages. RESULTS: Eighteen patients with pineal vascular lesions were operated on between 1980 and 2015: 6 patients had vein of Galen malformations, 5 plexiform arteriovenous malformations, 6 cavernous malformations, and 1 patient had a ruptured medial posterior choroidal artery aneurysm. A complete resection and occlusion was possible in all vascular malformations. CONCLUSIONS: The pineal region is an infrequent but challenging location for vascular lesions. A careful and step-wise operative strategy for the different types of vascular lesion is paramount to accomplish an effective and safe microsurgical treatment when other alternatives fail or are not available.
  • Lahteela, Kati; Kunnas, Tarja; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Mononen, Nina; Taittonen, Leena; Laitinen, Tomi; Kettunen, Johannes; Juonala, Markus; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Kahonen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma S.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Nikkari, Seppo T. (2012)
  • Haaramo, Anu; Alapulli, Heikki; Aine, Liisa; Tuokkola, Jetta; Saarnisto, Ulla; Roine, Risto P.; Pitkäranta, Anne; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2019)
    Background: Up to 50% of pediatric patients with Crohn's disease (CD) report oral manifestations, but less is known about their oral health when they become adults. Goals: Our aim was to provide detailed descriptions of the presence of oral and otorhinolaryngological manifestations in patients with pediatric onset CD once they reached adulthood, to look for predisposing factors and to compare the findings to matched controls. Study: Adult patients diagnosed with CD in childhood at the Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki, Finland, after 2000 were invited for a follow-up appointment in 2016 and 24 were examined by a dentist and otorhinolaryngologist. They were compared with 22 matched controls from the Population Register Centre. The participants completed questionnaires about their general health, any special diets, and their health-related quality of life. Their nutrition was evaluated from food records. Results: Patients with CD had minor oral manifestations at a median of 9 years after their childhood diagnosis and the most common was angular cheilitis, which affected 6 patients and 1 control, but was not statistically significant (P=0.0984). CD with perianal abscessing disease correlated to orofacial findings (P=0.0312). Most of the patients had normal otorhinolaryngological findings. Subjects with oral lesions had lower mean health-related quality of life scores than subjects without oral findings and the differences were clinically but not statistically significant. Oral manifestations were not associated with differences in energy intake. Conclusions: Oral manifestations in adult patients with pediatric onset CD were mild and were not associated with otorhinolaryngological pathology.
  • Ala-Kurikka, Eve; Munsterhjelm, Camilla; Bergman, Paula; Laine, Taina; Pekkarinen, Henna; Peltoniemi, Olli; Valros, Anna; Heinonen, Mari (2019)
    Background:A high rate of euthanized and spontaneously dead sows causes production losses and likely indicatesunderlying welfare problems. Identification of predisposing factors to on-farm deaths requires a thoroughunderstanding of the causes. Post-mortem examination is needed for a proper diagnosis. The aims of thisdescriptive study were to determine causes of spontaneous deaths and euthanasia in sows in a conveniencesample of Finnish herds and to describe pathological findings in the locomotor system and in teeth and gums.Results:This study described post-mortem findings in 65 sows found dead or euthanized on 15 farms. All but oneof the sows presented with two or more pathological findings. The majority of primary pathologic-anatomicdiagnoses (PAD-1) were inflammatory. The most prevalent diagnoses were arthritis and peritonitis (9% of sowseach). The locomotor system was the body part most commonly affected by lesions. Findings in the locomotorsystem unassociated with death were present in 85% of the animals, additionally 29% of PAD-1 s concerned thelocomotor system. The prevalence for both degenerative joint disease and tooth wear was 71%. Farmers had notedclinical signs within 30 days of death in every euthanized sow and in half of the spontaneously dead ones. Thefarmer’s impression of the cause of death agreed at least partly with the PAD-1 in 44% of the cases.Conclusion:Multiple pathologies were the norm in the present animals. This may indicate an extended course ofillness and therefore also an unnecessary delay in medical treatment or euthanasia. The prevalence and clinicalrelevance of the most common disorders, including degenerative joint disease and tooth wear, need to beelucidated.