Browsing by Subject "LICHEN-FORMING FUNGI"

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  • Launis, Annina; Pykälä, Juha; van den Boom, Pieter; Serusiaux, Emmanuel; Myllys, Leena (2019)
    In this study we clarify the phylogeny and reassess the current taxonomy of the Micarea prasina group, focusing especially on the M. byssacea and M. micrococca complexes. The phylogeny was investigated using ITS, mtSSU and Mcm7 regions from 25 taxa belonging to the M. prasina group. A total of 107 new sequences were generated. Data were analyzed using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The results reveal five undescribed well-supported lineages. Four of the lineages represent new species described as Micarea pseudomicrococca Launis & Myllys sp. nov., M. czarnotae Launis, van den Boom, Serusiaux & Myllys sp. nov., M. microareolata Launis, Pykala & Myllys sp. nov. and M. laeta Launis & Myllys sp. nov. In addition, a fifth lineage was revealed that requires further study. Micarea pseudomicrococca is characterized by an olive green granular thallus, small cream-white or brownish apothecia lacking the Sedifolia-grey pigment and two types of paraphyses up to 2 mu m wide. Micarea czarnotae forms a granular, densely granular or continuous olive green thallus, convex to hemispherical apothecia often with the Sedifolia-grey pigment and no crystalline granules in the thallus. Micarea microareolata is characterized by a +/- pale green areolate thallus (composed of goniocysts), cream-white apothecia lacking the Sedifolia-grey pigment and narrow spores. Micarea laeta has a vivid to olive green granular thallus, pale apothecia lacking the Sedifolia-grey pigment and wider spores compared to M. microareolata. Descriptions, images and a key are provided for the new species. Crystalline granules are introduced as a novel species-level character for Micarea.
  • Kantelinen, Annina; Hyvärinen, Marko; Kirika, Paul; Myllys, Leena (2021)
    The genus Micarea was studied for the first time in the Taita Hills, Kenya. Based on new collections and existing data, we reconstructed a phylogeny using ITS, mtSSU and Mcm7 regions, and generated a total of 27 new sequences. Data were analyzed using maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods. Based mainly on new collections, we discovered four undescribed well-supported lineages, characterized by molecular and phenotypic features. These lineages are described here as Micarea pumila, M. stellaris, M. taitensis and M. versicolor. Micarea pumila is characterized by a minutely granular thallus, small cream-white or pale brownish apothecia, small ascospores and the production of prasinic acid. Micarea stellaris has a warted-areolate thallus, cream-white apothecia usually darker at the centre, a hymenium of light grey or brownish pigment that dissolves in K, and intense crystalline granules that appear as a belt-like continuum across the lower hymenium when studied in polarized light. Micarea taitensis is characterized by a warted-areolate thallus and cream-white or yellowish apothecia that sometimes produce the Sedifolia-grey pigment. Micarea versicolor is characterized by a warted-areolate, sometimes partly granular thallus and apothecia varying from cream-white to light grey to blackish in colour. This considerable variation in the coloration of its apothecia is caused by an occasional mixture of the Sedifolia-grey pigment in the epihymenium and another purplish brown pigment in the hymenium. Micarea stellaris, M. taitensis and M. versicolor produce methoxymicareic acid. The main distinguishing characters are presented in a species synopsis. Three of the new species are nested in the M. prasina group, and the fourth one (M. taitensis) resolves as a basal taxon to the M. prasina group. The new species inhabit montane cloud forests, which have fragmented dramatically throughout the Eastern Arc Mountains in recent decades.
  • Launis, Annina; Malicek, Jiri; Svensson, Mans; Tsurykau, Andrei; Serusiaux, Emmanuel; Myllys, Leena (2019)
  • Pino-Bodas, Raquel; Rosa Burgaz, Ana; Ahti, Teuvo; Stenroos, Soili (2018)
    The lichen species Cladonia angustiloba is characterized by a well-developed primary thallus and narrow squamules which show deep incisions, and the presence of usnic and fumarprotocetraric acids. Morphologically it is similar to C. foliacea and C. convoluta, from which it can be distiguished by the squamule size and morphology. Since similar characters were used to distinguish C. foliacea from C. convoluta which do not represent different lineages, it is necessary to examine the taxonomic status of C. angustiloba by means of DNA sequences. In this study, the species delimitation within the C. foliacea complex was studied by sequencing three loci, ITS rDNA, cox1 and RPB2. The data were analyzed by means of phylogenetic and species delimitation methods (GMYC, PTP, ABGD and BPP). Our results show that none of the three species is monophyletic. Most of the species delimitation methods did not support the current species as evolutionary lineages. Only some of the BPP analyses supported C. angustiloba as a species distinct from C. foliacea and C. convoluta. However, the hypothesis that considers the C. foliacea complex as constituted by a unique species obtained the best Bayes Factor value. Therefore, C. angustiloba and C. convoluta are synonymized with C. foliacea. A new, thoroughly checked synonymy with typifications of the whole C. foliacea complex is presented. An updated survey of the world distribution data is compiled.