Browsing by Subject "LONG-TERM"

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  • Farmakis, Dimitrios; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Baholli, Loant; Bautin, Andrei; Comin-Colet, Josep; Crespo-Leiro, Maria G.; Fedele, Francesco; García-Pinilla, Jose Manuel; Giannakoulas, George; Grigioni, Francesco; Gruchała, Marcin; Gustafsson, Finn; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Hasin, Tal; Herpain, Antoine; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K.; Karason, Kristjan; Kivikko, Matti; Liaudet, Lucas; Ljubas-Maček, Jana; Marini, Marco; Masip, Josep; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Nikolaou, Maria; Ostadal, Petr; Põder, Pentti; Pollesello, Piero; Polyzogopoulou, Eftihia; Pölzl, Gerhard; Tschope, Carsten; Varpula, Marjut; von Lewinski, Dirk; Vrtovec, Bojan; Yilmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Zima, Endre; Parissis, John (2019)
    Inotropes aim at increasing cardiac output by enhancing cardiac contractility. They constitute the third pharmacological pillar in the treatment of patients with decompensated heart failure, the other two being diuretics and vasodilators. Three classes of parenterally administered inotropes are currently indicated for decompensated heart failure, (i) the beta adrenergic agonists, including dopamine and dobutamine and also the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, (ii) the phosphodiesterase III inhibitor milrinone and (iii) the calcium sensitizer levosimendan. These three families of drugs share some pharmacologic traits, but differ profoundly in many of their pleiotropic effects. Identifying the patients in need of inotropic support and selecting the proper inotrope in each case remain challenging. The present consensus, derived by a panel meeting of experts from 21 countries, aims at addressing this very issue in the setting of both acute and advanced heart failure. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Sabrekov, A. F.; Glagolev, M. V.; Alekseychik, P. K.; Smolentsev, B. A.; Terentieva, I. E.; Krivenok, L. A.; Maksyutov, S. S. (2016)
    This study combines a literature survey and field observation data in an ad initio attempt to construct a process-based model of methane sink in upland soils including both the biological and physical aspects of the process. Comparison is drawn between the predicted sink rates and chamber measurements in several forest and grassland sites in the southern part of West Siberia. CH4 flux, total respiration, air and soil temperature, soil moisture, pH, organic content, bulk density and solid phase density were measured during a field campaign in summer 2014. Two datasets from literature were also used for model validation. The modeled sink rates were found to be in relatively good correspondence with the values obtained in the field. Introduction of the rhizospheric methanotrophy significantly improves the match between the model and the observations. The Q10 values of methane sink observed in the field were 1.2-1.4, which is in good agreement with the experimental results from the other studies. Based on modeling results, we also conclude that soil oxygen concentration is not a limiting factor for methane sink in upland forest and grassland ecosystems.
  • Wielaender, F.; James, F. M. K.; Cortez, M. A.; Kluger, G.; Nessler, J. N.; Tipold, A.; Lohi, H.; Fischer, A. (2018)
    Myoclonic epilepsy in Rhodesian Ridgeback (RR) dogs is characterized by myoclonic seizures occurring mainly during relaxation periods, a juvenile age of onset and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in one-third of patients. An 8-month-old female intact RR was presented for myoclonic seizures and staring episodes that both started at 10 weeks of age. Testing for the DIRAS1 variant indicated a homozygous mutant genotype. Unsedated wireless video-electroencephalography (EEG) identified frequent, bilaterally synchronous, generalized 4 Hz spike-and-wave complexes (SWC) during the staring episodes in addition to the characteristic myoclonic seizures with generalized 4-5 Hz SWC or 4-5 Hz slowing. Photic stimulation did not evoke a photoparoxysmal response. Repeat video-EEG 2 months after initiation of levetiracetam treatment disclosed a >95% decrease in frequency of myoclonic seizures, and absence seizures were no longer evident. Absence seizures represent another seizure type in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) in RR dogs, which reinforces its parallels to JME in humans.
