Browsing by Subject "LIVER METASTASES"

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  • Loupakis, Fotios; Stein, Alexander; Ychou, Marc; Hermann, Frank; Salud, Antonieta; Osterlund, Pia (2016)
    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. A significant proportion of patients presents with unresectable metastatic disease or develops metachronous metastases following surgical resection of the primary tumor. The prognosis of the disease has improved over the past two decades, with extended multimodality treatment options and the development of increasingly intensified chemotherapy regimens that now typically include targeted biologics. A recent advance in therapy is a treatment regimen composed of three chemotherapeutic agents (i.e., triplet chemotherapy: 5-fluorouracil [5-FU]/leucovorin [LV], oxaliplatin, and irinotecan; FOLFOXIRI) in combination with the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor bevacizumab. This regimen has been shown to elicit significantly improved objective response rates and median progression-free survival compared with 5-FU/LV and irinotecan in combination with bevacizumab. However, triplet chemotherapy has been associated with increased rates of chemotherapy-related adverse events, and treatment-emergent adverse events should be properly managed to minimize treatment interruption or discontinuation. We present herein a review of clinical studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of FOLFOXIRI with bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer, and propose a practical guide for the management of adverse events associated with the regimen.
  • Isoniemi, H.; Uutela, A.; Nordin, A.; Lantto, E.; Kellokumpu, I.; Ovissi, A.; Kosunen, J.; Kallio, R.; Soveri, L. M.; Salminen, T.; Ålgars, A.; Lamminmaki, A.; Halonen, P.; Ristamaki, R.; Räsänen, J.; Karjula, H.; Vaalavuo, Y.; Lavonius, M.; Österlund, P. (2021)
    Y Background: Metastasectomy is probably underused in metastatic colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of centralized repeated assessment on resectability rate of liver metastases. Methods: The prospective RAXO study was a nationwide study in Finland. Patients with treatable metastatic colorectal cancer at any site were eligible. This planned substudy included patients with baseline liver metastases between 2012 and 2018. Resectability was reassessed by the multidisciplinary team at Helsinki tertiary referral centre upfront and twice during first-line systemic therapy. Outcomes were resectability rates, management changes, and survival. Results: Of 812 patients included, 301 (37.1 per cent) had liver-only metastases. Of these, tumours were categorized as upfront resectable in 161 (53.5 per cent), and became amenable to surgery during systemic treatment in 63 (20.9 per cent). Some 207 patients (68.7 per cent) eventually underwent liver resection or ablation. At baseline, a discrepancy in resectability between central and local judgement was noted for 102 patients (33.9 per cent). Median disease-free survival (DFS) after first resection was 20 months and overall survival (OS) 79 months. Median OS after diagnosis of metastatic colorectal cancer was 80, 32, and 21 months in R0-1 resection, R2/ablation, and non-resected groups, and 5-year OS rates were 68, 37, and 9 per cent, respectively. Liver and extrahepatic metastases were present in 511 patients. Of these, tumours in 72 patients (14.1 per cent) were categorized as upfront resectable, and 53 patients (10.4 per cent) became eligible for surgery. Eventually 110 patients (21.5 per cent) underwent liver resection or ablation. At baseline, a discrepancy between local and central resectability was noted for 116 patients (22.7 per cent). Median DFS from first resection was 7 months and median OS 55 months. Median OS after diagnosis of metastatic colorectal cancer was 79, 42, and 17 months in R0-1 resection, R2/ablation, and non-resected groups, with 5-year OS rates of 65, 39, and 2 per cent, respectively. Conclusion: Repeated centralized resectability assessment in patients with colorectal liver metastases improved resection and survival rates.
