Browsing by Subject "LONG-TERM SURVIVAL"

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  • Brainstorm Consortium; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Finucane, Hilary K.; Walters, Raymond K.; Bras, Jose; Duncan, Laramie; Escott-Price, Valentina; Falcone, Guido J.; Gormley, Padhraig; Malik, Rainer; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Ripke, Stephan; Wei, Zhi; Yu, Dongmei; Lee, Phil H.; Turley, Patrick; Grenier-Boley, Benjamin; Chouraki, Vincent; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Berr, Claudine; Letenneur, Luc; Hannequin, Didier; Amouyel, Philippe; Boland, Anne; Deleuze, Jean-Francois; Duron, Emmanuelle; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Reitz, Christiane; Goate, Alison M.; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Larson, Eric B.; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Hakonarson, Hakon; Kukull, Walter A.; Palta, Priit; Wedenoja, Juho; Artto, Ville; Kaunisto, Mari; Vepsäläinen, Salli; Kurki, Mitja I.; Hämäläinen, Eija; Kaprio, Jaakko; Metspalu, Andres; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Raevuori, Anu; Ripatti, Samuli; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Daly, Mark; Palotie, Aarno; Neale, Benjamin M. (2018)
    Disorders of the brain can exhibit considerable epidemiological comorbidity and often share symptoms, provoking debate about their etiologic overlap. We quantified the genetic sharing of 25 brain disorders from genome-wide association studies of 265,218 patients and 784,643 control participants and assessed their relationship to 17 phenotypes from 1,191,588 individuals. Psychiatric disorders share common variant risk, whereas neurological disorders appear more distinct from one another and from the psychiatric disorders. We also identified significant sharing between disorders and a number of brain phenotypes, including cognitive measures. Further, we conducted simulations to explore how statistical power, diagnostic misclassification, and phenotypic heterogeneity affect genetic correlations. These results highlight the importance of common genetic variation as a risk factor for brain disorders and the value of heritability-based methods in understanding their etiology.
  • Wiersema, Renske; Eck, Ruben J.; Haapio, Mikko; Koeze, Jacqueline; Poukkanen, Meri; Keus, Frederik; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Pettilä, Ville; Vaara, Suvi T. (2019)
    Background Mortality rates associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) vary among critically ill patients. Outcomes are often not corrected for severity or duration of AKI. Our objective was to analyse whether a new variable, AKI burden, would outperform 1) presence of AKI, 2) highest AKI stage, or 3) AKI duration in predicting 90-day mortality. Methods Kidney Diseases: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria using creatinine, urine output and renal replacement therapy were used to diagnose AKI. AKI burden was defined as AKI stage multiplied with the number of days that each stage was present (maximum five), divided by the maximum possible score yielding a proportion. The AKI burden as a predictor of 90-day mortality was assessed in two independent cohorts (Finnish Acute Kidney Injury, FINNAKI and Simple Intensive Care Studies I, SICS-I) by comparing four multivariate logistic regression models that respectively incorporated either the presence of AKI, the highest AKI stage, the duration of AKI, or the AKI burden. Results In the FINNAKI cohort 1096 of 2809 patients (39%) had AKI and 90-day mortality of the cohort was 23%. Median AKI burden was 0.17 (IQR 0.07-0.50), 1.0 being the maximum. The model including AKI burden (area under the receiver operator curve (AUROC) 0.78, 0.76-0.80) outperformed the models using AKI presence (AUROC 0.77, 0.75-0.79, p = 0.026) or AKI severity (AUROC 0.77, 0.75-0.79, p = 0.012), but not AKI duration (AUROC 0.77, 0.75-0.79, p = 0.06). In the SICS-I, 603 of 1075 patients (56%) had AKI and 90-day mortality was 28%. Median AKI burden was 0.19 (IQR 0.08-0.46). The model using AKI burden performed better (AUROC 0.77, 0.74-0.80) than the models using AKI presence (AUROC 0.75, 0.71-0.78, p = 0.001), AKI severity (AUROC 0.76, 0.72-0.79. p = 0.008) or AKI duration (AUROC 0.76, 0.73-0.79, p = 0.009). Conclusion AKI burden, which appreciates both severity and duration of AKI, was superior to using only presence or the highest stage of AKI in predicting 90-day mortality. Using AKI burden or other more granular methods may be helpful in future epidemiological studies of AKI.