  • Heikkala, Eveliina; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Taimela, Simo; Paananen, Markus; Vaaramo, Eeva; Auvinen, Juha; Karppinen, Jaro (2020)
    BackgroundThe relevance of health-related behaviors to exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood remains poorly studied in relation to the magnitude of the problem. We explored whether adolescents' accumulated unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems are associated with later labor market exclusion, and whether multisite musculoskeletal pain (MMSP) impacts these relations.MethodsWe gathered questionnaire data on unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems and MMSP among adolescents aged 15 to 16 belonging to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The findings were combined with registry data on unemployment, employment and permanent work disability during a five-year follow-up between the ages of 25 and 29 (n=6692). In the statistical modeling we used education, family leave and socioeconomic status of childhood family as potential confounders, as well as latent class and logistic regression analyses.ResultsThe Externalizing behavior cluster associated with over one year of unemployment (RR 1.64, CI 1.25-2.14) and permanent work disability (OR 2.49, CI 1.07-5.78) in the follow-up among the men. The Sedentary cluster also associated with over one year (RR 1.41, CI 1.13-1.75) and under one year of unemployment (RR 1.25, CI 1.02-1.52) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.26-2.95) among the men. Obese male participants were at risk of over one year of unemployment (RR 1.50, CI 1.08-2.09) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.07-3.50). Among the women, the Multiple risk behavior cluster related significantly to over one year of unemployment (RR 1.77, CI 1.37-2.28). MMSP had no influence on the associations.ConclusionsUnhealthy behavior patterns and psychosocial problems in adolescence have long-term consequences for exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood, especially among men. Simultaneously supporting psychological well-being and healthy behaviors in adolescence may reduce labor market inclusion difficulties in the early phase of working life.
  • Kajos, M. K.; Rantala, P.; Hill, M.; Hellen, H.; Aalto, J.; Patokoski, J.; Taipale, R.; Hoerger, C. C.; Reimann, S.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Rinne, J.; Petäjä, T. (2015)
    Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry GC-MS) are commonly used methods for automated in situ measurements of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere. In order to investigate the reliability of such measurements, we operated four automated analyzers using their normal field measurement protocol side by side at a boreal forest site. We measured methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene and toluene by two PTR-MS and two GC-MS instruments. The measurements were conducted in southern Finland between 13 April and 14 May 2012. This paper presents correlations and biases between the concentrations measured using the four instruments. A very good correlation was found for benzene and acetone measurements between all instruments (the mean R value was 0.88 for both compounds), while for acetaldehyde and toluene the correlation was weaker (with a mean R value of 0.50 and 0.62, respectively). For some compounds, notably for methanol, there were considerable systematic differences in the mixing ratios measured by the different instruments, despite the very good correlation between the instruments (mean R = 0.90). The systematic difference manifests as a difference in the linear regression slope between measurements conducted between instruments, rather than as an offset. This mismatch indicates that the systematic uncertainty in the sensitivity of a given instrument can lead to an uncertainty of 50-100% in the methanol emissions measured by commonly used methods.
  • Holopainen, Sari; Christensen, Thomas Kjaer; Pöysä, Hannu; Väänänen, Veli-Matti; Rintala, Jukka; Fox, Anthony D. (2018)
    Ducks are important game species, hunted in several countries throughout their annual cycle. We investigated whether the size of the annual duck harvest in Finland and Denmark reflected annual reproductive output in three common quarry duck species. Finland represents an important breeding area and Denmark important staging/wintering grounds for common teal (Anas crecca), Eurasian wigeon (Mareca penelope) and common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula). We assessed whether (i) annual duck harvest in these two countries correlated with variation in Finnish reproductive output or adult population size during 1990-2016 and (ii) variation in reproductive output of Finnish ducks was reflected in the juvenile ratios of birds harvested in Finland (2005-2007, 2014-2016) or Denmark (1990-2016). We hypothesised that variation in Finnish reproductive output would positively affect the size and juvenile ratio of the harvest, and that this effect would be stronger closer to the breeding grounds. Our data showed that the annual harvest of goldeneye in Finland was positively correlated with reproductive output, a desirable basis for applying sustainable management to this species. Teal and wigeon have much longer, more complex flyways, and their harvest did not mirror the annual production of young, although the wigeon harvest in Denmark increased with increasing juvenile ratio there. For these populations, we need to better define population units if we are to be able to assess harvest sustainability. We urgently need to monitor duck breeding success and harvest at larger spatial scales to support a comprehensive analysis of how well the harvest reflects reproductive output.