  • Riihimaeki, Matias; Thomsen, Hauke; Hemminki, Akseli; Sundquist, Kristina; Hemminki, Kari (2013)
  • Beets, Geerard; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Andritsch, Elisabeth; Arnold, Dirk; Beishon, Marc; Crul, Mirjam; Dekker, Jan Willem; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Flejou, Jean-Francois; Grisold, Wolfgang; Henning, Geoffrey; Laghi, Andrea; Lovey, Jozsef; Negrouk, Anastassia; Pereira, Philippe; Roca, Pierre; Saarto, Tiina; Seufferlein, Thomas; Taylor, Claire; Ugolini, Giampaolo; van de Velde, Cornelis; van Herck, Bert; Yared, Wendy; Costa, Alberto; Naredi, Peter (2017)
    Background: ECCO essential requirements for quality cancer care (ERQCC) are checklists and explanations of organisation and actions that are necessary to give high-quality care to patients who have a specific tumour type. They are written by European experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care. ERQCC papers give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of the elements needed in any healthcare system to provide high quality of care throughout the patient journey. References are made to clinical guidelines and other resources where appropriate, and the focus is on care in Europe. Colorectal cancer: essential requirements for quality care Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer death in Europe and has wide variation in outcomes among countries. Increasing numbers of older people are contracting the disease, and treatments for advanced stages are becoming more complex. A growing number of survivors also require specialist support. High-quality care can only be a carried out in specialised CRC units or centres which have both a core multidisciplinary team and an extended team of allied professionals, and which are subject to quality and audit procedures. Such units or centres are far from universal in all European countries. It is essential that, to meet European aspirations for comprehensive cancer control, healthcare organisations implement the essential requirements in this paper, paying particular attention to multidisciplinarity and patient-centred pathways from diagnosis, to treatment, to survivorship. Conclusion: Taken together, the information presented in this paper provides a comprehensive description of the essential requirements for establishing a high-quality CRC service. The ECCO expert group is aware that it is not possible to propose a 'one size fits all' system for all countries, but urges that access to multidisciplinary units or centres must be guaranteed for all those with CRC. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • Rantala, Elina S.; Peltola, Erno; Helminen, Hanne; Hernberg, Micaela; Kivelä, Tero T. (2020)
    Purpose To evaluate the consistency of hepatic ultrasonography (US) with staging computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to analyze why US was inconsistent with CT/MRI, and to compare CT/MRI. DESIGN Reliability analysis. METHODS Two hundred fifteen patients whose primary uveal melanoma was managed in the Helsinki University Hospital and who were diagnosed with hepatic metastases by US within 60 days of staging CT/MRI from January 1999 to December 2016, were included. Patients attended a real-life follow-up schedule including hepatic US, liver function tests (LFT), and a confirmatory CT/MRI. We evaluated the consistency of US with staging CT/MRI regarding the presence and number of metastases. RESULTS The enrolled patients underwent 215 US, 167 CT, and 69 MRI examinations, and 67% of them had biopsy-confirmed metastases. Screening was regular for 98% of the patients, and 66% were asymptomatic. US was fully consistent with CT/MRI in detecting metastases in 113 (53%) patients, in 63 (29%) CT/MRI showed more metastases, and in 16 (7%) less metastases than US. CT/MRI was inconsistent with US in 23 (11%) patients. The sensitivity of US in detecting metastases was 96% (95% confidence interval, 92-98). US failed to suggest metastases in 10 patients. LFT were abnormal in six of them, and a newly-detected hepatic lesion was present by US in four. CONCLUSIONS Hepatic US is a sensitive screening modality in detecting metastases in patients with primary uveal melanoma, if combined with LFT and in case of any new detected lesion, a confirmatory MRI.
  • Kellokumpu, Ilmo; Kairaluoma, Matti; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Kellokumpu, Henrik; Väyrynen, Ville; Wirta, Erkki-Ville; Sihvo, Eero; Kuopio, Teijo; Seppälä, Toni T. (2021)
    This retrospective population-based study examined the impact of age and comorbidity burden on multimodal management and survival from colorectal cancer (CRC). From 2000 to 2015, 1479 consecutive patients, who underwent surgical resection for CRC, were reviewed for age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) including 19 well-defined weighted comorbidities. The impact of ACCI on multimodal management and survival was compared between low (score 0-2), intermediate (score 3) and high ACCI (score >= 4) groups. Changes in treatment from 2000 to 2015 were seen next to a major increase of laparoscopic surgery, increased use of adjuvant chemotherapy and an intensified treatment of metastatic disease. Patients with a high ACCI score were, by definition, older and had higher comorbidity. Major elective and emergency resections for colon carcinoma were evenly performed between the ACCI groups, as were laparoscopic and open resections. (Chemo)radiotherapy for rectal carcinoma was less frequently used, and a higher rate of local excisions, and consequently lower rate of major elective resections, was performed in the high ACCI group. Adjuvant chemotherapy and metastasectomy were less frequently used in the ACCI high group. Overall and cancer-specific survival from stage I-III CRC remained stable over time, but survival from stage IV improved. However, the 5-year overall survival from stage I-IV colon and rectal carcinoma was worse in the high ACCI group compared to the low ACCI group. Five-year cancer-specific and disease-free survival rates did not differ significantly by the ACCI. Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that high ACCI was an independent predictor of poor overall survival (p < 0.001). Our results show that despite improvements in multimodal management over time, old age and high comorbidity burden affect the use of adjuvant chemotherapy, preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and management of metastatic disease, and worsen overall survival from CRC.
