Browsing by Subject "LONELINESS"

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  • Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Upadyaya, Katja; Vinni-Laakso, Janica; Hietajärvi, Lauri (2021)
    This longitudinal study examined school engagement and burnout profiles among early and middle adolescents before and during COVID-19, and within-class latent change and stability in students' socio-emotional skills the profiles. The longitudinal data were collected in fall 2019 and 2020 from 1381 5th to 6th, and 1374 7th to 8th grade students. Using repeated measures latent profile analyses based on school engagement and burnout we identified five study well-being change profiles in both samples showing structural similarity: normative (53% sample 1; 69% sample 2), moderate-decreasing (4%; 5%), high-decreasing (17%; 10%), low-increasing (6%;7%) and moderate-increasing (20%; 10%) groups. The groups with increasing study well-being showed simultaneous increase in intrapersonal socio-emotional competencies but showed less changes in interpersonal outcomes.
  • Lindroos, Eeva K.; Saarela, Riitta K.; Suominen, Merja H.; Muurinen, Seija; Soini, Helena; Kautiainen, Hannu; Pitkälä, Kaisu H. (2019)
    Objectives: To explore how oral problems, chewing problems, dry mouth, and swallowing difficulties cluster and whether their burden is associated with nutritional status, eating habits, gastrointestinal symptoms, psychological well-being, and mortality among institutionalized residents. Design: Cross-sectional study with 1-year mortality. Setting and participants: 3123 residents living in assisted facilities and nursing homes in Helsinki, Finland. Measures: Trained nurses assessed residents in all nursing homes and assisted living facilities in Helsinki in 2011. A personal interview, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), oral symptoms, questions about eating habits, and psychological well-being were used to assess each resident. We divided the subjects first according to the number of oral symptoms into 4 groups: no oral symptoms (G0), 1 oral symptom (G1), 2 oral symptoms (G2), and all 3 symptoms (G3); and second according to the symptoms: dry mouth, chewing problems, and swallowing difficulties. The diagnoses and medications were retrieved from medical records, and mortality data were obtained from central registers. Results: In all, 26% of the subjects had 1 oral problem (G1), 11% had 2 oral problems (G2), and 4% had all 3 oral problems (G3), whereas 60% (n = 1870) had no oral symptoms. Thus, the oral symptoms moderately overlapped. The burden of oral symptoms was linearly associated with malnutrition, higher numbers of comorbidities, dependency in physical functioning, gastrointestinal symptoms, and eating less and more often alone. The higher the burden of oral symptoms, the lower the self-rated health and psychological well-being. Mortality increased along with the higher oral symptoms burden. Among residents having 1 or more symptoms, 26% had chewing problems, 18% swallowing difficulties, and 15% dry mouth. Conclusions/Implications: The burden of oral health problems was associated in a stepwise fashion with poor health and psychological well-being, malnutrition, and mortality. Clinicians should routinely assess older institutionalized residents' oral health status to improve residents' well-being. (C) 2018 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.
  • Karppinen, Helena; Pitkala, Kaisu H.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Tilvis, Reijo S.; Valvanne, Jaakko; Yoder, Kathe; Strandberg, Timo E. (2017)
    Objective: To explore changes in self-reported disabilities, health, comorbidities and psychological wellbeing (PWB) in aged cohorts over two decades. Design, setting and subjects: Cross-sectional cohort studies with postal surveys were conducted among community-dwelling people aged 75, 80, 85, 90 and 95 years in 1989 (n = 660), 1999 (n = 2598) and 2009 (n = 1637) in Helsinki, Finland. Main outcome measures: Self-reported items on disability, self-rated health (SRH), diagnoses and PWB were compared between cohorts of the same age. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for each study year to explore the representativeness of the samples compared to general population of same age. Results: A significantly lower proportion of the 75-85-year-olds of the later study years reported going outdoors daily, although this group had improvements in both SRH and PWB scores. The number of comorbidities increased over time among 75-85-year-olds. The only significant change that could be verified among 90- and 95-year-olds between 1999 and 2009, was the lower proportion of participants going outdoors daily. The trend of leveling-off in disabilities was not explained by the SMRs (0.90, 0.71 and 0.60 for 1989, 1999 and 2009). Conclusions: The latest older people's cohorts showed an end to previously reported improvements in disabilities, despite having favorable trends in SRH and PWB. Primary care may be faced with increasing need of appropriate services for their senior members.
