Browsing by Subject "LESIONS"

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  • Arczewska, Katarzyna D.; Tomazella, Gisele G.; Lindvall, Jessica M.; Kassahun, Henok; Maglioni, Silvia; Torgovnick, Alessandro; Henriksson, Johan; Matilainen, Olli; Marquis, Bryce J.; Nelson, Bryant C.; Jaruga, Pawel; Babaie, Eshrat; Holmberg, Carina; Burglin, Thomas R.; Ventura, Natascia; Thiede, Bernd; Nilsen, Hilde (2013)
  • Kontturi, Miia; Junni, Reijo; Kujala-Wirth, Minna; Malinen, Erja; Seuna, Eija; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Soveri, Timo; Simojoki, Heli (2020)
    Several Finnish dairy herds have suffered from outbreaks of interdigital phlegmon (IP). In these new types of outbreaks, morbidity was high and clinical signs severe, resulting in substantial economic losses for affected farms. In our study, we visited 18 free stall dairy herds experiencing an outbreak of IP and 3 control herds without a similar outbreak. From a total of 203 sampled cows, 60 suffered from acute stage IP. We demonstrated that acute phase response of bovine IP was evident and therefore an appropriate analgesic should be administered in the treatment of affected animals. The response was most apparent in herds with high morbidity in IP and with a bacterial infection comprising Fusobacterium necrophorum and Dichelobacter nodosus, indicating that combination of these two bacterial species affect the severity of the disease.
  • Kaijasilta, Juha-Pekka; Kerola, Anne M.; Tuompo, Riitta; Relas, Heikki; Loimaala, Antti; Koivu, Hannu; Schildt, Jukka; Kerola, Tuomas; Eklund, Kari; Kauppi, Markku J.; Nieminen, Tuomo V.M. (2022)
    Aim: Inflammatory signals in the sacroiliac (SI) joints and the aorta of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) were graded by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging before and after treatment with sulfasalazine (SSZ) or adalimumab (ADA). Methods: Patients with axSpA, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) ≥ 4, were recruited. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug-naïve patients started SSZ for 12 weeks, whereas those with prestudy treatment with or contraindication to SSZ commenced ADA for 16 weeks. In addition, those patients in the SSZ group with insufficient response commenced ADA for 16 weeks. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT was performed after inclusion and after treatment with SSZ and ADA. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was assessed for the aorta and the SI joints, and maximal target-to-blood-pool ratio (TBRmax) only for the aorta. Results: Among five SSZ patients, mean ± SD BASDAI was 4.7 ± 1.6 before and 3.5 ± 1.4 after treatment (p =.101). In 13 ADA patients, the BASDAI decreased from 5.4 ± 1.6 to 2.8 ± 2.2 (p <.001). Among the SSZ patients, SUVmax in SI joints decreased from 2.35 ± 0.55 to 1.51 ± 0.22 (−35.8%, p =.029). Aortic TBRmax decreased from 1.59 ± 0.43 to 1.26 ± 0.26 (−33.2%, p =.087). In the ADA patients, SUVmax in the SI joints was 1.92 ± 0.65 before and 1.88 ± 0.54 after treatment (−1.8%, p =.808) and TBRmax in the aorta 1.50 ± 0.60 before and 1.40 ± 0.26 after treatment (−6.7%, p =.485). Conclusions: Our small open-label study showed that SSZ may reduce PET-CT-detectable inflammation in the SI joints, with a trend towards a reduction in the aorta.
