Browsing by Subject "LOGIC"

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  • Tarkiainen, Laura (2020)
    This article provides a rhetorical discourse analysis of constructions of unemployed people’s deservingness. Data consist of transcripts from Finnish parliament members debating the ‘Activation Model for Unemployment Security’, from December 2017. In the analysis, three discursive constructions of unemployed people’s deservingness were identified: an ‘effortful citizen lacking control’, a ‘needy citizen deserving the welfare state’s reciprocal acts’ and an ‘undeserving freeloader in need of an attitude adjustment’. Analysis focuses on how deservingness and undeservingness are rhetorically accomplished and treated as factual in parliament members’ accounts. The analysis pays particular attention to the question of how speakers build factuality through the management of categories, extreme case formulations, ‘truth talk’ and maximisation and minimisation strategies. The results reflect the negotiated nature of deservingness as well as varying constructions of unemployed people’s responsibility in the contemporary Nordic welfare state context.
  • Durand, Arnaud; Hannula, Miika; Kontinen, Juha; Meier, Arne; Virtema, Jonni (2018)
    We define a variant of team semantics called multiteam semantics based on multisets and study the properties of various logics in this framework. In particular, we define natural probabilistic versions of inclusion and independence atoms and certain approximation operators motivated by approximate dependence atoms of Vaananen.
  • Berardo, Cecilia; Geritz, Stefanus (2021)
    The war of attrition in game theory is a model of a stand-off situation between two opponents where the winner is determined by its persistence. We model a stand-off between a predator and a prey when the prey is hiding and the predator is waiting for the prey to come out from its refuge, or when the two are locked in a situation of mutual threat of injury or even death. The stand-off is resolved when the predator gives up or when the prey tries to escape. Instead of using the asymmetric war of attrition, we embed the stand-off as an integral part of the predator-prey model of Rosenzweig and MacArthur derived from first principles. We apply this model to study the coevolution of the giving-up rates of the prey and the predator, using the adaptive dynamics approach. We find that the long term evolutionary process leads to three qualitatively different scenarios: the predator gives up immediately, while the prey never gives up; the predator never gives up, while the prey adopts any giving-up rate greater than or equal to a given positive threshold value; the predator goes extinct. We observe that some results are the same as for the asymmetric war of attrition, but others are quite different. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Yli-Jyrä, Anssi Mikael (The Association for Computational Linguistics, 2011)
    This paper describes a non-conventional method for compiling (phonological or morpho-syntactic) context restriction (CR) constraints into non-deterministic automata in finite-state tools and surface parsing systems. The method reduces any CR into a simple one that constraints the occurrences of the empty string and represents right contexts with co-determististic states. In cases where a fully deterministic representation would be exponentially larger, this kind of inward de- terminism in contexts can bring benefits over various De Morgan approaches where full determinization is necessary. In the method, an accepted word gets a unique path that is a projection of a ladder-shaped structure in the context recognizer. This projection is computed in time that is polynomial to the number of context states. However, it may be difficult to take advantage of the method in a finite-state library that coerces intermediate results into canonical automata and whose intersection operation assumes deterministic automata.
  • Barbero, Fausto (2017)
    In the literature on logics of imperfect information it is often stated, incorrectly, that the Game-Theoretical Semantics of Independence-Friendly (IF) quantifiers captures the idea that the players of semantical games are forced to make some moves without knowledge of the moves of other players. We survey here the alternative semantics for IF logic that have been suggested in order to enforce this "epistemic reading" of sentences. We introduce some new proposals, and a more general logical language which distinguishes between "independence from actions" and "independence from strategies". New semantics for IF logic can be obtained by choosing embeddings of the set of IF sentences into this larger language. We compare all the semantics proposed and their purported game-theoretical justifications, and disprove a few claims that have been made in the literature.
  • Kieronski, Emanuel; Kuusisto, Antti (2022)
    One-dimensional fragment of first-order logic is obtained by restricting quantification to blocks of existential (universal) quantifiers that leave at most one variable free. We investigate this fragment over words and trees, presenting a complete classification of the complexity of its satisfiability problem for various navigational signatures and comparing its expressive power with other important formalisms. These include the two-variable fragment with counting and the unary negation fragment.
  • Barbero, Fausto; Sandu, Gabriel (2021)
    Team semantics is a highly general framework for logics which describe dependencies and independencies among variables. Typically, the (in)dependencies considered in this context are properties of sets of configurations or data records. We show how team semantics can be further generalized to support languages for the discussion of interventionist counterfactuals and causal dependencies, such as those that arise in manipulationist theories of causation (Pearl, Hitchcock, Woodward, among others). We show that the “causal teams” we introduce in the present paper can be used for modelling some classical counterfactual scenarios which are not captured by the usual causal models. We then analyse the basic properties of our counterfactual languages and discuss extensively the differences with respect to the Lewisian tradition.