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  • Hansen, Sylvia; Huttunen-Lenz, Maija; Sluik, Diewertje; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Drummen, Mathijs; Fogelholm, Mikael; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Macdonald, Ian; Martinez, Alfredo J.; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Poppitt, Sally; Raben, Anne; Schlicht, Wolfgang (2018)
    PurposeWeight loss has been demonstrated to be a successful strategy in diabetes prevention. Although weight loss is greatly influenced by dietary behaviors, social-cognitive factors play an important role in behavioral determination. This study aimed to identify demographic and social-cognitive factors (intention, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, social support, and motivation with regard to dietary behavior and goal adjustment) associated with weight loss in overweight and obese participants from the PREVIEW study who had pre-diabetes.MethodProspective correlational data from 1973 adult participants were analyzed. The participants completed psychological questionnaires that assessed social-cognitive variables with regard to dietary behavior. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to identify baseline demographic and social-cognitive factors associated with weight loss.ResultsOverall, being male, having a higher baseline BMI, having a higher income, perceiving fewer disadvantages of a healthy diet (outcome expectancies), experiencing less discouragement for healthy eating by family and friends (social support), and lower education were independently linked to greater weight loss. When evaluating females and males separately, education was no longer associated with weight loss.ConclusionThe results indicate that a supportive environment in which family members and friends avoid discouraging healthy eating, with the application of a strategy that uses specific behavior change techniques to emphasize the benefits of outcomes, i.e., the benefits of a healthy diet, may support weight loss efforts. Weight loss programs should therefore always address the social environment of persons who try to lose body weight because family members and friends can be important supporters in reaching a weight loss goal.
  • Vornanen, Marleena; Konttinen, Hanna; Peltonen, Markku; Haukkala, Ari (2021)
    Background Perceived disease risk may reflect actual risk indicators and/or motivation to change lifestyle. Yet, few longitudinal studies have assessed how perceived risk relates to risk indicators among different disease risk groups. We examined in a 5-year follow-up, whether perceived risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease predicted physical activity, body mass index (BMI kg/m(2)), and blood glucose level, or the reverse. We examined further whether perceived risk, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs together predicted changes in these risk indicators. Method Participants were high diabetes risk participants (N = 432) and low/moderate-risk participants (N = 477) from the national FINRISK 2002 study who were followed up in 2007. Both study phases included questionnaires and health examinations with individual feedback letters. Data were analyzed using gender- and age-adjusted structural equation models. Results In cross-lagged autoregressive models, perceived risks were not found to predict 5-year changes in physical activity, BMI, or 2-h glucose. In contrast, higher BMI and 2-h glucose predicted 5-year increases in perceived risks (beta-values 0.07-0.15,P-values <0.001-0.138). These associations were similar among high- and low/moderate-risk samples. In further structural equation models, higher self-efficacy predicted increased physical activity among both samples (beta-values 0.10-0.16,P-values 0.005-0.034). Higher outcome beliefs predicted lower BMI among the low/moderate-risk sample (beta-values - 0.04 to - 0.05,P-values 0.008-0.011). Conclusion Perceived risk of chronic disease rather follows risk indicators than predicts long-term lifestyle changes. To promote sustained lifestyle changes, future intervention studies need to examine the best ways to combine risk feedback with efficient behavior change techniques.
  • Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Lindström, Jaana; Hänninen, Tuomo; Paajanen, Teemu; Peltonen, Markku; Antikainen, Riitta; Laatikainen, Tiina; Strandberg, Timo; Soininen, Hilkka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kivipelto, Miia; Ngandu, Tiia (2019)
    Introduction: Association between healthy diet and better cognition is well established, but evidence is limited to evaluate the effect of dietary changes adopted in older age. Methods: We investigated the role of dietary changes in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) with 1260 at-risk participants (60-77 years) who were randomized to intensive multidomain intervention (including dietary counseling) or regular health advice for 2 years. Parallel process latent growth curves of adherence to dietary recommendations and cognitive performance were analyzed. Results: Adherence to healthy diet at baseline predicted improvement in global cognition, regardless of intervention allocation (P = .003). Dietary improvement was associated with beneficial changes in executive function, especially in the intervention group (P = .008; P = .051 for groups combined). Discussion: Dietary changes initiated during the intervention were related to changes in executive function in 2 years. Long-term diet appeared more influential for global cognition. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Kivimäki, Mika; Tabák, Adam G. (2018)
  • Bahijri, Suhad; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Ajabnoor, Ghada; Jambi, Hanan; Al Ahmadi, Jawaher; Borai, Anwar; Barengo, Noël C; Tuomilehto, Jaakko (2020)
    Abstract Aims/Introduction To develop a non-invasive risk score to identify Saudis having prediabetes or undiagnosed type 2 diabetes. Methods Adult Saudis without diabetes were recruited randomly using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling method. Demographic, dietary, lifestyle variables, personal and family medical history were collected using a questionnaire. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken. Body mass index was calculated. The 1-h oral glucose tolerance test was carried out. Glycated hemoglobin, fasting and 1-h plasma glucose were measured, and obtained values were used to define prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (dysglycemia). Logistic regression models were used for assessing the association between various factors and dysglycemia, and Hosmer?Lemeshow summary statistics were used to assess the goodness-of-fit. Results A total of 791 men and 612 women were included, of whom 69 were found to have diabetes, and 259 had prediabetes. The prevalence of dysglycemia was 23%, increasing with age, reaching 71% in adults aged ≥65 years. In univariate analysis age, body mass index, waist circumference, use of antihypertensive medication, history of hyperglycemia, low physical activity, short sleep and family history of diabetes were statistically significant. The final model for the Saudi Diabetes Risk Score constituted sex, age, waist circumference, history of hyperglycemia and family history of diabetes, with the score ranging from 0 to 15. Its fit based on assessment using the receiver operating characteristic curve was good, with an area under the curve of 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.73?0.79). The proposed cut-point for dysglycemia is 5 or 6, with sensitivity and specificity being approximately 0.7. Conclusion The Saudi Diabetes Risk Score is a simple tool that can effectively distinguish Saudis at high risk of dysglycemia.
  • e-PREDICE Consortium; Gabriel, Rafael; Lindström, Jaana; Tuomilehto, Jaakko (2020)
    Objectives To assess the effects of early management of hyperglycaemia with antidiabetic drugs plus lifestyle intervention compared with lifestyle alone, on microvascular function in adults with pre-diabetes. Methods Trial design: International, multicenter, randomised, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Participants Males and females aged 45–74 years with IFG, IGT or IFG+IGT, recruited from primary care centres in Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Kuwait, Poland, Serbia, Spain and Turkey. Intervention Participants were randomized to placebo; metformin 1.700 mg/day; linagliptin 5 mg/day or fixed-dose combination of linagliptin/metformin. All patients were enrolled in a lifestyle intervention program (diet and physical activity). Drug intervention will last 2 years. Primary Outcome: composite end-point of diabetic retinopathy estimated by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Score, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio, and skin conductance in feet estimated by the sudomotor index. Secondary outcomes in a subsample include insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, biomarkers of inflammation and fatty liver disease, quality of life, cognitive function, depressive symptoms and endothelial function. Results One thousand three hundred ninety one individuals with hyperglycaemia were assessed for eligibility, 424 excluded after screening, 967 allocated to placebo, metformin, linagliptin or to fixed-dose combination of