Browsing by Subject "LINES"

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  • Harma, Ville; Virtanen, Johannes; Mäkelä, Rami; Happonen, Antti; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Knuuttila, Matias; Kohonen, Pekka; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Kallioniemi, Olli; Nees, Matthias (2010)
  • Kang, Bo; Puolamäki, Kai; Lijffijt, Jefrey; Bie, Tijl de (2020)
    Data visualization and iterative/interactive data mining are growing rapidly in attention, both in research as well as in industry. However, while there are a plethora of advanced data mining methods and lots of works in the field of visualization, integrated methods that combine advanced visualization and/or interaction with data mining techniques in a principled way are rare. We present a framework based on constrained randomization which lets users explore high-dimensional data via 'subjectively informative' two-dimensional data visualizations. The user is presented with 'interesting' projections, allowing users to express their observations using visual interactions that update a background model representing the user's belief state. This background model is then considered by a projection-finding algorithm employing data randomization to compute a new 'interesting' projection. By providing users with information that contrasts with the background model, we maximize the chance that the user encounters striking new information present in the data. This process can be iterated until the user runs out of time or until the difference between the randomized and the real data is insignificant. We present two case studies, one controlled study on synthetic data and another on census data, using the proof-of-concept tool SIDE that demonstrates the presented framework.
  • Rajala, Kristiina; Lindroos, Bettina; Hussein, Samer M.; Lappalainen, Riikka S.; Pekkanen-Mattila, Mari; Inzunza, Jose; Rozell, Bjorn; Miettinen, Susanna; Narkilahti, Susanna; Kerkela, Erja; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina; Otonkoski, Timo; Suuronen, Riitta; Hovatta, Outi; Skottman, Heli (2010)
  • Gupta, Abhishekh; Gautam, Prson; Wennerberg, Krister; Aittokallio, Tero (2020)
    Accurate quantification of drug effects is crucial for identifying pharmaceutically actionable cancer vulnerabilities. Current cell viability-based measurements often lead to biased response estimates due to varying growth rates and experimental artifacts that explain part of the inconsistency in high-throughput screening results. We developed an improved drug scoring model, normalized drug response (NDR), which makes use of both positive and negative control conditions to account for differences in cell growth rates, and experimental noise to better characterize drug-induced effects. We demonstrate an improved consistency and accuracy of NDR compared to existing metrics in assessing drug responses of cancer cells in various culture models and experimental setups. Notably, NDR reliably captures both toxicity and viability responses, and differentiates a wider spectrum of drug behavior, including lethal, growth-inhibitory and growth-stimulatory modes, based on a single viability readout. The method will therefore substantially reduce the time and resources required in cell-based drug sensitivity screening. Abhishekh Gupta et al. present a normalized drug response (NDR) metric for accurate quantification of drug sensitivity in cell-based high-throughput assays. They show that NDR captures both toxicity and viability responses to improve drug effect classification over existing methods.
  • Vuoristo, Sanna; Toivonen, Sanna; Weltner, Jere; Mikkola, Milla; Ustinov, Jarkko; Trokovic, Ras; Palgi, Jaan; Lund, Riikka; Tuuri, Timo; Otonkoski, Timo (2013)
  • Sinha, Snehadri; Narjus-Sterba, Matilda; Tuomainen, Katja; Kaur, Sippy; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Salo, Tuula; Mannerström, Bettina; Al-Samadi, Ahmed (2020)
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are commonly isolated from bone marrow and adipose tissue. Depending on the tissue of origin, MSCs have different characteristics and physiological effects. In various cancer studies, MSCs have been found to have either tumor-promoting or tumor-inhibiting action. This study investigated the effect of adipose tissue-MSCs (AT-MSCs) and bone marrow-MSCs (BM-MSCs) on global long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) methylation, the expression level of microenvironment remodeling genes and cell proliferation, migration and invasion of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). Additionally, we studied the effect of human tongue squamous carcinoma (HSC-3)-conditioned media on LINE-1 methylation and the expression of microenvironment remodeling genes in AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs. Conditioned media from HSC-3 or MSCs did not affect LINE-1 methylation level in either cancer cells or MSCs, respectively. In HSC-3 cells, no effect of MSCs-conditioned media was detected on the expression ofICAM1, ITGA3orMMP1. On the other hand, HSC-3-conditioned media upregulatedICAM1andMMP1expression in both types of MSCs. Co-cultures of AT-MSCs with HSC-3 did not induce proliferation, migration or invasion of the cancer cells. In conclusion, AT-MSCs, unlike BM-MSCs, seem not to participate in oral cancer progression.