  • Rademakers, Timo; van der Vorst, Emiel P. C.; Daissormont, Isabelle T. M. N.; Otten, Jeroen J. T.; Theodorou, Kosta; Theelen, Thomas L.; Gijbels, Marion; Anisimov, Andrey; Nurmi, Harri; Lindeman, Jan H. N.; Schober, Andreas; Heeneman, Sylvia; Alitalo, Kari; Biessen, Erik A. L. (2017)
    During plaque progression, inflammatory cells progressively accumulate in the adventitia, paralleled by an increased presence of leaky vasa vasorum. We here show that next to vasa vasorum, also the adventitial lymphatic capillary bed is expanding during plaque development in humans and mouse models of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we investigated the role of lymphatics in atherosclerosis progression. Dissection of plaque draining lymph node and lymphatic vessel in atherosclerotic ApoE(-/-)mice aggravated plaque formation, which was accompanied by increased intimal and adventitial CD3(+) T cell numbers. Likewise, inhibition of VEGF-C/D dependent lymphangiogenesis by AAV aided gene transfer of hVEGFR3-Ig fusion protein resulted in CD3(+) T cell enrichment in plaque intima and adventitia. hVEGFR3-Ig gene transfer did not compromise adventitial lymphatic density, pointing to VEGF-C/D independent lymphangiogenesis. We were able to identify the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis, which has previously been shown to indirectly activate VEGFR3, as a likely pathway, in that its focal silencing attenuated lymphangiogenesis and augmented T cell presence. Taken together, our study not only shows profound, partly CXCL12/CXCR4 mediated, expansion of lymph capillaries in the adventitia of atherosclerotic plaque in humans and mice, but also is the first to attribute an important role of lymphatics in plaque T cell accumulation and development.
  • Laaksonen, Kristina; Helle, Liisa; Parkkonen, Lauri; Kirveskari, Erika; Mäkelä, Jyrki; Mustanoja, Satu; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Kaste, Markku; Forss, Nina (2013)
  • Vlas, Tatjana; Brkic, Biljana Georgievski; Stevic, Zorica; Vukic, Marjana; Durovic, Olivera; Kostic, Dejan; Stanisavljevic, Natasa; Marinkovic, Ivan; Kapor, Slobodan; Marinkovic, Slobodan (2022)
    Objectives: There are scarce data regarding pontine arteries anatomy, which is the basis for ischemic lesions following their occlusion. The aim of this study was to examine pontine vasculature and its relationships with the radiologic and neuro-logic features of pontine infarctions. Materials and methods: Branches of eight basilar arteries and their twigs, including the larger intrapontine branches, were microdis-sected following an injection of a 10% mixture of India ink and gelatin. Two addi-tional brain stems were prepared for microscopic examination after being stained with luxol fast blue and cresyl violet. Finally, 30 patients with pontine infarctions underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine the position and size of the infarctions. Results: The perforating arteries, which averaged 5.8 in number and 0.39 mm in diameter, gave rise to paramedian and anteromedial branches, and also to anterolateral twigs (62.5%). The longer leptomeningeal and cere-bellar arteries occasionally gave off perforating and anterolateral twigs, and either the lateral or posterior branches. Occlusion of some of these vessels resulted in the para-median (30%), anterolateral (26.7%), lateral (20%), and combined infarctions (23.3%), which were most often isolated and unilateral, and rarely bilateral (10%). They were located in the lower pons (23.3%), middle (10%) or rostral (26.7%), or in two or three portions (40%). Each type of infarction usually produced characteristic neurologic signs. The clinical significance of the anatomic findings was discussed. Conclusions: There was a good correlation between the intrapontine vascular territories, the position, size and shape of the infarctions, and the type of neurologic manifestations. (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
  • Mäkelä, Kati; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Sihvo, Hanna-Kaisa; Bergman, Paula; Sutinen, Eva; Ollila, Hely; Kaarteenaho, Riitta; Myllärniemi, Marjukka (2021)
    A large number of fibroblast foci (FF) predict mortality in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Other prognostic histological markers have not been identified. Artificial intelligence (AI) offers a possibility to quantitate possible prognostic histological features in IPF. We aimed to test the use of AI in IPF lung tissue samples by quantitating FF, interstitial mononuclear inflammation, and intra-alveolar macrophages with a deep convolutional neural network (CNN). Lung tissue samples of 71 patients with IPF from the FinnishIPF registry were analyzed by an AI model developed in the Aiforia® platform. The model was trained to detect tissue, air spaces, FF, interstitial mononuclear inflammation, and intra-alveolar macrophages with 20 samples. For survival analysis, cut-point values for high and low values of histological parameters were determined with maximally selected rank statistics. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. A large area of FF predicted poor prognosis in IPF (p = 0.01). High numbers of interstitial mononuclear inflammatory cells and intra-alveolar macrophages were associated with prolonged survival (p = 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively). Of lung function values, low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide was connected to a high density of FF (p = 0.03) and a high forced vital capacity of predicted was associated with a high intra-alveolar macrophage density (p = 0.03). The deep CNN detected histological features that are difficult to quantitate manually. Interstitial mononuclear inflammation and intra-alveolar macrophages were novel prognostic histological biomarkers in IPF. Evaluating histological features with AI provides novel information on the prognostic estimation of IPF.
