Browsing by Subject "LOAD"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-11 of 11
  • Martelius, Timi; Lappalainen, Maija; Palomaki, Maarit; Anttila, Veli-Jukka (2011)
  • Liu, Yang; Pellikka, Petri; Li, Hansunbai; Fang, Xiuqi (2019)
    Continuous detection of dispersion and residence of volcanic plumes in troposphere and lower stratosphere is vitally important for improving the understanding on the role of volcano eruptions in climate change. We report a 3-month continuous detection of dispersion and residence of volcanic plumes in the troposphere and stratosphere generated from the volcanic SO2 erupted by Nabro in Eritrea on June 12th, 2011 observed by the OMI sensor. The background SO2 concentration of 3 different height layers in troposphere and lower stratosphere were estimated by the 3-year-average daily concentration of monthly SO2 in 2005, 2007 and 2013, when there were no large explosive volcanic eruptions occurring. We also traced the diffusion path and the concentration of volcanic SO2 for the first 3 months after Nabro's eruption, and detected the appearance and dissipation of sulfate aerosols, which is a product converted from volcanic SO2. The results show that after Nabro erupted on June 12th, the volcanic plumes spread to middle latitudes (30 degrees N -60 degrees N) of Northern Hemisphere and loading by westerly jet. The volcanic SO2 in middle troposphere layer (TRM) and lower troposphere layer (TRL) stopped eastward spreading, and dissipated over the western Pacific Ocean on June 23rd. On June 26th, the volcanic SO2 in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (STL) reached Mexico in Central America, and almost encircled the low latitudes and parts of middle latitudes. On June 28th, the volcanic SO2 plume showed an even distribution in STL. 37 days after the eruption, the volcanic SO2 in STL encircled the Northern Hemisphere evenly, sulfate aerosols in STL largely covered the low and middle latitudes and the daily concentration of SO2 was still higher than the background value. One month after the eruption, the global mean daily concentration of SO2 dropped to the normal value, but the daily concentration of SO2 and sulfate aerosols in low latitudes remained high, and dissipated not earlier than 3 months after the eruption of Nabro.
  • Kaartinen, Niina E.; Knekt, Paul; Kanerva, Noora Karoliina; Valsta, Liisa M.; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar; Rissanen, Harri; Jaaskelainen, Tuija; Männistö, Satu (2016)
    Background: The relationship between carbohydrate intake, dietary glycaemic index (GI) and load (GL), and obesity remains unsolved. Sugar intake and obesity represent a timely topic, but studies on sugar subcategories are scarce. We aimed to study whether total carbohydrate, sucrose, lactose, fibre, dietary GI, and GL are associated with obesity in 25-79-year-old Finns. Methods: Our pooled analysis included three cross-sectional population-based studies: the DILGOM Study (n = 4842), the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (n =1979), and the Health 2000 Survey (n = 5521). Diet was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were collected by standardised protocols. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression analysis. Results: In the model, which included sex, age, education, smoking, physical activity, and energy intake, the likelihood of being obese (body mass index >= 30 kg/m(2)) appeared lower in the highest quartiles of total carbohydrate (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.57-0.74; P for trend <0.0001), sucrose (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.47-0.61; P <0.0001), and dietary GL (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.56-0.73; P <0.0001) compared to the lowest quartiles. In contrast, dietary GI did not associate with obesity. Fibre intake associated inversely with abdominal obesity (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.71-0.90; P <0.001). The inverse sucrose obesity relationship appeared stronger in high fruit consumers compared to low fruit consumers (P for interaction 0.02). Conclusions: Although most of the studied carbohydrate exposures were associated with a diminished likelihood of being obese, prospective studies are needed to assess temporal relations to support causal inference.
  • Niskanen, Silja; Jääskeläinen, Anne; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja (2019)
    Puumala virus (PUUV) is the most common cause of hantavirus infection in Europe, with thousands of cases occurring particularly in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe and Russia. It causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome also known as nephropathia epidemica (NE) with clinical picture ranging from mild to severe. Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of NE is mainly based on serology. Here, we evaluated a real-time one-step qRT-PCR (PUUV-qRT-PCR) for detection of PUUV with 238 consecutive diagnostic serum samples from patients with suspected PUUV infection. The PUUV-qRT-PCR was both specific and sensitive for PUUV RNA. The analytical sensitivity (limit of detection) was estimated to be four copies of PUUV per reaction. Altogether 28 out of 30 (93%) PUUV IgM positive samples were positive also for PUUV RNA. No false positives were detected and the specificity was thus 100%. Interestingly, one sample was found positive in PUUV-qRT-PCR prior to subsequent IgM and IgG seroconversion. PUUV-qRT-PCR could be used for diagnostics in the early phase of NE infection and might be helpful especially in the rare severe cases when the patient's condition may deteriorate rapidly.