  • Rantala, ES; Kivela, TT; Hernberg, MM (2021)
    No data exist regarding whether any first-line treatment for metastatic uveal melanoma provides overall survival (OS) benefit, if staged and compared to best supportive care (BSC). We analyzed OS in a nationwide, consecutive cohort diagnosed with metastatic uveal melanoma between January 1999 and December 2016. The Helsinki University Hospital Working Formulation was used to assign patients to stage IVa, IVb and IVc, corresponding to predicted median OS >= 12,
  • Väyrynen, V.; Wirta, E. -V.; Seppälä, T.; Sihvo, E.; Mecklin, J. -P.; Vasala, K.; Kellokumpu, I. (2020)
    Background This population-based study aimed to examine the incidence, patterns and results of multimodal management of metastatic colorectal cancer. Methods A retrospective population-based study was conducted on patients with metastatic colorectal cancer in Central Finland in 2000-2015. Clinical and histopathological data were retrieved and descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the pattern of metastatic disease, defined as synchronous, early metachronous (within 12 months of diagnosis of primary disease) and late metachronous (more than 12 months after diagnosis). Subgroups were compared for resection and overall survival (OS) rates. Results Of 1671 patients, 296 (17.7 per cent) had synchronous metastases, and 255 (19.6 per cent) of 1302 patients with resected stage I-III tumours developed metachronous metastases (94 early and 161 late metastases). Liver, pulmonary and intraperitoneal metastases were the most common sites. The commonest metastatic patterns were a combination of liver and lung metastases. The overall metastasectomy rate for patients with synchronous metastases was 16.2 per cent; in this subgroup, 3- and 5-year OS rates after any resection were 63 and 44 per cent respectively, compared with 7.1 and 3.3 per cent following no resection (P <0.001). The resection rate was higher for late than for early metachronous disease (28.0versus17 per cent respectively;P = 0.048). Three- and 5-year OS rates after any resection of metachronous metastases were 78 and 62 per cent respectivelyversus42.1 and 18.2 per cent with no metastasectomy (P <0.001). Similarly, 3- and 5-year OS rates after any metastasectomy for early metachronous metastases were 57 and 50 per centversus84 and 66 per cent for late metachronous metastases (P = 0.293). Conclusion The proportion of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer was consistent with that in earlier population-based studies, as were resection rates for liver and lung metastases and survival after resection. Differentiation between synchronous, early and late metachronous metastases can improve assessment of resectability and survival.
  • Khoja, L.; Atenafu, E. G.; Suciu, S.; Leyvraz, S.; Sato, T.; Marshall, E.; Keilholz, U.; Zimmer, L.; Patel, S. P.; Piperno-Neumann, S.; Piulats, J.; Kivelä, T. T.; Pfoehler, C.; Bhatia, S.; Huppert, P.; Van Iersel, L. B. J.; De Vries, I. J. M.; Penel, N.; Vogl, T.; Cheng, T.; Fiorentini, G.; Mouriaux, F.; Tarhini, A.; Patel, P. M.; Carvajal, R.; Joshua, A. M. (2019)
    Background: Despite the completion of numerous phase II studies, a standard of care treatment has yet to be defined for metastatic uveal melanoma (mUM). To determine benchmarks of progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), we carried out a meta-analysis using individual patient level trial data. Methods: Individual patient variables and survival outcomes were requested from 29 trials published from 2000 to 2016. Univariable and multivariable analysis were carried out for prognostic factors. The variability between trial arms and between therapeutic agents on PFS and OS was investigated. Results: OS data were available for 912 patients. The median PFS was 3.3 months (95% CI 2.9-3.6) and 6-month PFS rate was 27% (95% CI 24-30). Univariable analysis showed male sex, elevated (i.e. > versus = 3 cm versus Conclusion: Benchmarks of 6-month PFS and 1-year OS rates were determined accounting for prognostic factors. These may be used to facilitate future trial design and stratification in mUM.