  • Paajanen, Juuso; Laaksonen, Sanna; Ilonen, Ilkka; Vehmas, Tapio; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Sutinen, Eva; Kettunen, Eeva; Salo, Jarmo A.; Räsänen, Jari; Wolff, Henrik; Myllärniemi, Marjukka (2020)
    Within a larger national malignant pleural mesothelioma cohort, we identified 43 patients with unusually long survival times. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy in this subgroup, and the diagnosis was confirmed to be correct in most cases. In addition, we searched for clinical factors related to the prolonged survival time. Introduction: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a fatal malignancy strongly associated with previous asbestos exposure. Overall survival remains dismal, partly owing to poor response to available treatment. The aims of this study were to evaluate diagnostic accuracy in a group of patients with MPM with an unusually long survival time and to assess the factors related to this prolonged survival. Materials and Methods: Forty-three patients with overall survival exceeding 5 years were accepted to the long-term survivor (LTS) group, and these patients were compared with 84 patients with epithelial MPM. Data were collected from various national registries and electronic medical records. In addition, all available histopathologic diagnostic samples and computed tomography studies were re-evaluated by experienced specialists. Results: Our study showed a good diagnostic accuracy, with only 1 (0.5%) patient having an incorrect MPM diagnosis. Two (0.9%) localized malignant mesotheliomas and 2 (0.9%) well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas were also found. LTS patients were younger, more frequently female, had a better performance status at time of diagnosis, and had less evidence of prior asbestos exposure. In multivariate analysis, we showed tumor size, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and first-line treatment (both surgery and chemotherapy) to be associated with survival time. Conclusion: We confirmed the diagnosis of MPM in an overwhelming majority of patients in the LTS group. An epithelial subtype of MPM behaving clinically more indolently seems to exist, but further tumor and genetic characterization is needed. The prolonged survival time is most likely explained by a combination of tumor-, patient-, and treatment-related factors. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Åberg, Fredrik (2016)
    Return to active and productive life is a key goal of modern liver transplantation (LT). Despite marked improvements in quality of life and functional status, a substantial proportion of LT recipients are unable to resume gainful employment. Unemployment forms a threat to physical and psychosocial health, and impairs LT cost-utility through lost productivity. In studies published after year 2000, the average post-LT employment rate is 37%, ranging from 22% to 55% by study. Significant heterogeneity exists among studies. Nonetheless, these employment rates are lower than in the general population and kidney-transplant population. Most consistent employment predictors include pre-LT employment status, male gender, functional/health status, and subjective work ability. Work ability is impaired by physical fatigue and depression, but affected also by working conditions and society. Promotion of post-LT employment is hampered by a lack of interventional studies. Prevention of pre-LT disability by effective treatment of (minimal) hepatic encephalopathy, maintaining mobility, and planning work adjustments early in the course of chronic liver disease, as well as timely post-LT physical rehabilitation, continuous encouragement, self-efficacy improvements, and depression management are key elements of successful employment-promoting strategies. Prolonging LT recipients' working life would further strengthen the success of transplantation, and this is likely best achieved through multidisciplinary efforts ideally starting even before LT candidacy.
  • Efendijev, Ilmar; Folger, Daniel; Raj, Rahul; Reinikainen, Matti; Pekkarinen, Pirkka T.; Litonius, Erik; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2018)
    Background: Despite the significant socioeconomic burden associated with cardiac arrest (CA), data on CA patients' long-term outcome and healthcare-associated costs are limited. The aim of this study was to determine one-year survival, neurological outcome and healthcare-associated costs for ICU-treated CA patients. Methods: This is a single-centre retrospective study on adult CA patients treated in Finnish tertiary hospital's ICUs between 2005 and 2013. Patients' personal identification number was used to crosslink data between several nationwide databases in order to obtain data on one-year survival, neurological outcome, and healthcare-associated costs. Healthcare-associated costs were calculated for every patient stratified by cardiac arrest location (OHCA = out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, IHCA = all in-hospital cardiac arrest, ICU-CA = in-ICU cardiac arrest) and initial cardiac rhythm. Cost-effectiveness was estimated by dividing total healthcare-associated costs for all patients from the respective group by the number of survivors and survivors with favourable neurological outcome. Results: The study population included 1,024 ICU-treated CA patients. The sum of costs for all patients was (sic)50,847,540. At one-year after CA, 58% of OHCAs, 44% of IHCAs, and 39% of ICU-CAs were alive. Of one-year survivors 97% of OHCAs, 88% of IHCAs, and 93% of ICU-CAs had favourable neurological outcome. Effective cost per one-year survivor was (sic)76,212 for OHCAs, (sic)144,168 for IHCAs, and (sic)239,468 for ICU-CAs. Effective cost per one-year survivor with favourable neurological outcome was (sic)81,196 for OHCAs, (sic)164,442 for IHCAs, and _(sic)257,207 for ICU-CAs. Conclusions: In-ICU CA patients had the lowest one-year survival with the effective cost per survivor three times higher than for OHCAs.