  • Kouvonen, Anne; Kemppainen, Laura; Ketonen, Eeva-Leena; Kemppainen, Teemu; Olakivi, Antero; Wrede, Sirpa (2021)
    Background: Previous studies have found that in general, poor health is associated with a lower likelihood of internet use in older adults, but it is not well known how different indicators of health are associated with different types of digital information technology (DIT) use. Moreover, little is known about the relationship between health and the types of DIT use in older ethnic minority and migrant populations. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the associations among depressive symptoms and self-rated health (SRH) with different dimensions of DIT use in older migrants. Methods: We analyzed data from the Care, Health and Ageing of Russian-speaking Minority (CHARM) study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling, Russian-speaking adults aged 50 years or older residing permanently in Finland (men: 616/1082, 56.93%; age: mean 63.2 years, SD 8.4 years; response rate: 1082/3000, 36.07%). Data were collected in 2019 using a postal survey. Health was measured using depressive symptoms (measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and SRH. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between the two health indicators and the following six outcomes: daily internet use, smartphone ownership, the use of the internet for messages and calls, social media use, the use of the internet for personal health data, and obtaining health information from the internet. A number of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors were controlled for in the logistic regression regression analysis. Analyses were performed with weights accounting for the survey design and nonresponse. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 2.68, 95% CI 1.37-5.24; P=.004) and poor SRH (OR 7.90, 95% CI 1.88-33.11; P=.005) were associated with a higher likelihood of not using the internet daily. Depressive symptoms (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.06-3.35; P=.03) and poor SRH (OR 5.05, 95% CI 1.58-16.19; P=.006) also increased the likelihood of smartphone nonuse. Depressive symptoms were additionally associated with a lower likelihood of social media use, and poor SRH was associated with a lower likelihood of using the internet for messaging and calling. Conclusions: Poor SRH and depressive symptoms are associated with a lower likelihood of DIT use in older adults. Longitudinal studies are required to determine the directions of these relationships.
  • Grau-Sanchez, Jennifer; Foley, Meabh; Hlavova, Renata; Muukkonen, Ilkka; Ojinaga-Alfageme, Olatz; Radukic, Andrijana; Spindler, Melanie; Hundevad, Bodil (2017)
    Music is a powerful, pleasurable stimulus that can induce positive feelings and can therefore be used for emotional self-regulation. Musical activities such as listening to music, playing an instrument, singing or dancing are also an important source for social contact, promoting interaction and the sense of belonging with others. Recent evidence has suggested that after retirement, other functions of music, such as self-conceptual processing related to autobiographical memories, become more salient. However, few studies have addressed the meaningfulness of music in the elderly. This study aims to investigate elderly people's habits and preferences related to music, study the role music plays in their everyday life, and explore the relationship between musical activities and emotional well-being across different countries of Europe. A survey will be administered to elderly people over the age of 65 from five different European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Czechia, Germany, Ireland, and UK) and to a control group. Participants in both groups will be asked about basic sociodemographic information, habits and preferences in their participation in musical activities and emotional well-being. Overall, the aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the role of music in the elderly from a psychological perspective. This advanced knowledge could help to develop therapeutic applications, such as musical recreational programs for healthy older people or elderly in residential care, which are better able to meet their emotional and social needs.
