Browsing by Subject "LIPID-BILAYERS"

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  • Bilkova, Eva; Pleskot, Roman; Rissanen, Sami; Sun, Simou; Czogalla, Aleksander; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Rog, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Cremer, Paul S.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Coskun, Uenal (2017)
    The orchestrated recognition of phosphoinositides and concomitant intracellular release of Ca2+ is pivotal to almost every aspect of cellular processes, including membrane homeostasis, cell division and growth, vesicle trafficking, as well as secretion. Although Ca2+ is known to directly impact phosphoinositide clustering, little is known about the molecular basis for this or its significance in cellular signaling. Here, we study the direct interaction of Ca2+ with phosphatidylinositol sphosphate (PI(4,5)P-2), the main lipid marker of the plasma membrane. Electrokinetic potential measurements of PI(4,5)P-2 containing liposomes reveal that Ca2+ as well as Mg2+ reduce the zeta potential of liposomes to nearly background levels of pure phosphatidylcholine membranes. Strikingly, lipid recognition by the default PI(4,5)P-2 lipid sensor, phospholipase C delta 1 pleckstrin homology domain (PLC delta 1-PH), is completely inhibited in the presence of Ca2+, while Mg2+ has no effect with 100 nm liposomes and modest effect with giant unilamellar vesicles. Consistent with biochemical data, vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal how Ca2+ binding to the PI(4,5)P-2 headgroup and carbonyl regions leads to confined lipid headgroup tilting and conformational rearrangements. We rationalize these findings by the ability of calcium to block a highly specific interaction between PLC delta 1-PH and PI(4,5)P-2, encoded within the conformational properties of the lipid itself. Our studies demonstrate the possibility that switchable phosphoinositide conformational states can serve as lipid recognition and controlled cell signaling mechanisms.
  • Kulig, Waldemar; Korolainen, Hanna; Zatorska, Maria; Kwolek, Urszula; Wydro, Pawel; Kepczynski, Mariusz; Rog, Tomasz (2019)
    Phosphatidic acids (PAs) have many biological functions in biomembranes, e.g., they are involved in the proliferation, differentiation, and transformation of cells. Despite decades of research, the molecular understanding of how PAs affect the properties of biomembranes remains elusive. In this study, we explored the properties of lipid bilayers and monolayers composed of PAs and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) with various acyl chains. For this purpose, the Langmuir monolayer technique and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to study the miscibility of PA and PC lipids and the molecular organization of mixed bilayers. The monolayer experiments demonstrated that the miscibility of membrane components strongly depends on the structure of the hydrocarbon chains and thus on the overall lipid shape. Interactions between PA and PC molecules vary from repulsive, for systems containing lipids with saturated and unsaturated acyl tails (strongly positive values of the excess free energy of mixing), to attractive, for systems in which all lipid tails are saturated (negative values of the excess free energy of mixing). The MD simulations provided atomistic insight into polar interactions (formation of hydrogen bonds and charge pairs) in PC-PA systems. H-bonding between PA monoanions and PCs in mixed bilayers is infrequent, and the lipid molecules interact mainly via electrostatic interactions. However, the number of charge pairs significantly decreases with the number of unsaturated lipid chains in the PA-PC system. The PA dianions weakly interact with the zwitterionic lipids, but their headgroups are more hydrated as compared to the monoanionic form. The acyl chains in all PC-PA bilayers are more ordered compared to single-component PC systems. In addition, depending on the combination of lipids, we observed a deeper location of the PA phosphate groups compared to the PC phosphate groups, which can alter the presentation of PAs for the peripheral membrane proteins, affecting their accessibility for binding.
  • Manna, Moutusi; Javanainen, Matti; Monne, Hector Martinez-Seara; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Rog, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo (2017)
    Extracellular and cytosolic leaflets in cellular membranes are distinctly different in lipid composition, yet they contribute together to signaling across the membranes. Here we consider a mechanism based on long-chain gangliosides for coupling the extracellular and cytosolic membrane leaflets together. Based on atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we find that long-chain GM1 in the extracellular leaflet exhibits a strong tendency to protrude into the opposing bilayer leaflet. This interdigitation modulates the order in the cytosolic monolayer and thereby strengthens the interaction and coupling across a membrane. Coarse-grained simulations probing longer time scales in large membrane systems indicate that GM1 in the extracellular leaflet modulates the phase behavior in the cytosolic monolayer. While short-chain GM1 maintains phase-symmetric bilayers with a strong membrane registration effect, the situation is altered with long-chain GM1. Here, the significant interdigitation induced by long-chain GM1 modulates the behavior in the cytosolic GM1-free leaflet, weakening and slowing down the membrane registration process. The observed physical interaction mechanism provides a possible means to mediate or foster transmembrane communication associated with signal transduction. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Mahmoudzadeh, Mohammad; Magarkar, Aniket; Koivuniemi, Artturi; Róg, Tomasz; Bunker, Alex (2021)
    Liposome-based drug delivery systems composed of DOPE stabilized with cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHMS) have been proposed as a drug delivery mechanism with pH-triggered release as the anionic form (CHSa) is protonated (CHS) at reduced pH; PEGylation is known to decrease this pH sensitivity. In this manuscript, we set out to use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a model with all-atom resolution to provide insight into why incorporation of poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) into DOPE–CHMS liposomes reduces their pH sensitivity; we also address two additional questions: (1) How CHSa stabilizes DOPE bilayers into a lamellar conformation at a physiological pH of 7.4? and (2) how the change from CHSa to CHS at acidic pH triggers the destabilization of DOPE bilayers? We found that (A) CHSa stabilizes the DOPE lipid membrane by increasing the hydrophilicity of the bilayer surface, (B) when CHSa changes to CHS by pH reduction, DOPE bilayers are destabilized due to a reduction in bilayer hydrophilicity and a reduction in the area per lipid, and (C) PEG stabilizes DOPE bilayers into the lamellar phase, thus reducing the pH sensitivity of the liposomes by increasing the area per lipid through penetration into the bilayer, which is our main focus.
