Browsing by Subject "LGBT"

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Now showing items 1-9 of 9
  • Kondakov, Alexander (Charles Scribner's Sons, 2019)
    The imprisonment of men in the Russian republic of Chechnya for alleged homosexuality.
  • Teivainen, Teivo (2019)
    Based on conversations with and publications of Samir Amin, the article explores connections between his ideas on global political strategy and sexual self-determination. One of the questions is about struggles related to homosexuality in Africa. To what extent did he believe that some of the demands for sexual self-determination, including certain forms of feminism and LGBT rights, were so overly embedded in Eurocentrism that they were not fully suitable for popular struggles in many parts of the Global South? The question is framed in the context of state-centric conceptions of the political. Even if some of the analysis includes a critical tone toward his strategical options, it also highlights the continuing importance of Samir Amin as a point of reference for future struggles to create transnational and global instruments for democratic transformations.
  • Pereira, Patricia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The history of homosexuality, bisexuality, and transsexuality had a troubled beginning in Brazilian society and, in media, the existence of the LGBT movement was neglected for several years. Although the presence of LGBT people in media has increased, it is possible to observe that the portrayal of these citizens is still quite problematic. The present study investigates the representation of LGBT people in Brazilian media through the analysis of 109 articles published by the news outlet G1, which is a product of the biggest communications conglomerate in Latin America. The aim of this research was to identify how the representation of LGBT people occurs, and if lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people are portrayed in the same manner. This study was based on queer theory, discussing concepts such as the as binary organization of the society and heteronormativity, mainly reflecting on Judith Butler’s work, and on bisexual and transgender studies, which address the erasure of non-conforming genders in theories and media discourses, drawing from the ideas of Lisa Duggan, Christopher James, and Talia Bettcher, among other authors. Through a thematic analysis of the articles, five themes were identified. The results show that the coverage of LGBT-related topics carried out by G1 is based on heteronormativity and that a clear hierarchy exists when defining who, within the LGBT community, deserves more space in the pages of the news outlet, also displaying a homonormative discourse.
  • Geyer, Lukas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kyrgyz society got entangled in discussions about what it means to be Kyrgyz. Even though Kyrgyzstan has experienced a surge in nationalism over the last decades, it is only since recently that non-heteronormative sexualities are increasingly constructed as a threat to the continued existence of the Kyrgyz nation. Based on five in-depth interviews with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) individuals, I explore how they rationalise the increasing homophobia in Kyrgyz society and what kind of behavioural strategies they adopt to cope with the hostile environment. In particular, I assess whether the discursive exclusion of LGBT individuals from the Kyrgyz nation alters their relationship with the nation and the state. The research participants demonstrate an awareness for the connection between increasing nationalism and worsening attitudes against LGBT people and report corresponding adjustments in their behaviour, ranging from adaptation and hiding strategies to activism and emigration. While all respondents have a negative relationship with the Kyrgyz state, most report a decreasing sense of belonging to the Kyrgyz nation amid growing homophobia as well. These results suggest that the increased emphasis on the purportedly heteronormative nature of the Kyrgyz nation succeeds in redefining individual belonging to the nation and shifting the imagined boundaries of the nation.
  • Kondakov, Alexander; Shtorn, Evgeny (2021)
    This article is focused on a particular set of social relations in Russia: sexuality and violence in the context of consumption of alcohol. We look at how violence erupts after revelation of queer sexuality of one of the participants of collective drinking. Discussions of homosexuality in Russia became especially heated after the adoption of the bill against the “propaganda of non‐traditional family values” in 2013. This law primarily marks information about homosexuality as inappropriate and dangerous to minors. We review court decisions on violence against gay men before and after the introduction of this law. The court cases we analyze are not cases of the “propaganda” law enforcement, but routine violent felonies. As we selected only those cases that involve alcohol consumption from a larger sample, we analyze the stories told in these court files focusing on interaction rituals during the practice of collective heavy drinking. We demonstrate how this ritual is centered around confirmation of masculinity, ceremonies of sharing, and exchange of respect. We also show that these ritualized practices are interrupted and confused by introduction of information about one of the participants' queer sexuality. This interruption evolves into violent reactions, including murder. Nevertheless, the ritual of drinking supports both a “conversation of souls” (sharing intimate secrets) and violent reactions to the information that challenges masculinity of the ritual's participants.
