Browsing by Subject "LEWY BODIES"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-7 of 7
  • Kok, Eloise H.; Savola, Sara; Raunio, Anna; Oinas, Minna; Tuimala, Jarno; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Kero, Mia; Kaivola, Karri; Tienari, Pentti J.; Paetau, Anders; Myllykangas, Liisa (2021)
  • Lindholm, Dan; Pham, Dan D.; Cascone, Annunziata; Eriksson, Ove; Wennerberg, Krister; Saarma, Mart (2016)
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder causing movement disabilities and several non-motor symptoms in afflicted patients. Recent studies in animal models of PD and analyses of brain specimen from PD patients revealed an increase in the level and activity of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abelson (c-Abl) in dopaminergic neurons with phosphorylation of protein substrates, such as alpha-synuclein and the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Parkin. Most significantly inhibition of c-Abl kinase activity by small molecular compounds used in the clinic to treat human leukemia have shown promising neuroprotective effects in cell and animal models of PD. This has raised hope that similar beneficial outcome may also be observed in the treatment of PD patients by using c-Abl inhibitors. Here we highlight the background for the current optimism, reviewing c-Abl and its relationship to pathophysiological pathways prevailing in PD, as well as discussing issues related to the pharmacology and safety of current c-Abl inhibitors. Clearly more rigorously controlled and well-designed trials are needed before the c-Abl inhibitors can be used in the neuroclinic to possibly benefit an increasing number of PD patients.
  • Kero, Mia; Raunio, Anna; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Tienari, Pentti J.; Paetau, Anders; Myllykangas, Liisa (2018)
    Background: There are only few population-based studies that have systemically investigated the prevalence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in the very old. The frequency of unilateral versus bilateral HS has been rarely studied. Objective: We investigated the prevalence and laterality of HS and its association with other neurodegenerative and vascular pathologies in a population-based sample of very elderly. Furthermore, the concomitant presence of immunoreactivity for TDP-43, p62, and HPtau was studied. Methods: The population-based Vantaa 85(+) study includes all inhabitants of the city of Vantaa, who were > 85 years in 1991 (n = 601). Neuropathological assessment was possible in 302 subjects. Severity of neuronal loss of CA sectors and subiculum was determined bilaterally by HE-staining. Immunohistochemistry performed using antibodies for TDP-43, p62, and HPtau. Results: Neuronal loss and pathological changes in the hippocampus sector CA1 and subiculum were observed in 47 of the 302 individuals (16%), and 51% of these changes were bilateral. HS without comorbid neurodegenerative pathology was found in 1/47 subjects with HS (2%). Dementia (p <0.001) and TDP-43 immunopositivity of the granular cell layer of the dentate fascia (p <0.001) were strongly associated with HS. The CERAD score, immunopositivity for HPtau and p62 in the granular cell layer of the fascia dentate were also associated. Conclusion: HS is prevalent (16%) in the oldest old population, but HS without any comorbid neurodegenerative pathology is rare. The high frequency of unilateral HS (49%) implied that bilateral sampling of hippocampi should be routine practice in neuropathological examination.
  • Yahi, Nouara; Di Scala, Coralie; Chahinian, Henri; Fantini, Jacques (2022)
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major neurodegenerative disorder which exhibits many of the characteristics of a pandemic. Current therapeutic strategies are centered on the dopaminergic system, with limited efficacy, so that a treatment that has a direct impact on the underlying disease pathogenesis is urgently needed. Although alpha-synuclein is a privileged target for such therapies, this protein has been in the past wrongly considered as exclusively intracellular, so that the impact of paracrine neurotoxicity mechanisms in PD have been largely ignored. In this article we review the data showing that lipid rafts act as plasma membrane machineries for the formation of alpha-synuclein pore-like oligomers which trigger an increase of intracellular Ca2+. This Ca2+ influx is responsible for a self-sustained cascade of neurotoxic events, including mitochondrial oxidative stress, tau phosphorylation, Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, Lewy body formation, and extracellular release of alpha-synuclein in exosomes. The first step of this cascade is the binding of alpha-synuclein to lipid raft gangliosides, suggesting that PD should be considered as both a proteinopathy and a ganglioside membrane disorder lipidopathy. Accordingly, blocking alpha-synuclein-ganglioside interactions should annihilate the whole neurotoxic cascade and stop disease progression. A pipeline of anti-oligomer molecules is under development, among which an in-silico designed synthetic peptide AmyP53 which is the first drug targeting gangliosides and thus able to prevent the formation of alpha-synuclein oligomers and all downstream neurotoxicity. These new therapeutic avenues challenge the current symptomatic approaches by finally targeting the root cause of PD through a long-awaited paradigm shift.