  • Liljestrand, J. M.; Salminen, A.; Lahdentausta, L.; Paju, S.; Mäntylä, P.; Buhlin, K.; Tjäderhane, L.; Sinisalo, J.; Pussinen, P. J. (2021)
  • Arola, Anne; Laakso, Hanna M.; Pitkänen, Johanna; Koikkalainen, Juha; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Korvenoja, Antti; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Melkas, Susanna; Jokinen, Hanna (2021)
    Background and purpose Cerebral small vessel disease is characterized by progressive white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and cognitive decline. However, variability exists in how individuals maintain cognitive capabilities despite significant neuropathology. The relationships between individual cognitive reserve, psychological resilience and cognitive functioning were examined in subjects with varying degrees of WMH. Methods In the Helsinki Small Vessel Disease Study, 152 subjects (aged 65-75 years) underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, evaluation of subjective cognitive complaints and brain magnetic resonance imaging with volumetric WMH evaluation. Cognitive reserve was determined by education (years) and the modified Cognitive Reserve Scale (mCRS). Psychological resilience was evaluated with the Resilience Scale 14. Results The mCRS total score correlated significantly with years of education (r = 0.23, p < 0.01), but it was not related to age, sex or WMH volume. Together, mCRS score and education were associated with performance in a wide range of cognitive domains including processing speed, executive functions, working memory, verbal memory, visuospatial perception and verbal reasoning. Independently of education, the mCRS score had incremental predictive value on delayed verbal recall and subjective cognitive complaints. Psychological resilience was not significantly related to age, education, sex, WMH severity or cognitive test scores, but it was associated with subjective cognitive complaints. Conclusions Cognitive reserve has strong and consistent associations with cognitive functioning in subjects with WMH. Education is widely associated with objective cognitive functioning, whereas lifetime engagement in cognitively stimulating leisure activities (mCRS) has independent predictive value on memory performance and subjective cognitive complaints. Psychological resilience is strongly associated with subjective, but not objective, cognitive functioning.
  • Paju, Susanna; Pietiäinen, Milla; Liljestrand, John; Lahdentausta, Laura; Salminen, Aino; Kallio, Elisa; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko (2021)
    Aim To study the prevalence of carotid artery calcification (CAC) in relation to apical and marginal periodontitis, subgingival dysbiotic bacterial species and serum and saliva immune responses against them. In addition, the aim was to analyse the association of CAC with angiographically verified coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality. Methodology In the present random Parogene cohort, the patients had an indication for coronary angiography. Apical and marginal periodontitis were diagnosed during clinical and radiographic oral examinations, and CAC on panoramic radiographs (n = 492). Presence and severity of CAD were registered from angiography. Subgingival dysbiotic bacterial species were quantitated using checkerboard DNA-DNA-hybridization, and serum and saliva antibody levels were determined by immunoassays. The cohort was followed-up for 10 years or until death (median 9.9, range 0.21-10.4) via linkage to the national death register. The statistical models were adjusted for age, gender, smoking, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Results A total of 102 (20.7%) patients had detectable CAC, which was moderate in 81 (16.4%) and severe in 21 (4.3%). CAC was associated (OR, 95% CI) with severe apical periodontitis (2.25, 1.15-4.41), root canal fillings (1.15, 1.04-1.26), alveolar bone loss (2.66, 1.21-5.84), severe periodontal inflammation (2.23, 1.11-4.47), high level of gram-negative subgingival species (2.73, 1.34-5.50), saliva IgG against dysbiotic species (1.05, 1.01-1.10/unit) and severe (2.58, 1.36-4.90) and chronic (2.13, 1.15-3.93) CAD. A total of 105 (20.7%) patients died during the follow-up and 53 (10.4%) deaths were because of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Severe CAC predicted worse survival with HRs (95% CI) of 3.08 (1.58-6.06) for all-cause and 3.43 (1.42-8.25) for CVD death. Conclusions CAC on panoramic tomography was associated with (i) apical and marginal periodontitis and dysbiotic bacterial species giving rise to an immunological response, and with (ii) severe, chronic CAD and increased mortality. The results further emphasize the role of oral infections in CAD and the importance of referring a patient with CAC for a cardiovascular evaluation.