metformin + linagliptin. A total of 809 people (91.1%) accepted and initiated the assigned treatment. Study sample after randomization was well balanced among the four groups. No statistical differences for the main risk factors analysed were observed between those accepting or rejecting treatment initiation. At baseline prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 4.2%, severe neuropathy 5.3% and nephropathy 5.7%. Conclusions ePREDICE is the first -randomized clinical trial with the aim to assess effects of different interventions (lifestyle and pharmacological) on microvascular function in people with pre-diabetes. The trial will provide novel data on lifestyle modification combined with glucose lowering drugs for the prevention of early microvascular complications and diabetes. Registration - ClinicalTrials.Gov Identifier: NCT03222765 - EUDRACT Registry Number: 2013-000418-39
  • From, Svetlana; Liira, Helena; Leppävuori, Jenni Katariina; Remes-Lyly, Taina; Tikkanen, Heikki; Pitkala, Kaisu (2013)
  • Liu, Ching-Ti; Merino, Jordi; Rybin, Denis; DiCorpo, Daniel; Benke, Kelly S.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Canouil, Mickaël; Corre, Tanguy; Grallert, Harald; Isaacs, Aaron; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lahti, Jari; Marullo, Letizia; Marzi, Carola; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Rocheleau, Ghislain; Rueedi, Rico; Scapoli, Chiara; Verweij, Niek; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Willems, Sara M.; Yengo, Loïc; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Hui, Jennie; Kajantie, Eero; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Balkau, Beverley; Bergmann, Sven; Eriksson, Johan G.; Florez, Jose C.; Froguel, Philippe; Harris, Tamara; Hung, Joseph; James, Alan L.; Kavousi, Maryam; Miljkovic, Iva; Musk, Arthur W.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Peters, Annette; Roussel, Ronan; van der harst, Pim; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Barroso, Inês; Prokopenko, Inga; Dupuis, Josée; Meigs, James B.; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila (2019)
    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects the health of millions of people worldwide. The identification of genetic determinants associated with changes in glycemia over time might illuminate biological features that precede the development of T2D. Here we conducted a genome-wide association study of longitudinal fasting glucose changes in up to 13,807 non-diabetic individuals of European descent from nine cohorts. Fasting glucose change over time was defined as the slope of the line defined by multiple fasting glucose measurements obtained over up to 14 years of observation. We tested for associations of genetic variants with inverse-normal transformed fasting glucose change over time adjusting for age at baseline, sex, and principal components of genetic variation. We found no genome-wide significant association (P < 5 x 10(-8)) with fasting glucose change over time. Seven loci previously associated with T2D, fasting glucose or HbA1c were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with fasting glucose change over time. Limited power influences unambiguous interpretation, but these data suggest that genetic effects on fasting glucose change over time are likely to be small. A public version of the data provides a genomic resource to combine with future studies to evaluate shared genetic links with T2D and other metabolic risk traits.
  • Huvinen, Emilia; Eriksson, Johan G.; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Tiitinen, Aila; Koivusalo, Saila B. (2018)
    AimsGestational diabetes (GDM) affects a growing number of women and identification of individuals at risk, e.g., with risk prediction models, would be important. However, the performance of GDM risk scores has not been optimal. Here, we assess the impact of GDM heterogeneity on the performance of two top-rated GDM risk scores.MethodsThis is a substudy of the RADIEL triala lifestyle intervention study including women at high GDM risk. We assessed the GDM risk score by Teede and that developed by Van Leeuwen in our high-risk cohort of 510 women. To investigate the heterogeneity of GDM, we further divided the women according to GDM history, BMI, and parity. With the goal of identifying novel predictors of GDM, we further analyzed 319 women with normal glucose tolerance in the first trimester.ResultsBoth risk scores underestimated GDM incidence in our high-risk cohort. Among women with a BMI30kg/m(2) and/or previous GDM, 49.4% developed GDM and 37.4% received the diagnosis already in the first trimester. Van Leeuwen score estimated a 19% probability of GDM and Teede succeeded in risk identification in 61%. The lowest performance of the risk scores was seen among the non-obese women. Fasting plasma glucose, HbA(1c), and family history of diabetes were predictors of GDM in the total study population. Analysis of subgroups did not provide any further information.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that the marked heterogeneity of GDM challenges the development of risk scores for detection of GDM.