  • Savolainen, Mari H.; Albert, Katrina; Airavaara, Mikko; Myohänen, Timo T. (2017)
    Proteinaceous inclusions, called Lewy bodies, are used as a pathological hallmark for Parkinson's disease (PD). Lewy bodies contain insoluble alpha-synuclein (aSyn) and many other ubiquitinated proteins, suggesting a role for protein degradation system failure in the PD pathogenesis. Indeed, proteasomal dysfunction has been linked to PD but commonly used in vivo toxin models, such as 6-OHDA or MPTP, do not have a significant effect on the proteasomal system or protein aggregation. Therefore, we wanted to study the characteristics of a proteasomal inhibitor, lactacystin, as a PD model on young and adult mice. To study this, we performed stereotactic microinjection of lactacystin above the substantia nigra pars compacta in young (2 month old) and adult (12-14 month old) C57Bl/6 mice. Motor behavior was measured by locomotor activity and cylinder tests, and the markers of neuroinflammation, aSyn, and dopaminergic system were assessed by immunohistochemistry and HPLC. We found that lactacystin induced a Parkinson's disease-like motor phenotype 5-7 days after injection in young and adult mice, and this was associated with widespread neuroinflammation based on glial cell markers, aSyn accumulation in substantia nigra, striatal dopamine decrease, and loss of dopaminergic cell bodies in the substantia nigra and terminals in the striatum. When comparing young and adult mice, adult mice were more sensitive for dopaminergic degeneration after lactacystin injection that further supports the use of adult mice instead of young when modeling neurodegeneration. Our data showed that lactacystin is useful in modeling various aspects of Parkinson's disease, and taken together, our findings emphasize the role of a protein degradation deficit in Parkinson's disease pathology, and support the use of proteasomal inhibitors as Parkinson's disease models.
  • Rostami, Jinar; Jäntti, Maria; Cui, Hengjing; Rinne, Maiju K.; Kukkonen, Jyrki P.; Falk, Anna; Erlandsson, Anna; Myöhänen, Timo (2020)
    Growing evidence emphasizes insufficient clearance of pathological alpha-synuclein (alpha SYN) aggregates in the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Consequently, cellular degradation pathways represent a potential therapeutic target. Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) is highly expressed in the brain and has been suggested to increase alpha SYN aggregation and negatively regulate the autophagy pathway. Inhibition of PREP with a small molecule inhibitor, KYP-2407, stimulates autophagy and reduces the oligomeric species of alpha SYN aggregates in PD mouse models. However, whether PREP inhibition has any effects on intracellular alpha SYN fibrils has not been studied before. In this study, the effect of KYP2407 on alpha SYN preformed fibrils (PFFs) was tested in SH-SY5Y cells and human astmcytes. Immunostaining analysis revealed that both cell types accumulated alpha SYN PFFs intracellularly but KYP-2047 decreased intracellular alpha SYN deposits only in SH-SY5Y cells, as astrocytes did not show any PREP activity. Western blot analysis confirmed the reduction of high molecular weight alpha SYN species in SH-SY5Y cell lysates, and secretion of aSYN from SH-SY5Y cells also decreased in the presence of KYP-2407. Accumulation of alpha SYN inside the SH-SY5Y cells resulted in an increase of the auto-lysosomal proteins p62 and LC3BII, as well as calpain 1 and 2, which have been shown to be associated with PD pathology. Notably, treatment with KYP-2407 significantly reduced p62 and LC3BII levels, indicating an increased autophagic flux, and calpain 1 and 2 levels returned to normal in the presence of KYP-2407. Our findings indicate that PREP inhibition can potentially be used as therapy to reduce the insoluble intracellular alpha SYN aggregates.
  • Yan, Xu; Uronen, Riikka-Liisa; Huttunen, Henri J. (2020)
    alpha-synuclein and Tau are proteins prone to pathological misfolding and aggregation that are normally found in the presynaptic and axonal compartments of neurons. Misfolding initiates a homooligomerization and aggregation cascade culminating in cerebral accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein and Tau in insoluble protein inclusions in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Traditionally, alpha-synuclein-containing Lewy bodies have been associated with Parkinson's disease and Tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles with Alzheimer's disease and various frontotemporal dementia syndromes. However, there is significant overlap and co-occurrence of alpha-synuclein and Tau pathologies in a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases. Importantly, alpha-synuclein and Tau can interact in cells, and their pathological conformations are capable of templating further misfolding and aggregation of each other. They also share a number of protein interactors indicating that network perturbations may contribute to chronic proteotoxic stress and neuronal dysfunction in synucleinopathies and tauopathies, some of which share similarities in both neuropathological and clinical manifestations. In this review, we focus on the protein interactions of these two pathologically important proteins and consider a network biology perspective towards neurodegenerative diseases. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.