  • Stepanova, P.; Srinivasan, V.; Lindholm, D.; Voutilainen, M. H. (2020)
    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a progressive loss of medium spiny neurons in the striatum and aggregation of mutant huntingtin in the striatal and cortical neurons. Currently, there are no rational therapies for the treatment of the disease. Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) located protein with neurotrophic factor (NTF) properties, protecting and restoring the function of dopaminergic neurons in animal models of PD more effectively than other NTFs. CDNF is currently in phase I-II clinical trials on PD patients. Here we have studied whether CDNF has beneficial effects on striatal neurons in in vitro and in vivo models of HD. CDNF was able to protect striatal neurons from quinolinic acid (QA)-induced cell death in vitro via increasing the IRE1 alpha/XBP1 signalling pathway in the ER. A single intrastriatal CDNF injection protected against the deleterious effects of QA in a rat model of HD. CDNF improved motor coordination and decreased ataxia in QA-toxin treated rats, and stimulated the neurogenesis by increasing doublecortin (DCX)-positive and NeuN-positive cells in the striatum. These results show that CDNF positively affects striatal neuron viability reduced by QA and signifies CDNF as a promising drug candidate for the treatment of HD.
  • Vohlonen, Ilkka; Härkönen, Matti; Malila, Nea; Pukkala, Eero; Sipponen, Pentti; Koistinen, Veli; Hakama, Matti (2017)
    Background: Objective was to quantify biases in screening for gastric cancer when comparing attenders to nonattenders using serum pepsinogen I (SPGI) level as primary test.Methods: In mid 1990s, all men aged 51-65 years from two Finnish cities were invited to SPGI screening. Mortality and premature mortality in attenders were compared to nonattenders. Efficacy of screening was studied by 15 years' follow-up of standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and potential years of life lost (PYLL) due to gastric cancer. Bias due to selective attendance was quantified using corrective coefficients based on total cancer incidence and mortality, and gastric cancer-specific incidence and mortality for total population and nonattenders.Results: In 1994-1996, men aged 51-65 years (16,872) were invited to SPGI assay and 12,175 men (72%) attended. SPGI was 25 microg/l or less in 610 (5%) men, indicating severe atrophic gastritis (AG). Post-screening gastroscopy was performed to 435 men with low SPGI. Of these, 168 men were referred for treatment due to abnormal focal lesions. Attributable proportions in reductions of SMR and PYLL from gastric cancer due to screening were 59% and 67%. After correcting for selective participation, attributable proportions were reduced to 23% and 39%.Conclusions: Biomarker screening by low SPGI among middle-aged men followed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy decreased long-term and premature mortality due to gastric cancer. However, in spite of methodological corrections done, the results do not justify any firm conclusions or recommend general screening programs. Randomized trials are warranted for this purpose.