  • Kaakinen, Johanna; Simola, Jaana (2020)
    Thirty-nine participants listened to 28 neutral and horror excerpts of Stephen King short stories while constantly tracking their emotional arousal. Pupil size was measured with an Eyelink 1000+, and participants rated valence and transportation after each story. In addition to computing mean pupil size across 1-sec intervals, we extracted blink count and used detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to obtain the scaling exponents of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in pupil size time-series. Pupil size was expected to be sensitive also to emotional arousal, whereas blink count and LRTC’s were expected to reflect cognitive engagement. The results showed that self-reported arousal increased, pupil size was overall greater, and the decreasing slope of pupil size was flatter for horror than for neutral stories. Horror stories induced higher transportation than neutral stories. High transportation was associated with a steeper increase in self-reported arousal across time, stronger LRTCs in pupil size fluctuations, and lower blink count. These results indicate that pupil size reflects emotional arousal induced by the text content, while LRTCs and blink count are sensitive to cognitive engagement associated with transportation, irrespective of the text type. The study demonstrates the utility of pupillometric measures and blink count to study literature reception.
  • Khazaei, Hamid; Santanen, Arja; Street, Kenneth; Stoddard, Frederick L. (2019)
    Among grain legumes, faba bean is reputed to be relatively sensitive to drought stress. Epicuticular wax (ECW) quantity is considered as an important drought adaptation strategy in plant species. This study aimed to define variation in leaf ECW concentration as a drought-adaptive trait in 197 faba bean accessions under well-watered conditions. The relationship between ECW and stomatal characteristics was also investigated. Highly significant differences were found in the ECW concentration, which ranged from 0.680 to 2.104 mg/dm(2). No relationships were found between ECW and any measure of stomatal morphology and function. This study provides evidence of the wide variation in ECW in faba bean germplasm, which is independent of stomatal characteristics and leaf water content. This variation may allow the genetic improvement of ECW as a drought-adaptive character in faba bean breeding programs aiming at the economical use of water.
  • Meroni, Alice; Muirhead, Roslyn P.; Atkinson, Fiona S.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Brand-Miller, Jennie C. (2020)
    High protein diets and low glycemic index (GI) diets have been associated with improved diet quality. We compared the changes in nutrient intakes of individuals at high risk of developing type-2 diabetes over 3 y who followed either a higher protein-lower GI diet (HPLG) or a conventional moderate protein-moderate GI diet (MPMG). This post hoc analysis included 161 participants with overweight and pre-diabetes from the Australian cohort of the PREVIEW study (clinical trial registered in ) who were randomly assigned to a HPLG diet (25% energy from protein, dietary GI = 56, n = 76). Food records were collected at 0-mo (baseline) and at 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-mo (dietary intervention period). Linear mixed models were used to compare the differences in total energy, macro- and micronutrients, dietary GI, glycemic load (GL) and body weight between the two diet groups at the 4 dietary intervention time points. At 3 y, 74% participants from the HPLG diet and 74% participants from the MPMG diet completed the trial. The HPLG group showed significantly higher protein intake and lower dietary GI and GL than the MPMG group (group fixed effect P <0.001 for all three parameters). By 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-mo there was a 3.0, 2.7, 2.2, and 1.4% point difference in protein intake and 6.2, 4.1, 4.8, and 3.9 GI unit difference between the groups. The intake of energy and saturated fat decreased (mostly in the first 6-mo), while the intake of dietary fiber increased (from mo-0 to mo-12 only) in both diets, with no significant differences between the diets. The dietary intakes of zinc (group fixed effect P = 0.05), selenium (P = 0.01), niacin (P = 0.01), vitamin B12 (P = 0.01) and dietary cholesterol (group by time fixed effect P = 0.001) were higher in the HPLG group than in the MPMG group. Despite both diets being designed to be nutritionally complete, a HPLG diet was found to be more nutritious in relation to some micronutrients, but not cholesterol, than a MPMG diet.
  • Lukasik, Karolina M.; Lehtonen, Minna; Salmi, Juha; Meinzer, Marcus; Joutsa, Juho; Laine, Matti (2018)
    The effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex functions, such as working memory (WM), have been examined in a number of studies. However, much less is known about the behavioral effects of tDCS over other important WM-related brain regions, such as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). In a counterbalanced within-subjects design with 33 young healthy participants, we examined whether online and offline single-session tDCS over VLPFC affects WM updating performance as measured by a digit 3-back task. We compared three conditions: anodal, cathodal and sham. We observed no significant tDCS effects on participants' accuracy or reaction times during or after the stimulation. Neither did we find any differences between anodal and cathodal stimulation. Largely similar results were obtained when comparing subgroups of high- and low-performing participants. Possible reasons for the lack of effects, including individual differences in responsiveness to tDCS, features of montage, task and sample characteristics, and the role of VLPFC in WM, are discussed.