  • Laitinen, Tomi T.; Ruohonen, Saku; Juonala, Markus; Magnussen, Costan G.; Mikkila, Vera; Mikola, Hanna; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Laitinen, Tomi; Tossavainen, Paivi; Jokinen, Eero; Niinikoski, Harri; Jula, Antti; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Ronnemaa, Tapani; Raitakari, Olli T.; Pahkala, Katja (2017)
    Background: Ideal cardiovascular health (CVH), defined by the American Heart Association, is associated with incident cardiovascular disease in adults. However, association of the ideal CVH in childhood with current and future cardiac structure and function has not been studied. Methods and results: The sample comprised 827 children participating in the longitudinal Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) and The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS). In STRIP, complete data on the seven ideal CVH metrics and left ventricular (LV) mass measured with echocardiography were available at the age of 15 (n= 321), 17 (n= 309) and 19 (n= 283) years. In YFS, the cohort comprised children aged 12-18 years (n = 506) with complete ideal CVH metrics data from childhood and 25 years later in adulthood, and echocardiography performed in adulthood. In STRIP, ideal CVH score was inversely associated with LV mass during childhood (P = 0.036). In YFS, childhood ideal CVH score was inversely associated with LV mass, LV end-diastolic volume, E/e' ratio, and left atrium end-systolic volume in adulthood (all P <0.01). In addition, improvement of the ideal CVH score between childhood and adulthood was inversely associated with LV mass, LV end-diastolic volume, E/e' ratio, and left atrium end-systolic volume (all P Conclusions: Childhood ideal CVH score has a long-lasting effect on cardiac structure and function, and the association is evident already in childhood. Our findings support targeting the ideal CVHmetrics as part of primordial prevention of cardiovascular diseases. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Penn, Linda; White, Martin; Lindstrom, Jaana; den Boer, Annemieke Th.; Blaak, Ellen; Eriksson, Johan G.; Feskens, Edith; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Walker, Mark; Mathers, John C.; Uusitupa, Matti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko (2013)
  • Meinilä, Jelena; Valkama, Anita; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Rono, Kristiina; Lindstrom, Jaana; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G.; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (2017)
    The aim was to analyse whether changes in the Healthy Food Intake Index (HFII) during pregnancy are related to gestational diabetes (GDM) risk. The 251 pregnant women participating had a pre-pregnancy BMI >= 30 kg/m(2) and/or a history of GDM. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy for assessment of GDM. A normal OGTT result at first trimester was an inclusion criterion for the study. FFQ collected at first and second trimesters served for calculating the HFII. A higher HFII score reflects higher adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) (score range 0-17). Statistical methods included Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher's exact test and linear and logistic regression analyses. The mean HFII at first trimester was 10.1 (95 % CI 9.7, 10.4) points, and the mean change from the first to the second trimester was 0.35 (95 % CI 0.09, 0.62) points. The range of the HFII changes varied from -7 to 7. The odds for GDM decreased with higher HFII change (adjusted OR 0.83 per one unit increase in HFII; 95 % CI 0.69, 0.99; P=0.043). In the analysis of the association between HFII-sub-indices and GDM, odds for GDM decreased with higher HFII-Fat change (fat percentage of milk and cheese, type of spread and cooking fats) but it was not significant in a fully adjusted model (P=0.058). Dietary changes towards the NNR during pregnancy seem to be related to a lower risk for GDM.
  • Jaakkola, Johanna M.; Pahkala, Katja; Ronnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma; Niinikoski, Harri; Jokinen, Eero; Lagstrom, Hanna; Jula, Antti; Raitakari, Olli (2017)
    Background: The child-oriented dietary intervention given in the prospective Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) has decreased the intake of saturated fat and lowered serum cholesterol concentration in children from infancy until early adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether the uniquely long-term child-oriented intervention has affected also secondarily parental diet and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Methods: The STRIP study is a longitudinal, randomized infancy-onset atherosclerosis prevention trial continued from the child's age of 8 months to 20 years. The main aim was to modify the child's diet towards reduced intake of saturated fat. Parental dietary intake assessed by a one-day food record and cardio-metabolic risk factors were analysed between the child's ages of 9-19 years. Results: Saturated fat intake of parents in the intervention group was lower [mothers: 12.0 versus 13.9 daily energy (E%), p Conclusions: Child-oriented dietary intervention shifted the dietary fat intakes of parents closer to the recommendations and tended to decrease total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the intervention mothers. Dietary intervention directed to children benefits also parents.