  • Liira, Helena; Mavaddat, Nahal; Eineluoto, Maija; Kautiainen, Hannu; Strandberg, Timo; Suominen, Merja; Laakkonen, Marja-Liisa; Eloniemi-Sulkava, Ulla; Sintonen, Harri; Pitkälä, Kaisu (2018)
    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is associated with survival in older people with multimorbidities and disabilities. However, older people differ in their characteristics, and less is known about whether HRQoL predicts survival in heterogeneous older population samples differing in their functional, cognitive, psychological or social disabilities. The aim of this study was to explore HRQoL in heterogeneous samples of older men and women, and to explore its prognostic significance for mortality. Methods We analysed combined individual patient data from eight heterogeneous study samples all of which were assessed with the same methods. We used 15D, a generic, comprehensive instrument for measuring HRQoL, which provides a single index in addition to a profile. Two-year mortality was retrieved from central registers. Results Health-related quality of life measurements with 15D were available for 3153 older adults. The mean HRQoL was highest among older businessmen (0.878) and lowest among nursing home residents (0.601). 15D predicted independently and significantly the 2-year survival in the total sample [hazard ratio (HR)/SD 0.44, 95% CI 0.40-0.48)]. However, 15D did not predict mortality in samples of spousal caregivers, lonely older adults and cardiovascular patients. Conclusions 15D captures health and disability factors associated with prognosis whereas in older populations suffering from psychological and social impairments such as caregiver burden or loneliness HRQoL may not reflect their health risks.
  • Cresswell-Smith, Johanna; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Kalseth, Jorid (2022)
    Background: Mental wellbeing is formed by our daily environments, which are, in turn, influenced by public policies, such as the welfare state. This paper looks at how different aspects of life conditions may mediate the welfare state effect on mental wellbeing in oldest old age. Methods: Data were extracted from Round 6 of the European Social Survey (2012). The dataset comprised of 2058 people aged 80 years and older from 24 countries. Mediation analyses determined possible links between the welfare state, including eleven intervening variables representing life conditions and five mental wellbeing dimensions. Results: Our study confirms that the higher the level of welfare state, the better mental wellbeing, irrespective of dimension. Although several life conditions were found to mediate the welfare state effect on mental wellbeing, subjective general health, coping with income and place in society were the most important intervening variables. Conclusions: All three variables centre around supporting autonomy in the oldest old age. By teasing out how the welfare state influences mental wellbeing in the oldest old, we can better understand the many drivers of wellbeing and enable evidence informed age-friendly policy making.
  • Lahti, Anna-Maria; Mikkola, Tuija M.; Salonen, Minna; Wasenius, Niko; Sarvimäki, Anneli; Eriksson, Johan G.; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B. (2021)
    Senior houses provide social interaction and support, potentially supporting older people's physical and mental functioning. Few studies have investigated functioning of senior house residents. The aim was to compare functioning between senior house residents and community-dwelling older adults in Finland. We compared senior house residents (n = 336, 69% women, mean age 83 years) to community-dwelling older adults (n = 1139, 56% women, mean age 74 years). Physical and mental functioning were assessed using the SF 36-Item Health Survey. Loneliness and frequency of social contacts were self-reported. The analyses were adjusted for age, socioeconomic factors and diseases. Physical functioning was lower among men in senior houses compared to community-dwelling men (mean 41.1 vs. 46.4, p = 0.003). Mental functioning or the frequency of social contacts did not differ between type of residence in either sex. Loneliness was higher among women in senior houses compared to community-dwelling women (OR = 1.67, p = 0.027). This was not observed in men. Results suggest that women in senior houses had similar physical and mental functioning compared to community-dwelling women. Male senior house residents had poorer physical functioning compared to community-dwelling men. Women living in senior houses were lonelier than community-dwelling women despite the social environment.
  • Verrastro, Valeria; Ritella, Giuseppe; Saladino, Valeria; Pistella, Jessica; Baiocco, Roberto; Fontanesi, Lilybeth (2020)
    This study examines how family functioning, the parent-child relationship and personal factors are related to happiness in 1549 children aged 7 to 14 years old (53% females) in Italy. Children and pre-adolescents completed a set of questionnaires on self-rated happiness, self-concept and loneliness. At least one of their parents filled in questionnaires on family functioning, attachment and their child's happiness level. No gender differences were found in the direct measure of happiness, but younger participants were happier than older participants, according to both the children's and parents' evaluations. Happiness is influenced by positive self-concept, self-esteem and low levels of satisfaction but family functioning does not seem to play a major role. The clinical and social implications of the study are discussed.