  • Jian, Ching; Luukkonen, Panu; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Salonen, Anne; Korpela, Katri (2020)
    The use of relative abundance data from next generation sequencing (NGS) can lead to misinterpretations of microbial community structures, as the increase of one taxon leads to the concurrent decrease of the other(s) in compositional data. Although different DNA- and cell-based methods as well as statistical approaches have been developed to overcome the compositionality problem, and the biological relevance of absolute bacterial abundances has been demonstrated, the human microbiome research has not yet adopted these methods, likely due to feasibility issues. Here, we describe how quantitative PCR (qPCR) done in parallel to NGS library preparation provides an accurate estimation of absolute taxon abundances from NGS data and hence provides an attainable solution to compositionality in high-throughput microbiome analyses. The advantages and potential challenges of the method are also discussed.
  • Unemo, Magnus; Hansen, Marit; Hadad, Ronza; Puolakkainen, Mirja; Westh, Henrik; Rantakokko-Jalava, Kaisu; Thilesen, Carina; Cole, Michelle J.; Boiko, Iryna; Lan, Pham T.; Golparian, Daniel; Ito, Shin; Sundqvist, Martin (2020)
    Background Four new variants ofChlamydia trachomatis(nvCTs), detected in several countries, cause false-negative or equivocal results using the Aptima Combo 2 assay (AC2; Hologic). We evaluated the clinical sensitivity and specificity, as well as the analytical inclusivity and exclusivity of the updated AC2 for the detection of CT andNeisseria gonorrhoeae(NG) on the automated Panther system (Hologic). Methods We examined 1004 clinical AC2 samples and 225 analytical samples spiked with phenotypically and/or genetically diverse NG and CT strains, and other potentially cross-reacting microbial species. The clinical AC2 samples included CT wild type (WT)-positive (n = 488), all four described AC2 diagnostic-escape nvCTs (n = 170), NG-positive (n = 214), and CT/NG-negative (n = 202) specimens. Results All nvCT-positive samples (100%) and 486 (99.6%) of the CT WT-positive samples were positive in the updated AC2. All NG-positive, CT/NG-negative,Trichomonas vaginalis(TV)-positive, bacterial vaginosis-positive, andCandida-positive AC2 specimens gave correct results. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the updated AC2 for CT detection was 99.7 and 100%, respectively, and for NG detection was 100% for both. Examining spiked samples, the analytical inclusivity and exclusivity were 100%, i.e., in clinically relevant concentrations of spiked microbe. Conclusions The updated AC2, including two CT targets and one NG target, showed a high sensitivity, specificity, inclusivity and exclusivity for the detection of CT WT, nvCTs, and NG. The updated AC2 on the fully automated Panther system offers a simple, rapid, high-throughput, sensitive, and specific diagnosis of CT and NG, which can easily be combined with detection ofMycoplasma genitaliumand TV.
  • Puhakka, Laura; Pati, Sunil; Lappalainen, Maija; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Niemensivu, Riina; Lindahl, Päivi; Nieminen, Tea; Seuri, Raija; Nupponen, Irmeli; Boppana, Suresh; Saxen, Harri (2020)
    Background Children with congenital CMV infection (cCMV) shed virus in urine and saliva for prolonged periods of time. Outcome of cCMV varies from asymptomatic infection with no sequelae in most cases, to severe longterm morbidity. The factors associated with asymptomatic cCMV are not well defined. We evaluated the viral shedding in a cohort of infants with cCMV identified on newborn screening. In addition, we describe the distribution of viral genotypes in our cohort of asymptomatic infants and previous cohorts of cCMV children in the literature. Methods Study population consisted of 40 children with cCMV identified in screening of 19,868 infants, a prevalence of 2/1000. The viral shedding was evaluated at 3 and 18 months of age by real-time CMV-PCR of saliva and plasma, and CMV culture of urine. CMV positive saliva samples were analyzed for genotypes for CMV envelope glycoproteins gB (UL55), and gH (UL75) by genotype specific real-time PCR, and gN (UL73) by cloning and sequencing Results At 3 months age 40/40 saliva and urine samples, and 19/40 plasma samples were positive for CMV. At 18 months age all urine samples tested (33/33), 9/37 of saliva samples, and 2/34 plasma samples were positive for CMV. The genotype distribution did not differ from the published data Conclusions The urinary virus shedding is more persistent than salivary shedding in children with cCMV. The genotype distribution was similar to previous literature and does not explain the low disease burden of cCMV in our population.