  • Feel4Diabetes Res Grp; Kivelä, Jemina; Wikström, Katja; Virtanen, Eeva; Georgoulis, Michael; Lindström, Jaana (2020)
    Background Feel4Diabetes was a school and community based intervention aiming to promote healthy lifestyle and tackle obesity for the prevention of type 2 diabetes among families in 6 European countries. We conducted this literature review in order to guide the development of evidence-based implementation of the Feel4Diabetes intervention. We focused on type 2 diabetes prevention strategies, including all the phases from risk identification to implementation and maintenance. Special focus was given to prevention among vulnerable groups and people under 45 years. Methods Scientific and grey literature published between January 2000 and January 2015 was searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. To present the literature review findings in a systematic way, we used the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. A complementary literature search from February 2015 to December 2018 was also conducted. Results The initial review included 27 studies with a follow-up >= 12 months and 9 studies with a follow-up >= 6 months and with a participant mean age <45 years. We found out that interventions should be targeted at people at risk to improve recruiting and intervention effectiveness. Screening questionnaires (primarily Finnish Diabetes Risk Score FINDRISC) and blood glucose measurement can both be used for screening; the method does not appear to affect intervention effectiveness. Screening and recruitment is time-consuming, especially when targeting lower socioeconomic status and age under 45 years. The intervention intensity is more important for effectiveness than the mode of delivery. Moderate changes in several lifestyle habits lead to good intervention results. A minimum of 3-year follow-up seemed to be required to show a reduction in diabetes risk in high-risk individuals. In participants <45 years, the achieved results in outcomes were less pronounced. The complementary review included 12 studies, with similar results regarding intervention targets and delivery modes, as well as clinical significance. Conclusion This narrative review highlighted several important aspects that subsequently guided the development of the Feel4Diabetes high-risk intervention. Research on diabetes prevention interventions targeted at younger adults or vulnerable population groups is still relatively scarce. Feel4Diabetes is a good example of a project aiming to fill this research gap.
  • Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Zhang, Shuang; Leng, Junhong; Li, Nan; Li, Weiqin; Wang, Jing; Tian, Huiguang; Qi, Lu; Yang, Xilin; Yu, Zhijie; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hu, Gang (2018)
    Aims: To report the weight loss findings after the first year of a lifestyle intervention trial among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: A total of 1180 women with GDM were randomly assigned (1: 1) to receive a 4-year lifestyle intervention (intervention group, n = 586) or standard care (control group, n = 594) between August 2009 and July 2011. Major elements of the intervention included 6 face-to-face sessions with study dieticians and two telephone calls in the first year, and two individual sessions and two telephone calls in each subsequent year. Results: Among 79% of participants who completed the year 1 trial, mean weight loss was 0.82 kg (1.12% of initial weight) in the intervention group and 0.09 kg (0.03% of initial weight) in the control group (P=.001). In a prespecified subgroup analysis of people who completed the trial, weight loss was more pronounced in women who were overweight (body mass index = 24 kg/m(2)) at baseline: mean weight loss 2.01 kg (2.87% of initial weight) in the intervention group and 0.44 kg (0.52% of initial weight) in the control group (P Conclusion: The 1-year lifestyle intervention led to significant weight losses after delivery in women who had GDM, and the effect was more pronounced in women who were overweight at baseline.