  • Naaranoja, Kata (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Seksuaalivähemmistöjen oikeudet ovat kansainvälisesti ajankohtainen puheenaihe. Etelä-Koreassa seksuaalivähemmistöjen oikeuksia ei kuitenkaan vielä pidetä tärkeänä ihmisoikeuskysymyksenä eikä seksuaalivähemmistöillä ole lainsäädännöllistä turvaa häiriköinniltä tai epäoikeudenmukaiselta kohtelulta. Pro gradu-tutkielma käsittelee homoseksuaalisten miesten asemaa ja heihin kohdistuvia asenteita eteläkorealaisten yliopisto-opiskelijoiden keskuudessa. Tutkimuksessa vastataan kysymyksiin siitä, millainen asema homoseksuaalisuudella on ollut Korean historiassa, miten homoseksuaalisuus käsitetään nyky-yhteiskunnassa, millaisia asenteita korealaisilla yliopisto-opiskelijoilla on homoseksuaalisuutta kohtaan ja miten seksuaalivähemmistöt esitetään Etelä-Korean mediassa. Tutkielmaa varten on kerätty aineistoa online-kyselylomakkeella, jota jaettiin korealaisille alempaa tai ylempää korkeakoulututkintoa tai jatko-opintoja suorittaville opiskelijoille, sekä mahdollisesti välivuotta pitäville, noin 18-27–vuotiaille. Kyselylomakkeen tuloksia verrataan Asan Institute for Policy Research –instituutin vastaavaan, pitkäaikaiseen kyselyyn, joka käsittelee seksuaalivähemmistöjen oikeuksia ja asenteiden muutosta eri ikäryhmissä Etelä-Koreassa. Pro gradu-tutkielma hyödyntää sosiaalipsykologian käsitteitä arvoista ja asenteista, määritellen aluksi mitä usein tutkimuskirjallisuudessa mainitut ns. ”korealaiset arvot” ovat. Kyselylomakkeiden vastauksia tarkastellaan arvojen, asenteiden ja ennakkoluulojen käsitteiden ja tutkimuskirjallisuuden kautta. Asenteiden lisäksi käsitellään Etelä-Koreassa olemassa olevia tasa-arvoa ajavia lakeja ja lakiesityksiä sekä niiden hyödyllisyyttä ja toteutumista seksuaalivähemmistöjen oikeuksia suojeltaessa. Lopulta tutkielma tarkastelee diskurssianalyysin avulla kolmea eteläkorealaisessa online-lehtimediassa esiintynyttä, seksuaalivähemmistöjä koskevaa tapausta ja kuvaa, jonka kyseisten lehtien korean- ja englanninkieliset artikkelit rakentavat seksuaalivähemmistöistä. Tutkimusmateriaali koostuu englannin-, suomen- ja koreankielisestä tutkimuskirjallisuudesta sekä englannin- ja koreankielisistä uutisartikkeleista. Tutkimuksen perusteella voidaan todeta, että 20–30-vuotiaat korealaiset ovat muita ikäluokkia avoinmielisempiä ja suvaitsevaisempia miesten homoseksuaalisuutta kohtaan ja pitävät seksuaalivähemmistöjen oikeuksia ihmisoikeuskysymyksenä. On selvää, että Etelä-Korean ekonomisen kehityksen myötä nuoremmat sukupolvet ovat kokeneet arvojen muutoksen, jolloin heidän arvomaailmansa on huomattavasti universalistisempi ja individualistisempi kuin vanhempien sukupolvien. On myös mahdollista, että nuoret sukupolvet eivät koe vanhemman sukupolven kokemuksia ominaan, ja ovat tämän samaistumisen puutteen seurauksena omaksuneet vanhempien arvoista eroavan, suvaitsevamman asenteen eri ihmisryhmiä kohtaan. Nuoret eivät kuitenkaan ole kokonaan hylänneet tai erkaantuneet esimerkiksi sosiaalisesti hierarkkiselle yhteiskunnalle tyypillisistä arvoista, vaan kunnioittavat edelleen vanhempiensa päätöksiä ja tahtoa esimerkiksi avioliittoa ja perhettä koskevissa kysymyksissä. Kyselytutkimuksessa selviää, että etenkin perhe-elämää ja sosiaalista hierarkiaa koskevissa kysymyksissä nuoret osoittavat voimakkaammin sisäryhmän kuten perheen tai uskonnollisen ryhmän normeja ja asenteita huolimatta muissa kysymyksissä ilmenevästä avoinmielisyydestä. Uskonnollisten ryhmien vaikutus asenteisiin on huomattava. Uskonnollisilla ryhmillä on myös suuri negatiivinen vaikutus seksuaalivähemmistöjen oikeuksia käsittelevissä lakiesityksissä ja politiikassa. Vähintään vuoden ulkomailla asuneet opiskelijat osoittavat muita avoimempia ja suvaitsevaisempia asenteita. Tämä saattaa johtua esimerkiksi ulkomailla koetuista tilanteista, joissa nuoret ovat olleet tekemisissä erilaisten ihmisryhmien kanssa. Eteläkorealaisessa mediassa seksuaalivähemmistöistä rakennetaan kuitenkin edelleen usein negatiivinen kuva, mikä saattaa johtua sanomalehtien ja julkaisujen poliittisista tai uskonnollisista suhteista sekä kohderyhmistä.