  • Moseholm, Ellen; Aho, Inka; Mellgren, Asa; Pedersen, Gitte; Katzenstein, Terese L.; Johansen, Isik S.; Bach, Diana; Storgaard, Merete; Weis, Nina (2022)
    Background The success of antiretroviral therapy has normalized pregnancy among women living with HIV (WWH) with a very low risk of perinatal transmission of HIV. Despite these advances, WWH still face complex medical and psychosocial issues during pregnancy and postpartum. The aim of this study was to assess differences in psychosocial health outcomes between pregnant WWH, non-pregnant WWH, and pregnant women without HIV, and further identify factors associated with probable depression in the third trimester and postpartum. Methods In a longitudinal survey study, participants were included from sites in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden during 2019-2020. Data was collected in the 3rd trimester, 3 and 6 months postpartum using standardized questionnaires assessing depression, perceived stress, loneliness, and social support. Mixed regression models were used to assess changes over time within and between groups. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with depression in pregnancy and postpartum. Results A total of 47 pregnant WWH, 75 non-pregnant WWH, and 147 pregnant women without HIV were included. The prevalence of depression was high among both pregnant and non-pregnant WWH. There was no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant WWH in depression scores, perceived stress scores, or social support scores at any time point. Compared to pregnant women without HIV, pregnant WWH reported worse outcomes on all psychosocial scales. Social support and loneliness were associated with an increased odds of depressive symptoms in the adjusted analysis. Conclusions A high burden of adverse psychosocial outcomes was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant women living with HIV compared to pregnant women without HIV. Loneliness and inadequate social support were associated with increased odds of depression in pregnancy and should be a focus in future support interventions.
  • Lavonius, Sirkku; Salminen, Marika; Vahlberg, Tero; Isoaho, Raimo; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Wuorela, Maarit; Lopponen, Minna; Viitanen, Matti; Viikari, Laura (2020)
    Purpose Psychosocial resources have been considered to be associated with survival among frail older adults but the evidence is scarce. The aim was to investigate whether psychosocial resources are related to survival among non-robust community-dwelling older people. Methods This is a prospective study with 10- and 18-year follow-ups. Participants were 909 non-robust (according to Rockwood's Frailty Index) older community-dwellers in Finland. Psychosocial resources were measured with living circumstances, education, satisfaction with friendship and life, visiting other people, being visited by other people, having someone to talk to, having someone who helps, self-rated health (SRH) and hopefulness about the future. To assess the association of psychosocial resources for survival, Cox regression analyses was used. Results Visiting other people more often than once a week compared to that of less than once a week (hazard ratio 0.61 [95% confidence interval 0.44-0.85], p = 0.003 in 10-year follow-up; 0.77 [0.62-0.95], p = 0.014 in 18-year follow-up) and good SRH compared to poor SRH (0.65 [0.44-0.97], p = 0.032; 0.68 [0.52-0.90], p = 0.007, respectively) were associated with better survival in both follow-ups. Visiting other people once a week (compared to that of less than once a week) (0.77 [0.62-0.95], p = 0.014) was only associated with better 18-year survival. Conclusions Psychosocial resources, such as regularly visiting other people and good self-rated health, seem to be associated with better survival among non-robust community-dwelling Finnish older people. This underlines the importance of focusing also on psychosocial well-being of frail older subjects to remain or promote their resilience. Key summary pointsAim To investigate whether psychosocial resources are associated with survival among non-robust community-dwelling older Finnish people during an 18-year follow-up. Findings Psychosocial resources, such as good self-rated health and regularly visiting other people, were significantly associated with better survival of non-robust older people. Message It is important to focus also on psychological well-being, together with physical activity and nutrition, of frail older people to remain or promoting their capacity.