  • Guo, Hui; Liu, Dongmei; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Xiaohui; You, Minli; Ren, Hui; Zhang, Hongbo; Almeida Santos, Helder; Xu, Feng (2016)
    Evodiamine (EVO) and rutaecarpine (RUT) are promising anti-tumor drug candidates. The evaluation of the anti-proliferative activity and cellular uptake of EVO and RUT in 3D multicellular spheroids of cancer cells would better recapitulate the native situation and thus better reflect an in vivo response to the treatment. Herein, we employed the 3D culture of MCF-7 and SMMC-7721 cells based on hanging drop method and evaluated the anti-proliferative activity and cellular uptake of EVO and RUT in 3D multicellular spheroids, and compared the results with those obtained from 2D monolayers. The drugs’ IC50 values were significantly increased from the range of 6.4–44.1 μM in 2D monolayers to 21.8–138.0 μM in 3D multicellular spheroids, which may be due to enhanced mass barrier and reduced drug penetration in 3D models. The fluorescence of EVO and RUT was measured via fluorescence spectroscopy and the cellular uptake of both drugs was characterized in 2D tumor models. The results showed that the cellular uptake concentrations of RUT increased with increasing drug concentrations. However, the EVO concentrations uptaken by the cells showed only a small change with increasing drug concentrations, which may be due to the different solubility of EVO and Rut in solvents. Overall, this study provided a new vision of the anti-tumor activity of EVO and RUT via 3D multicellular spheroids and cellular uptake through the fluorescence of compounds.
  • Hasegawa, Yuki; Tang, Dave; Takahashi, Naoko; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Suzuki, Harukazu; FANTOM Consortium; Sajantila, Antti (2014)
  • Sveen, Anita; Bruun, Jarle; Eide, Peter W.; Eilertsen, Ina A.; Ramirez, Lorena; Murumägi, Astrid; Arjama, Mariliina; Danielsen, Stine A.; Kryeziu, Kushtrim; Elez, Elena; Tabernero, Josep; Guinney, Justin; Palmer, Hector G.; Nesbakken, Arild; Kallioniemi, Olli; Dienstmann, Rodrigo; Lothe, Ragnhild A. (2018)
    Purpose: Response to standard oncologic treatment is limited in colorectal cancer. The gene expression-based consensus molecular subtypes (CMS) provide a new paradigm for stratified treatment and drug repurposing; however, drug discovery is currently limited by the lack of translation of CMS to preclinical models. Experimental Design: We analyzed CMS in primary colorectal cancers, cell lines, and patient-derived xenografts (PDX). For classification of preclinical models, we developed an optimized classifier enriched for cancer cell-intrinsic gene expression signals, and performed high-throughput in vitro drug screening (n = 459 drugs) to analyze subtype-specific drug sensitivities. Results: The distinct molecular and clinicopathologic characteristics of each CMS group were validated in a single-hospital series of 409 primary colorectal cancers. The new, cancer cell-adapted classifier was found to perform well in primary tumors, and applied to a panel of 148 cell lines and 32 PDXs, these colorectal cancer models were shown to recapitulate the biology of the CMS groups. Drug screening of 33 cell lines demonstrated subtype-dependent response profiles, confirming strong response to EGFR and HER2 inhibitors in the CMS2 epithelial/canonical group, and revealing strong sensitivity to HSP90 inhibitors in cells with the CMS1 microsatellite instability/immune and CMS4 mesenchymal phenotypes. This association was validated in vitro in additional CMS-predicted cell lines. Combination treatment with 5-fluorouracil and luminespib showed potential to alleviate chemoresistance in a CMS4 PDX model, an effect not seen in a chemosensitive CMS2 PDX model. Conclusions: We provide translation of CMS classification to preclinical models and uncover a potential for targeted treatment repurposing in the chemoresistant CMS4 group. (C) 2017 AACR.