  • Hedenbjork-Lager, Anders; Hamberg, Kristina; Paakkonen, Virve; Tjaderhane, Leo; Ericson, Dan (2016)
    Objective: Dental caries is a process driven by acids produced by oral microorganisms followed by degradation of the dentine collagen matrix by proteolytic enzymes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to contribute to caries by degrading collagen. The aim of this study was to develop a method for generating demineralized dentine matrix substrate (DDM) maintaining MMP-8 bioactivity and no interference with later assays. Such a substrate would allow study of the effects of various treatments on MMP-8 activity and collagen degradation in demineralized dentine. Design: Human dentine was powderized in a tissue grinder and frozen (-80 degrees C). The powder was demineralized in dialysis tubes, using EDTA or acetic acid. The demineralized dentine matrix (DDM) was harvested and analyzed for collagen content using SDS-PAGE. The DDM was subsequently suspended in PBS or TESCA buffer. Protein, MMP-8 (ELISA) and collagen (HYP) was analyzed directly or after 1 wk. Results: EDTA or acid demineralization of dentine using dialysis yielded a substrate rich in collagen coupled with preserved MMP-8 activity. Collagen degraded in room temperature, assessed by higher HYP amounts in the soluble fraction of DDM after one wk, indicating that the methods used preserved active DDM-components after the demineralization process. Conclusions: The presented demineralization methods both provided insoluble DDM substrates suitable for further intervention studies. However, it was found that the substrates differed depending on the demineralization method and buffers used. This needs further study to find an optimal technique for generating DDM with retained proteins as well as enzymatic bioactivity. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Athanasiou, Antonios; Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Efthimiou, Orestis; Kalliala, Ilkka; Naci, Huseyin; Bowden, Sarah; Paraskevaidi, Maria; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre; Bennett, Philip; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Salanti, Georgia; Kyrgiou, Maria (2019)
    Introduction Local treatments for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and microinvasive disease remove or ablate a cone-shaped part of the uterine cervix containing the abnormal cells. A trend toward less radical techniques has raised concerns that this may adversely impact the rates of precancerous and cancerous recurrence. However, there has been no strong evidence to support such claims. We hereby describe a protocol of a systematic review and network meta-analysis that will update the evidence and compare all relevant treatments in terms of efficacy and complications. Methods and analysis Literature searches in electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE) or trial registries will identify published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies comparing the efficacy and complications among different excisional and ablative techniques. The excisional techniques include cold knife, laser or Fischer cone, large loop or needle excision of the transformation zone and the ablative radical point diathermy, cryotherapy, cold coagulation or laser ablation. The primary outcome will be residual/recurrent disease defined as abnormal histology or cytology of any grade, while secondary outcomes will include treatment failure rates defined as high-grade histology or cytology, histologically confirmed CIN1+ or histologically confirmed CIN2+, human papillomavirus positivity rates, involved margins rates, bleeding and cervical stenosis rates. We will assess the risk of bias in RCTs and observational studies using tools developed by the Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors will independently assess study eligibility, abstract the data and assess the risk of bias. Random-effects meta-analyses and network meta-analyses will be conducted using the OR for dichotomous outcomes and the mean difference for continuous outcomes. The quality of the evidence for the primary outcome will be assessed using the CINeMA (Confidence In Network Meta-Analysis) tool. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required. We will disseminate findings to clinicians, policy-makers, patients and the public. PROSPERO registration number CRD42018115508.
  • Valros, Anna; Sali, Virpi; Hälli, Outi; Saari, Sini; Heinonen, Mari (2021)
    Damaging behaviour, especially tail and ear biting, are common problems in modern pig production. It has been suggested that a low birth weight could predispose pigs to become tail biters. Further, previous studies have shown somewhat contradictory links between growth rate and damaging behaviours, as well as resulting lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate, under practical farm conditions, if birth weight and growth of pigs are related to the risk for damaging behaviours and their outcomes, namely tail and ear lesions. A total of 386 pigs were followed from birth until the end of finishing period on four commercial farm pairs (piglet-producing and finishing farms). Based on birth weight, pigs were categorised as Small and Others, and pigs were weighed around weaning and in the growing and finishing units. At the two latter phases, they were scored for lesions and observed for pig- and environment-directed manipulative behaviour (PMB and EMB, respectively). PMB was not more common in Small than in Other pigs. However, PMB in the growing unit was positively associated with growth rate during suckling and growing periods (p = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively) and EMB was reduced in pigs with high growth rate (p = 0.02) in the finishing unit. Additionally, ear lesions in the growing unit were related to high growth rate in both the suckling (p = 0.03) and the growing period (p < 0.01). The current study shows no evidence that low birth weight predisposes to become a performer of damaging behaviours. Instead, a high growth rate in the suckling and growing period increased the risk for a high level of pig-directed manipulation as well as for becoming a victim of damaging behaviour in the growing unit. We suggest that this could be a consequence of increased feeding motivation in fast-growing pigs: they might experience more competition for feed, and consequently a higher level of stress, which predisposes to damaging behaviour.