  • Adam, Rene; Yi, Bin; Innominato, Pasquale F.; Barroso, Eduardo; Laurent, Christophe; Giuliante, Felice; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Lapointe, Real; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Lopez-Ben, Santiago; Isoniemi, Helena; Hubert, Catherine; Lin, Jen-Kou; Gruenberger, Thomas; Elias, Dominique; Skipenko, Oleg G.; Guglielmi, Alfredo; LiverMetSurvey Int Contributing (2017)
    Purpose: Patient outcome after resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) following second-line preoperative chemotherapy (PCT) performed for insufficient response or toxicity of the first-line, is little known and has here been compared to the outcome following first-line. Patients and methods: From January 2005 to June 2013, 5624 and 791 consecutive patients of a prospective international cohort received 1 and 2 PCT lines before CLM resection (group 1 and 2, respectively). Survival and prognostic factors were analysed. Results: After a mean follow-up of 30.1 months, there was no difference in survival from CLM diagnosis (median, 3-, and 5-year overall survival [OS]: 58.6 months, 76% and 49% in group 2 versus 58.9 months, 71% and 49% in group 1, respectively, P = 0.32). After hepatectomy, disease-free survival (DFS) was however shorter in group 2: 17.2 months, 27% and 15% versus 19.4 months, 32% and 23%, respectively (P = 0.001). Among the initially unresectable patients of group 1 and 2, no statistical difference in OS or DFS was observed. Independent predictors of worse OS in group 2 were positive primary lymph nodes, extrahepatic disease, tumour progression on second line, R2 resection and number of hepatectomies/year Conclusion: CLM resection following second-line PCT, after oncosurgically favourable selection, could bring similar OS compared to what observed after first-line. For initially unresectable patients, OS or DFS is comparable between first-and second-line PCT. Surgery should not be denied after the failure of first-line chemotherapy. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Galleberg, R. B.; Knigge, U.; Janson, E. Tiensuu; Vestermark, L. W.; Haugvik, S. -P.; Ladekarl, M.; Langer, S. W.; Gronbaek, H.; Osterlund, P.; Hjortland, G. O.; Assmus, J.; Tang, L.; Perren, A.; Sorbye, H. (2017)
    Background: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (GEP-NEC) are generally characterized by synchronous metastases, high aggressiveness and a dismal prognosis. Current international guidelines do not recommend surgical treatment of liver metastases, however the existing data are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of curatively intended resection/radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver metastases in patients with metastatic GEP-NEC. Methods: 32 patients with a diagnosis of high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (Ki-67 > 20%) and with intended curative resection/RFA of liver metastases, were identified among 840 patients from two Nordic GEP-NEC registries. Tumor morphology (well vs poor differentiation) was reassessed. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was assessed by Kaplan Meier analyses for the entire cohort and for subgroups. Results: Median OS after resection/RFA of liver metastases was 35.9 months (95% -CI: 20.6-51.3) with a five-year OS of 43%. The median PFS was 8.4 months (95% -CI: 3.9-13). Four patients (13%) were disease -free after 5 years. Two patients had well -differentiated morphology (NET G3) and 20 patients (63%) had Ki-67 >= 55%. A Ki-67 <55% and receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were statistically significant factors of improved OS after liver resection/RFA. Conclusion: This study shows a long median and long term survival after liver surgery/RFA for these selected metastatic GEP-NEC patients, particularly for the group with a Ki-67 in the relatively lower G3 range. Our findings indicate a possible role for surgical treatment of liver metastases in the management of this patient population. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO - The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.
  • Tulokas, Sanni; Mäenpää, Hanna; Peltola, Erno; Kivela, Tero; Vihinen, Pia; Virta, Aku; Mäkelä, Siru; Kallio, Raija; Hernberg, Micaela (2018)
    Background: In Finland, selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is at present the preferred first-line loco-regional therapy for uveal melanoma patients with hepatic metastases not suitable for surgery. We retrospectively evaluate the outcome and safety of SIRT in this group of patients.Material and methods: Yttrium-90 microspheres were delivered via the hepatic artery into the circulation of metastases from uveal melanoma in 18 patients with a predicted life expectancy of more than three months in three Finnish tertiary referral centers between November 2010 and December 2015. Progression-free survival (PFS), toxicity and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Patients with historical uveal melanoma without extrahepatic metastases, who had received systemic chemotherapy as first-line treatment for their hepatic metastases at the Helsinki University Hospital between January 2006 and May 2010, were used as a historical control group.Results: Partial response and stable disease were observed in three (17%) and eight (44%) patients, respectively; one patient was not evaluable for response. Median PFS after SIRT was 5.6 (range, 1.3-40.8) months. Median OS after SIRT was 13.5 (range, 3.6-44.8) months compared with 10.5 (range, 3.0-16.5; p=.047) months for the historical chemotherapy group. Among patients who received SIRT as first-line treatment, the median OS was 18.7 (range, 8.2-44.8) months, significantly longer than that of the chemotherapy group (10.5 months, p=.017). There were no treatment-related deaths. Toxicity was mainly WHO grade 1-2 and self-limited.Conclusion: SIRT is a feasible and safe treatment for liver metastases in patients with uveal melanoma.