  • Salopuro, Titta M.; Saaristo, Timo; Oksa, Heikki; Puolijoki, Hannu; Vanhala, Mauno; Ebeling, Tapani; Niskanen, Leo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; Peltonen, Markku (2011)
    BACKGROUND: The implementation project of the national diabetes prevention programme in Finland, FIN-D2D, was carried out in primary health care in the area of five hospital districts during 2003-2007. METHODS: The population strategy of FIN-D2D was primarily aimed at increasing the awareness of type 2 diabetes and preventing obesity. To investigate the effects of this strategy, we studied the changes in the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and central obesity among a random independent sample of individuals aged 45-74 years in the FIN-D2D area; and assessed whether they differed from a sample of individuals in the control area, which consisted of four geographical areas not participating in FIN-D2D (FINRISK study). Data was obtained for 5850/ 6406 (in the beginning/ in the end) individuals. The duration of the observation period varied from three to five years. RESULTS: The mean body weight decreased from 78.7 to 78.1 kg (p = 0.041) in the FIN-D2D area, and from 78.7 to 78.0 kg (p = NS) in the control area. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) decreased in the FIN-D2D area (26.5% vs. 24.4%, p = 0.015), and in the control area (28.4% vs. 25.2%, p = 0.005). The prevalence of morbid obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m(2)) remained unchanged in the FIN-D2D area, but increased in the control area (1.2% vs. 2.3%, p = 0.007). The mean waist circumference remained unchanged in the FIN-D2D area, but increased in the control area (92.8 vs. 94.0 cm, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of obesity may be decreasing among 45-74 year old Finns. We still need a longer time perspective and future studies to see whether this favourable trend can be sustained in Finland. The actions of this implementation project can at least partly explain the differences in the mean waist circumference and the prevalence of morbid obesity between the intervention and control areas.
  • Gilis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Lindström, Jaana; Barengo, Noel C.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Wojtowicz, Ewa; Piwonska-Solska, Beata; Szybinski, Zbigniew; Windak, Adam; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja (2018)
    It has been shown that real-life implementation studies for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (DM2) performed in different settings and populations can be effective. However, not enough information is available on factors influencing the reach of DM2 prevention programmes. This study examines the predictors of completing an intervention programme targeted at people at high risk of DM2 in Krakow, Poland as part of the DE-PLAN project. A total of 262 middle-aged people, everyday patients of 9 general practitioners' (GP) practices, at high risk of DM2 (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISK)>14) agreed to participate in the lifestyle intervention to prevent DM2. Intervention consisted of 11 lifestyle counseling sessions, organized physical activity sessions followed by motivational phone calls and letters. Measurements were performed at baseline and 1 year after the initiation of the intervention. Seventy percent of the study participants enrolled completed the core curriculum (n=184), 22% were men. When compared to noncompleters, completers had a healthier baseline diabetes risk profile (P In multiple logistic regression model, employment reduced the likelihood of completing the intervention 2 times (odds ratio [OR] 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.81). Higher glucose 2 hours after glucose load and hypertension were the independent factors decreasing the chance to participate in the intervention (OR 0.79, 95% 0.69-0.92 and OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.27-0.99, respectively). Daily consumption of vegetables and fruits increased the likelihood of completing the intervention (OR 1.86, 95% 1.01-3.41). In conclusion, people with healthier behavior and risk profile are more predisposed to complete diabetes prevention interventions. Male, those who work and those with a worse health profile, are less likely to participate and complete interventions. Targeted strategies are needed in real-life diabetes prevention interventions to improve male participation and to reach those who are working as well as people with a higher risk profile.
  • Lipsanen, Jari; Elovainio, Marko; Hakulinen, Christian; Tremblay, Mark S.; Rovio, Suvi; Lagström, Hanna; Jaakkola, Johanna M.; Jula, Antti; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma; Niinikoski, Harri; Simell, Olli; Raitakari, Olli T.; Pahkala, Katja; Pulkki-Råback, Laura (2020)
    Background and objectives: Temperament may be associated with eating behaviors over the lifespan. This study examined the association of toddlerhood temperament with dietary behavior and dietary intervention outcomes across 18 years. Methods: The study comprised 660 children (52% boys) from The Special Turku Intervention Project (STRIP), which is a longitudinal randomized controlled trial from the age of 7 months until the age of 20 years (1990-2010). Temperament was assessed using Carey temperament scales when the participants were 2 years of age. Latent profile analysis yielded three temperament groups, which were called negative/low regulation (19% of the children), neutral/average regulation (52%) and positive/high regulation (28%). Dietary behavior was examined from 2 to 20 years of age using food records, which were converted into a diet score (mean= 15.7, SD 4.6). Mixed random-intercept growth curve analysis was the main analytic method. Results: Dietary behavior showed a significant quadratic U-shaped curve over time (B for quadratic association = 0.39, P<.001; B for linear association = 0.09, P = 0.58). Children in the negative/low regulation temperament group had a lower diet score (less healthy diet) across the 18 years compared to children in the neutral/average or in the positive/high regulation group. Temperament was not associated with the rate of change in diet over time. Temperament did not have any interactive effects with the intervention (F [2, 627], P = 0.72). Conclusion: Children with a temperament profile characterized by high negative mood, high irregularity and high intensity in emotion expression constitute a risk group for less healthy eating over the lifespan.