  • Lei, Jing; Ye, Gang; Pertovaara, Antti; You, Hao-Jun (2020)
    Here we investigated variations of endogenous descending modulation of nociception and therapeutic effects of intramuscular (i.m.) heating-needle stimulation in early stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by unilateral microinjection of 3.5 mu l of 2.5 mu g/mu l 6-hydroxydopamine into the rat striatum. Paw withdrawal reflexes to noxious mechanical and heat stimuli in PD rats with and without exposure to i.m. 5.8% saline induced muscle nociception were evaluated. Experimental PD had no influence on mechanical or heat sensitivity in the baseline condition, whereas descending facilitation was stronger and descending inhibition was weaker in PD rats than vehicle-treated or naive rats during muscle nociception (P <0.05). Striatal administration of 5 mu g of dopamine failed to reverse the PD-associated changes in descending facilitation or inhibition, whereas dopamine in the thalamic mediodorsal (MD) nucleus and ventromedial (VM) nucleus significantly decreased the increase in descending facilitation and reversed the attenuation in descending inhibition, respectively (P <0.05). I.m. 43 degrees C of heating-needle stimulation had no effects on the enhanced descending facilitation in PD rats, but it markedly increased descending inhibition and reversed the increase in the number of apomorphine-induced body rotations (P <0.05), which effects were dose-dependently attenuated by raclopride, a dopamine 2 receptor antagonist, in the thalamic VM nucleus (P <0.05). The results indicate that the early-stage PD is associated with enhanced descending facilitation and weakened descending inhibition. From clinical perspective, 43 degrees C heat therapeutic regime promises to selectively enhance descending inhibition that is accompanied by improvement of motor dysfunction in PD. (c) 2020 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Mansikka, Eriika; Hervonen, Kaisa; Kaukinen, Katri; Ilus, Tuire; Oksanen, Pia; Lindfors, Katri; Laurila, Kaija; Hietikko, Minna; Taavela, Juha; Jernman, Juha; Saavalainen, Päivi; Reunala, Timo; Salmi, Teea (2019)
    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an extraintestinal manifestation of celiac disease causing an itchy, blistering rash. Granular IgA deposits in the skin are pathognomonic for DH, and the treatment of choice is a lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD). Preliminary evidence suggests that there are patients with DH who redevelop gluten tolerance after adherence to a GFD treatment. To evaluate this, we performed a 12-month gluten challenge with skin and small-bowel mucosal biopsy samples in 19 patients with DH who had adhered to a GFD for a mean of 23 years. Prechallenge biopsy was negative for skin IgA and transglutaminase 3 deposits in 16 patients (84%) and indicated normal villous height-to-crypt depth ratios in the small bowel mucosa in all 19 patients. The gluten challenge caused a relapse of the rash in 15 patients (79%) in a mean of 5.6 months; of these 15 patients, 13 had skin IgA and transglutaminase 3 deposits, and 12 had small-bowel villous atrophy. In addition, three patients without rash or immune deposits in the skin developed villous atrophy, whereas one patient persisted without any signs of relapse. In conclusion, 95% of the patients with DH were unable to tolerate gluten even after long-term adherence to a GFD. Therefore, lifelong GFD treatment remains justified in all patients with DH.