  • Kondakov, Alexander (ILGA-Europe, 2019)
    State Sponsored Homophobia
    The 135-FZ law banning “propaganda of non-traditional sexual relations” to minors is a censorship legislation that limits freedom of expression by making neutral and positive information about LGBTQ topics a misdemeanor subjected to penalties. The text of the law is clear, and the procedure of its implementation does not require an actual child to be harmed in any way. The legislation has a variety of other effects, beyond its implementation. One of the most important results of the spread of bigotry it generated is the growth of violence against queer populations in Russia. Since the law is in place, Russia is a less safe location for queer expressions than it has been before. Therefore, the law sends the country backwards on the line of progression to a more inclusive sexual citizenship.
  • Kollei, Jarrah (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    South Africa as a country has been portrayed as an exception when it comes to protecting LGBT rights in Africa. In previous research on South Africa, sexuality, gender and race have been found to be crucial components of oppressive structures. However, the discursive practices and sedimented orders governing queerness, a substructure of normative sexuality and gender, have not been thoroughly examined. In this thesis it was questioned, how queerness has been made governable in South Africa through time. An additional centre of interest was to examine, how an influential non-profit organisation Gender DynamiX has recently tried to these orders. The thesis contributes to the efforts of queering development. Informed by intersectional feminism, Africana womanism, queer theory, post-colonialism, as well as Critical Discourse Analysis and Qualitative Content Analysis, the orders of discourse governing South queerness, as well as Gender DynamiX’s dominant discursive practices to change these orders, were analysed. The material analysed in the thesis consisted mainly of academic literature, and publications that the organisation has produced independently or in co-operation with other actors It was found that the historically moulded orders of discourse governing the field of South African queerness, a discursive substructure addressing deviance from the hegemonic South African system of normative sexuality and gender, is being produced and reproduced in contemporary South African society. These discriminatory orders of discourse have been made to support the colonial enterprise, the white apartheid state, and more recently black and religious identity politics. Thus, various actors have discriminatorily used queerness in a utilitarian manner to demarcate a line between us and them, between natural and unnatural, godly and ungodly, and more contemporarily the ones who tolerate and ones to be tolerated. However, it was found that these orders of discourse have been under transformation since the end of apartheid and the birth of the democratic nation. The discursive practices of gay and lesbian activists were crucial in changing these orders of queerness, and there has been some success in institutionalising and popularising the rights of sexual minorities. However, the issue of trans and gender non-conforming rights remains largely neglected in these moderately changed orders of queerness. Additionally, in the case study it was found that Gender DynamiX has pursued to affect these orders of discourse with an attuned and innovative discursive practice. More concretely, it has pursued to present especially racialised queers as active knowing subjects in different ways. This innovative discursive practice has the potential in dismantling the racialised hierarchical system of orders of normative sexuality and gender and the utilitarian orders that govern queerness in South Africa. More research on the development of Gender Dynamix’s discursive practice and the orders of queerness in South Africa would be beneficial to conduct.