  • Janson, Eva Tiensuu; Knigge, Ulrich; Dam, Gitte; Federspiel, Birgitte; Gronbaek, Henning; Stålberg, Peter; Langer, Seppo W.; Kjaer, Andreas; Arola, Johanna; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Sundin, Anders; Welin, Staffan; Thiis-Evensen, Espen; Sorbye, Halfdan (2021)
    Background The diagnostic work-up and treatment of patients with gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) has undergone major advances and new methods are introduced. Furthermore, an update of the WHO classification has resulted in a new nomenclature for GEP-NEN that is implemented in the clinic. Aim These Nordic guidelines summarise the Nordic Neuroendocrine Tumour Group's current view on how to diagnose and treat GEP-NEN patients and aims to be useful in the daily practice for clinicians.
  • Haugvik, Sven-Petter; Janson, Eva Tiensuu; Osterlund, Pia; Langer, Seppo W.; Falk, Ragnhild Sorum; Labori, Knut Jorgen; Vestermark, Lene Weber; Gronbaek, Henning; Gladhaug, Ivar Prydz; Sorbye, Halfdan (2016)
    This study aimed to evaluate the role of surgery for patients with high-grade pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (hgPNEC) in a large Nordic multicenter cohort study. Prior studies evaluating the role of surgery for patients with hgPNEC are limited, and the benefit of the surgery is uncertain. Data from patients with a diagnosis of hgPNEC determined between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively registered at 10 Nordic university hospitals. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the overall survival of different treatment groups, and Cox-regression analysis was used to evaluate factors potentially influencing survival. The study registered 119 patients. The median survival period from the time of metastasis was 23 months for patients undergoing initial resection of localized nonmetastatic disease and chemotherapy at the time of recurrence (n = 14), 29 months for patients undergoing resection of the primary tumor and resection/radiofrequency ablation of synchronous metastatic liver disease (n = 12), and 13 months for patients with synchronous metastatic disease given systemic chemotherapy alone (n = 78). The 3-year survival rate after surgery of the primary tumor and metastatic disease was 69 %. Resection of the primary tumor was an independent factor for improved survival after occurrence of metastatic disease. Patients with resected localized nonmetastatic hgPNEC and later metastatic disease seemed to benefit from initial resection of the primary tumor. Patients selected for resection of the primary tumor and synchronous liver metastases had a high 3-year survival rate. Selected patients with both localized hgPNEC and metastatic hgPNEC should be considered for radical surgical treatment.
  • Kivela, Tero T.; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Desjardins, Laurence; Schmittel, Alexander; Bechrakis, Nikolaos; Midena, Edoardo; Leyvraz, Serge; Zografos, Leonidas; Grange, Jean -Daniel; Ract-Madoux, Guillaume; Marshall, Ernest; Damato, Bertil; Eskelin, Sebastian (2016)
    PURPOSE: To validate a staging system for metastatic uveal melanoma that will facilitate planning, reporting, and interpreting the results of clinical trials. DESIGN: Reliability and validity study. METHODS: The performance index, the largest diameter of the largest metastasis and alkaline phosphatase level at the time of diagnosis of metastases, and overall survival of 249 patients from 7 ocular oncology centers who died of dissemination were analyzed. Predicted median survival time calculated according to the Helsinki University Hospital Working Formulation was used to assign patients to stages IVa, IVb, and IVc, which correspond to predicted survival times of >= 12, <12-6, and <6 months, respectively. The predictions were compared against observed survival. RESULTS: The 3 variables used to assign stage were independent predictors of survival in the validation dataset. Of the 249 patients, 110 (44%), 109 (44%), and 30 (12%) were classified to Working Formulation stages IVa, IVb, and IVc, respectively. Corresponding median observed survival times were 18.6, 10.7, and 4.6 months and worsened by increasing stage (P <.001). Of 201 patients managed without surgical resection of metastases, 83 (41%), 89 (44%), and 29 (15%) were classified to stages IVa, IVb, and IVc, respectively, and their median observed survival times were 17.2, 10.0, and 4.6 months (P <.001). Survival of 47 patients who underwent resection did not differ by working formulation stage (P = .69). CONCLUSIONS: This multicenter study confirms that the Working Formulation is a reliable and valid, repeatable system for dividing metastatic uveal melanoma into distinct prognostic subgroups, especially for stage-specific reporting of survival in prospective clinical trials. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.