  • Jaakola, Anna; Roger, Michel; Faucher, Marie-Claude; Syrjanen, Kari; Grenman, Seija; Syrjänen, Stina; Louvanto, Karolina (2021)
    BackroundHuman leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G may have an important role in the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Our aim was to evaluate the role of HLA-G in the outcome of genital and oral HPV infections in women.MethodsAnalyses included 306 women from the Finnish Family HPV-study and were followed-up for six years. Genital and oral samples were tested for 24 different HPV types with multiplex HPV genotyping. HLA-G alleles were determined through direct DNA-sequencing. Unconditional logistic regression was used to determine the associations between HLA-G genotypes and HPV infection outcomes.ResultsTen HLA-G alleles were identified. Most common HLA-G genotypes were the wild type G*01:01:01/01:01:01 (31.3%) followed by G*01:01:01/01:01:02 (26.8%). G*01:01:01/01:01:01 genotype was associated with increased risk of oral HPV infections by any HPV type or single-type with OR=1.86 (95% CI 1.14-3.04, P=0.01) and 2.22 (95% CI 1.14-3.71, P=0.02), respectively. G*04:01+ allele and the G*01:01:01/01:04:01 genotype both protected from any and single oral HPV infections; OR=0.46 (95% CI 0.23-0.89, P=0.02) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.23-0.97, P=0.03), respectively. G*01:01:02/01:04:01 genotype increased significantly the risk of infertility and its treatments, with respective OR=5.06 (95% CI 1.22-21.02, P=0.03) and OR=9.07 (95% CI 1.22-39.50, P=0.03). Both HLA-G alleles and genotypes showed several significant associations with the outcomes of oral HPV infections, but none of them had any impact on the outcomes of genital HPV infections in these women.ConclusionsThe host HLA-G genotypes appear to impact the outcomes of oral HPV infections in women but have little if any effect on genital HPV status or infection outcomes.
  • Cserni, Gabor; Floris, Giuseppe; Koufopoulos, Nektarios; Kovacs, Aniko; Nonni, Afroditi; Regitnig, Peter; Ståhls, Anders; Varga, Zsuzsanna (2017)
    Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast is known to produce intracellular mucin and has been recognized in single-case reports to show extracellular mucin production, as well. This latter morphology is not only rare but must also be under- or misdiagnosed. The aim was to better characterize this entity. Cases of lobular cancers demonstrating extracellular mucin formation were identified in a multi-institutional effort and their clinical and morphologic features were assessed. Immunohistochemistry was used to characterize the E-cadherin-membrane complex, neuroendocrine differentiation, and to some extent, mucin formation. All but one of the eight cases occurred in postmenopausal patients. Extracellular mucin production was present in 5 to 50% of the tumour samples and rarely also appeared in nodal and distant metastases. The tumours were completely E-cadherin negative and showed cytoplasmic p120 positivity. The majority (n = 6/8) was also completely negative for beta-catenin, but two tumours displayed focal beta-catenin positivity in the mucinous area. MUC1 and MUC2 expression was observed in all and 7/8 tumours, respectively; neuroendocrine differentiation was present in only one. Invasive lobular carcinoma with extracellular mucin formation is a rare morphologic variant of lobular carcinoma prone to be misdiagnosed and warranting further studies.
  • Choque-Velasquez, J; Resendiz-Nieves, J; Colasanti, R; Hernesniemi, J (2021)
    BACKGROUND: Different treatment options have been proposed for obstructive hydrocephalus associated with pineal lesions. We discuss the obstructive hydrocephalus management associated with pineal region tumors and cysts in Helsinki Neurosurgery. METHODS: In this article, hydrocephalus treatment by tumor-cyst removal (n = 40), shunt surgery (n = 25), and endoscopic ventriculostomies (n = 3) is evaluated in 68 patients with obstructive hydrocephalus among 136 patients with pineal region tumor and cyst. Multivariate statistical analysis was followed by univariate and multivariate regression models of last functional status, last tumor-free imaging, and disease-specific mortality of the study population. RESULTS: Preoperative hydrocephalus was linked to higher World Health Organization tumor grades, poor functional status, higher mortality, and incomplete resection of pineal region cysts and tumors. Preoperative hydrocephalus remained a predictor of poor last functional status after multivariate regression. Pineal lesion removal with the posterior third ventricle opening as primary hydrocephalus treatment resulted in better last functional status, fewer postoperative shunts, fewer hydrocephalus related procedures, and fewer postoperative infections than in the shunt-treatment group. Multivariate regression analysis linked higher World Health Organization tumor & nbsp;grade, poor immediate functional status, postoperative complications, and incomplete surgical resection as independent predictors of disease mortality in patients with hydrocephalus. Same variables (except immediate modified Rankin Scale score) and higher number of shunt surgeries became independent predictors of poor last functional status at multivariate analysis. Incomplete resection was the only independent predictor of tumor-free magnetic resonance imaging at the last evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Direct removal of pineal lesions with the opening of the posterior third ventricle could represent effective and reliable management of the associated obstructive hydrocephalus. Further research is required to generalize our inferences.