  • Hyvärinen, Tanja; Hyysalo, Anu; Kapucu, Fikret Emre; Aarnos, Laura; Vinogradov, Andrey; Eglen, Stephen J.; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Narkilahti, Susanna (2019)
    Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neurons provide exciting opportunities for in vitro modeling of neurological diseases and for advancing drug development and neurotoxicological studies. However, generating electrophysiologically mature neuronal networks from hPSCs has been challenging. Here, we report the differentiation of functionally active hPSC-derived cortical networks on defined laminin-521 substrate. We apply microelectrode array (MEA) measurements to assess network events and compare the activity development of hPSC-derived networks to that of widely used rat embryonic cortical cultures. In both of these networks, activity developed through a similar sequence of stages and time frames; however, the hPSC-derived networks showed unique patterns of bursting activity. The hPSC-derived networks developed synchronous activity, which involved glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs, recapitulating the classical cortical activity also observed in rodent counterparts. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on spike rates, network synchronization and burst features revealed the segregation of hPSC-derived and rat network recordings into different clusters, reflecting the species-specific and maturation state differences between the two networks. Overall, hPSC-derived neural cultures produced with a defined protocol generate cortical type network activity, which validates their applicability as a human-specific model for pharmacological studies and modeling network dysfunctions.
  • Kyttala, Aija; Moraghebi, Roksana; Valensisi, Cristina; Kettunen, Johannes; Andrus, Colin; Pasumarthy, Kalyan Kumar; Nakanishi, Mahito; Nishimura, Ken; Ohtaka, Manami; Weltner, Jere; Van Handel, Ben; Parkkonen, Olavi; Sinisalo, Juha; Jalanko, Anu; Hawkins, R. David; Woods, Niels-Bjarne; Otonkoski, Timo; Trokovic, Ras (2016)
    Reports on the retention of somatic cell memory in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have complicated the selection of the optimal cell type for the generation of iPSC biobanks. To address this issue we compared transcriptomic, epigenetic, and differentiation propensities of genetically matched human iPSCs derived from fibroblasts and blood, two tissues of the most practical relevance for biobanking. Our results show that iPSC lines derived from the same donor are highly similar to each other. However, genetic variation imparts a donor-specific expression and methylation profile in reprogrammed cells that leads to variable functional capacities of iPSC lines. Our results suggest that integration-free, bona fide iPSC lines from fibroblasts and blood can be combined in repositories to form biobanks. Due to the impact of genetic variation on iPSC differentiation, biobanks should contain cells from large numbers of donors.
  • Aakula, Anna; Kohonen, Pekka; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Makela, Rami; Hintsanen, Petteri; Mpindi, John Patrick; Martens-Uzunova, Elena; Aittokallio, Tero; Jenster, Guido; Perala, Merja; Kallioniemi, Olli; Ostling, Paivi (2016)
    Background: Systematic approaches to functionally identify key players in microRNA (miRNA)-target networks regulating prostate cancer (PCa) proliferation are still missing. Objective: To comprehensively map miRNA regulation of genes relevant for PCa proliferation through phenotypic screening and tumor expression data. Design, setting, and participants: Gain-of-function screening with 1129 miRNA molecules was performed in five PCa cell lines, measuring proliferation, viability, and apoptosis. These results were integrated with changes in miRNA expression from two cohorts of human PCa (188 tumors in total). For resulting miRNAs, the predicted targets were collected and analyzed for patterns with gene set enrichment analysis, and for their association with biochemical recurrence free survival. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Rank product statistical analysis was used to evaluate miRNA effects in phenotypic screening and for expression differences in the prostate tumor cohorts. Expression data were analyzed using the significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) method and the patient material was subjected to Kaplan-Meier statistics. Results and limitations: Functional screening identified 25 miRNAs increasing and 48 miRNAs decreasing cell viability. Data integration resulted in 14 miRNAs, with aberrant expression and effect on proliferation. These miRNAs are predicted to regulate >3700 genes, of which 28 were found up-regulated and 127 down-regulated in PCa compared with benign tissue. Seven genes, FLNC, MSRB3, PARVA, PCDH7, PRNP, RAB34, and SORBS1, showed an inverse association to their predicted miRNA, and were identified to significantly correlate with biochemical recurrence free survival in PCa patients. Conclusions: A systematic in vitro screening approach combined with in vivo expression and gene set enrichment analysis provide unbiased means for revealing novel miRNA-target links, possibly driving the oncogenic processes in PCa. Patient summary: This study identified novel regulatory molecules, which impact on PCa proliferation and are aberrantly expressed in clinical tumors. Thus, our study reveals regulatory nodes with potential for therapy. (C) 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.