  • PIPARI Study Grp; Salomaki, Susanna; Rautava, Päivi; Junttila, Niina; Huhtala, Mira; Leppänen, Marika H.; Nyman, Anna; Koivisto, Mari; Haataja, Leena; Lehtonen, Liisa; Korja, Riikka (2021)
    Aim Prematurity has been shown to affect social competence in children and adults. Our aim was to evaluate profiles of self-reported social behaviours and loneliness in preterm- and term-born adolescents. Methods Preterm ( Results A total of 172 preterm-born and 134 term-born adolescents returned the questionnaires. Most frequently, preterm adolescents reported a profile of average social competence and average levels of loneliness. Preterm-born boys reported a profile of low social functioning less often (preterm-born 36% vs. term-born 54%), and preterm-born girls reported a profile of high social functioning less frequently (preterm-born 26% vs. term-born 37%) than same-sex controls. Sex differences in social functioning profiles were smaller in preterm than term-born adolescents. Conclusion The majority of young adolescents born preterm reported a high or average social functioning profile irrespective of sex. Prematurity seems to level out differences between the sexes.
  • Moseholm, Ellen; Fetters, Micheal D.; Aho, Inka; Mellgren, Åsa; Johansen, Isik S.; Storgaard, Merete; Pedersen, Gitte; Katzenstein, Terese L.; Weis, Nina (2019)
    Introduction The success of combination antiretroviral therapy has decreased the risk of perinatal HIV transmission and normalised pregnancy in women living with HIV (WLWH). Despite these advances, WLWH still face complex medical and psychosocial issues during pregnancy and postpartum, and there is a gap of knowledge on the experiences of becoming and being a mother living with HIV in today's context. The overall aim of this study is to investigate psychosocial outcomes and experiences of WLWH in Scandinavia during pregnancy and early motherhood. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre longitudinal convergent mixed methods study consisting of a quantitative survey study, a qualitative interview study and a mixed methods analysis. The survey study aims to examine psychosocial outcomes of WLWH across the pregnancy - postpartum trajectory. Participants are pregnant WLWH living in Scandinavia. Two control groups of HIV-negative pregnant women and non-pregnant WLWH are also included. Data is collected in the third trimester, 3 and 6 months postpartum using standardised questionnaires. Statistical analysis will assess changes over time and identify predictors of adverse outcomes. The interview study seeks to understand experiences of pregnancy and becoming a mother while living with HIV. Pregnant WLWH who are enrolled in the survey study will be asked to participate in individual interviews in the third trimester and 6 months postpartum. Data will be analysed using narrative analysis. The survey and interview results will be merged in a mixed methods analysis to assess confirmation, expansion or discordance between the data sets. Ethics and dissemination Approval from the Danish Data Protection Agency (VD-2018-253), and the Finnish and Swedish Ethics Committees have been obtained (HUS/1330/2019 and Dnr: 2019-04451, respectively). Study results will be disseminated to patient organisations, through publications in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific conferences.
  • Laakasuo, Michael; Rotkirch, Anna; Berg, Venla; Jokela, Markus (2017)
    Studies on personality and friendship have focused on similarities between friends, while differences in friendship patterns have received less attention. We used data from the British Household Panel Survey data (N = 12,098) to investigate how people's personalities are related to various characteristics of their three closest friends. All personality traits of the five-factor model were associated with several friendship characteristics with effect sizes corresponding to correlations between .06 and .09. Openness was especially prominent and idiosyncratic; individuals with high (vs. low) openness were about 3% more likely to have friends who live further away, are of the opposite sex and another ethnicity, and whom they meet less often. Agreeableness and extroversion were related to more traditional friendship ties. Individuals with high agreeableness had known their friends for a longer time, lived close to them, and had more "stay-at-homes" among their friends.