  • Nilsson, Peter M.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Ryden, Lars (2019)
    A cluster of metabolic factors have been merged into an entity named the metabolic syndrome. Although the characteristics of this syndrome have varied over time the presently used definition was established in 2009. The presence of three abnormal findings out of five components qualifies a person for the metabolic syndrome: elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure and elevated fasting plasma glucose. Cut points have been defined for all components apart from waist circumference, for which national or regional values are used. The metabolic syndrome predicts cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. This associated risk does not exceed its components whereof elevated blood pressure is the most frequent. A successful management should, however, address all factors involved. The management is always based on healthy lifestyle choices but has not infrequently to be supported by pharmacological treatment, especially blood pressure lowering drugs. The metabolic syndrome is a useful example of the importance of multiple targets for preventive interventions. To be successful management has to be individualized not the least when it comes to pharmacological therapy. Frail elderly people should not be over-treated. Knowledge transfer of how risk factors act should be accompanied by continuous trust building and motivation. In complex situations with a mix of biological risk factors, adverse social conditions and unhealthy lifestyle, everything cannot be changed at once. It is better to aim for small steps that are lasting than large, unsustainable steps with relapses to unhealthy behaviours. A person with the metabolic syndrome will always be afflicted by its components, which is the reason that management has to be sustained over a very long time. This review summarizes the knowledge on the metabolic syndrome and its management according to present state of the art.
  • Raben, Anne; Vestentoft, Pia Siig; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Jalo, Elli; Drummen, Mathjis; Simpson, Liz; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Stratton, Gareth; Huttunen-Lenz, Maija; Lam, Tony; Sundvall, Jouko; Muirhead, Roslyn; Poppitt, Sally; Ritz, Christian; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Taylor, Moira A.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Handjiev, Svetoslav; McNarry, Melitta A.; Hansen, Sylvia; Råman, Laura; Brodie, Shannon; Silvestre, Marta P.; Adam, Tanja C.; Macdonald, Ian A.; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Mackintosh, Kelly A.; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Liu, Amy; Larsen, Thomas M.; Fogelholm, Mikael (2021)
    Aim To compare the impact of two long-term weight-maintenance diets, a high protein (HP) and low glycaemic index (GI) diet versus a moderate protein (MP) and moderate GI diet, combined with either high intensity (HI) or moderate intensity physical activity (PA), on the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) after rapid weight loss. Materials and Methods A 3-year multicentre randomized trial in eight countries using a 2 x 2 diet-by-PA factorial design was conducted. Eight-week weight reduction was followed by a 3-year randomized weight-maintenance phase. In total, 2326 adults (age 25-70 years, body mass index >= 25 kg/m(2)) with prediabetes were enrolled. The primary endpoint was 3-year incidence of T2D analysed by diet treatment. Secondary outcomes included glucose, insulin, HbA1c and body weight. Results The total number of T2D cases was 62 and the cumulative incidence rate was 3.1%, with no significant differences between the two diets, PA or their combination. T2D incidence was similar across intervention centres, irrespective of attrition. Significantly fewer participants achieved normoglycaemia in the HP compared with the MP group (P <.0001). At 3 years, normoglycaemia was lowest in HP-HI (11.9%) compared with the other three groups (20.0%-21.0%, P <.05). There were no group differences in body weight change (-11% after 8-week weight reduction; -5% after 3-year weight maintenance) or in other secondary outcomes. Conclusions Three-year incidence of T2D was much lower than predicted and did not differ between diets, PA or their combination. Maintaining the target intakes of protein and GI over 3 years was difficult, but the overall protocol combining weight loss, healthy eating and PA was successful in markedly reducing the risk of T2D. This is an important clinically relevant outcome.