  • Timr, Stepan; Pleskot, Roman; Kadlec, Jan; Kohagen, Miriam; Magarkar, Aniket; Jungwirth, Pavel (2017)
    Recoverin is a neuronal calcium sensor involved in vision adaptation that reversibly associates with cellular membranes via its calcium-activated myristoyl switch. While experimental evidence shows that the myristoyl group significantly enhances membrane affinity of this protein, molecular details of the binding process are still under debate. Here, we present results of extensive molecular dynamics simulations of recoverin in the proximity of a phospholipid bilayer. We capture multiple events of spontaneous membrane insertion of the myristoyl moiety and confirm its critical role in the membrane binding. Moreover, we observe that the binding strongly depends on the conformation of the N-terminal domain. We propose that a suitable conformation of the N-terminal domain can be stabilized by the disordered C-terminal segment or by binding of the target enzyme, i.e., rhodopsin kinase. Finally, we find that the presence of negatively charged lipids in the bilayer stabilizes a physiologically functional orientation of the membrane-bound recoverin.
  • Santos-Perez, Isaac; Oksanen, Hanna M.; Bamford, Dennis H.; Goni, Felix M.; Reguera, David; Abrescia, Nicola G. A. (2017)
    Genome packaging and delivery are fundamental steps in the replication cycle of all viruses. Icosahedral viruses with linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) usually pacicage their genome into a preformed, rigid procapsid using the power generated by a virus-encoded packaging ATPase. The pressure and stored energy due to this confinement of DNA at a high density is assumed to drive the initial stages of genome ejection. Membrane-containing icosahedral viruses, such as bacteriophage PRD1, present an additional architectural complexity by enclosing their genome within an internal membrane vesicle. Upon adsorption to a host cell, the PRD1 membrane remodels into a proteo-lipidic tube that provides a conduit for passage of the ejected linear dsDNA through the cell envelope. Based on volume analyses of PRD1 membrane vesicles captured by cryo-electron tomography and modeling of the elastic properties of the vesicle, we propose that the internal membrane makes a crucial and active contribution during infection by maintaining the driving force for DNA ejection and countering the internal turgor pressure of the host These novel functions extend the role of the PRD1 viral membrane beyond tube formation or the mere physical confinement of the genome. The presence and assistance of an internal membrane might constitute a biological advantage that extends also to other viruses that package their linear dsDNA to high density within an internal vesicle. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Javanainen, Matti; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Vattulainen, Ilpo (2017)
    Biological membranes generate specific functions through compartmentalized regions such as cholesterol-enriched membrane nanodomains that host selected proteins. Despite the biological significance of nanodomains, details on their structure remain elusive. They cannot be observed via microscopic experimental techniques due to their small size, yet there is also a lack of atomistic simulation models able to describe spontaneous nanodomain formation in sufficiently simple but biologically relevant complex membranes. Here we use atomistic simulations to consider a binary mixture of saturated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol - the "minimal standard" for nanodomain formation. The simulations reveal how cholesterol drives the formation of fluid cholesterol-rich nanodomains hosting hexagonally packed cholesterol-poor lipid nanoclusters, both of which show registration between the membrane leaflets. The complex nanodomain substructure forms when cholesterol positions itself in the domain boundary region. Here cholesterol can also readily flip-flop across the membrane. Most importantly, replacing cholesterol with a sterol characterized by a less asymmetric ring region impairs the emergence of nanodomains. The model considered explains a plethora of controversial experimental results and provides an excellent basis for further computational studies on nanodomains. Furthermore, the results highlight the role of cholesterol as a key player in the modulation of nanodomains for membrane protein function.
  • Schachter, Itay; Paananen, Riku O.; Fabian, Balazs; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Javanainen, Matti (2022)
    Coexisting liquid ordered (L-o) and liquid disordered (L-d) lipid phases in synthetic and plasma membrane-derived vesicles are commonly used to model the heterogeneity of biological membranes, including their putative ordered rafts. However, raft-associated proteins exclusively partition to the L-d and not the L-o phase in these model systems. We believe that the difference stems from the different microscopic structures of the lipid rafts at physiological temperature and the L-o phase studied at room temperature. To probe this structural diversity across temperatures, we performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, differential scanning calorimetry, and fluorescence spectroscopy on L-o phase membranes. Our results suggest that raftassociated proteins are excluded from the L-o phase at room temperature due to the presence of a stiff, hexagonally packed lipid structure. This structure melts upon heating, which could lead to the preferential solvation of proteins by order-preferring lipids. This structural transition is manifested as a subtle crossover in membrane properties; yet, both temperature regimes still fulfill the definition of the L-o phase. We postulate that in the compositionally complex plasma membrane and in vesicles derived therefrom, both molecular structures can be present depending on the local lipid composition. These structural differences must be taken into account when using synthetic or plasma membrane-derived vesicles as a model for cellular membrane heterogeneity below the physiological temperature.