  • Vuorinen, Ilkka; Oksanen, Atte; Savolainen, Iina; Sirola, Anu; Kaakinen, Markus; Paek, Hye-Jin; Zych, Izabela (2021)
    Background and aims: Loneliness and a low sense of mastery are associated with excessive gambling, but the underlying processes of these relationships remain unstudied. Because psychological distress can increase vulnerability to excessive gambling, we investigated its mediating role in these relationships among young people. To meet the need for cross-country research, we also observed how these relationships occur in four countries with different cultures. Design, setting, and participants: Demographically balanced cross-sectional survey data were collected from 15-25-year-olds in Finland (n = 1200; 50% male), the United States (n = 1212; 49.8% male), South Korea (n = 1192; 49.6% male), and Spain (n = 1212; 51.2% male). Measurements: Excessive gambling was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen, psychological distress was assessed with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, loneliness was measured with the three-item Loneliness Scale, and low sense of mastery was assessed with the Pearlin Mastery Scale. Associations were examined first using zero-inflated negative binomial regression analyses with excessive gambling as the outcome. In addition, path analyses were performed to study how loneliness and low sense of mastery relate to excessive gambling, with psychological distress as the mediating variable. Findings: Loneliness and low sense of mastery were associated indirectly with excessive gambling via psychological distress in all country samples. Low sense of mastery was also directly associated with excessive gambling. There was a direct association between loneliness and excessive gambling only in samples from South Korea and Spain. Conclusions: Psychological distress is an important factor in understanding how loneliness and sense of mastery relate to gambling.
  • Lamppu, Pauli J.; Laakkonen, Marja-Liisa; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Kautiainen, Hannu; Laurila, Jouko V.; Pitkälä, Kaisu H. (2021)
    Context. Long-term care facility (LTCF) residents have unmet needs in end-of-life and symptom care. Objectives. This study examines the effects of an end-of-life care staff training intervention on LTCF residents' pain, symptoms, and psychological well-being and their proxies' satisfaction with care. Methods. We report findings from a single-blind, cluster randomized controlled trial featuring 324 residents with end-of-life care needs in 20 LTCF wards in Helsinki. The training intervention included four 4-hour educational workshops on palliative care principles (advance care planning, adverse effects of hospitalizations, symptom management, communication, supporting proxies, challenging situations). Training was provided to all members of staff in small groups. Education was based on constructive learning methods and included participants' own resident cases, role-plays, and small-group discussions. During a 12-month follow-up we assessed residents' symptoms with the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS), pain with the PAINAD instrument and psychological well-being using a PWB questionnaire. Proxies' satisfaction with care was assessed using the SWC-EOLD. Results. The change in ESAS symptom scores from baseline to 6 months favored the intervention group compared with the control group. However, the finding was diluted at 12 months. PAINAD, PWB, and SWC-EOLD scores remained unaffected by the intervention. All follow-up analyses were adjusted for age, gender, do-not-resuscitate order, need for help, and clustering. Conclusion. Our rigorous randomized controlled trial on palliative care training intervention demonstrated mild effects on residents' symptoms and no robust effects on psychological well-being or on proxies' satisfaction with care. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine.
  • Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Sumia, Maria; Tyolajarvi, Marja; Lindberg, Nina (2015)
    Background: Increasing numbers of adolescents present in adolescent gender identity services, desiring sex reassignment (SR). The aim of this study is to describe the adolescent applicants for legal and medical sex reassignment during the first two years of adolescent gender identity team in Finland, in terms of sociodemographic, psychiatric and gender identity related factors and adolescent development. Methods: Structured quantitative retrospective chart review and qualitative analysis of case files of all adolescent SR applicants who entered the assessment by the end of 2013. Results: The number of referrals exceeded expectations in light of epidemiological knowledge. Natal girls were markedly overrepresented among applicants. Severe psychopathology preceding onset of gender dysphoria was common. Autism spectrum problems were very common. Conclusion: The findings do not fit the commonly accepted image of a gender dysphoric minor. Treatment guidelines need to consider gender dysphoria in minors in the context of severe psychopathology and developmental difficulties.