  • Chu, Biwu; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Bianchi, Federico; Yan, Chao; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku (2019)
    New particle formation (NPF) studies in China were summarized comprehensively in this paper. NPF frequency, formation rate, and particle growth rate were closely compared among the observations carried out at different types of sites in different regions of China in different seasons, with the aim of exploring the nucleation and particle growth mechanisms. The interactions between air pollution and NPF are discussed, emphasizing the properties of NPF under heavy pollution conditions. The current understanding of NPF cannot fully explain the frequent occurrence of NPF at high aerosol loadings in China, and possible reasons for this phenomenon are proposed. The effects of NPF and some aspects of NPF research requiring further investigation are also summarized in this paper.
  • Palmu, Sauli A.; Lohman, Martina; Paukku, Reijo T.; Peltonen, Jari I.; Nietosvaara, Yrjana (2013)
  • Steinzeig, Anna; Molotkov, Dmitry; Castren, Eero (2017)
    Growing interest in long-term visualization of cortical structure and function requires methods that allow observation of an intact cortex in longitudinal imaging studies. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the "transparent skull" (TS) preparation based on skull clearing with cyanoacrylate, which is applicable for long-term imaging through the intact skull in mice. We characterized the properties of the TS in imaging of intrinsic optical signals and compared them with the more conventional cranial window preparation. Our results show that TS is less invasive, maintains stabile transparency for at least two months, and compares favorably to data obtained from the conventional cranial window. We applied this method to experiments showing that a four-week treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine combined with one week of monocular deprivation induced a shift in ocular dominance in the mouse visual cortex, confirming that fluoxetine treatment restores critical-period-like plasticity. Our results demonstrate that the TS preparation could become a useful method for long-term visualization of the living mouse brain.
  • Yi, Chuixiang; Ricciuto, Daniel; Li, Runze; Wolbeck, John; Xu, Xiyan; Nilsson, Mats; Aires, Luis; Albertson, John D.; Ammann, Christof; Arain, M. Altaf; de Araujo, Alessandro C.; Aubinet, Marc; Aurela, Mika; Barcza, Zoltan; Barr, Alan; Berbigier, Paul; Beringer, Jason; Bernhofer, Christian; Black, Andrew T.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Bosveld, Fred C.; Broadmeadow, Mark S. J.; Buchmann, Nina; Burns, Sean P.; Cellier, Pierre; Chen, Jiquan; Ciais, Philippe; Clement, Robert; Cook, Bruce D.; Curtis, Peter S.; Dail, D. Bryan; Dellwik, Ebba; Delpierre, Nicolas; Desai, Ankur R.; Dore, Sabina; Dragoni, Danilo; Drake, Bert G.; Dufrene, Eric; Dunn, Allison; Elbers, Jan; Eugster, Werner; Falk, Matthias; Feigenwinter, Christian; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Foken, Thomas; Frank, John; Fuhrer, Juerg; Gianelle, Damiano; Goldstein, Allen; Goulden, Mike; Granier, Andre; Gruenwald, Thomas; Gu, Lianhong; Guo, Haiqiang; Hammerle, Albin; Han, Shijie; Hanan, Niall P.; Haszpra, Laszlo; Heinesch, Bernard; Helfter, Carole; Hendriks, Dimmie; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Ibrom, Andreas; Jacobs, Cor; Johansson, Torbjoern; Jongen, Marjan; Katul, Gabriel; Kiely, Gerard; Klumpp, Katja; Knohl, Alexander; Kolb, Thomas; Kutsch, Werner L.; Lafleur, Peter; Laurila, Tuomas; Leuning, Ray; Lindroth, Anders; Liu, Heping; Loubet, Benjamin; Manca, Giovanni; Marek, Michal; Margolis, Hank A.; Martin, Timothy A.; Massman, William J.; Matamala, Roser; Matteucci, Giorgio; McCaughey, Harry; Merbold, Lutz; Meyers, Tilden; Migliavacca, Mirco; Miglietta, Franco; Misson, Laurent; Moelder, Meelis; Moncrieff, John; Monson, Russell K.; Montagnani, Leonardo; Montes-Helu, Mario; Moors, Eddy; Moureaux, Christine; Mukelabai, Mukufute M.; Munger, J. William; Myklebust, May; Nagy, Zoltan; Noormets, Asko; Oechel, Walter; Oren, Ram; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Kyaw, Tha Paw U.; Pereira, Joao S.; Pilegaard, Kim; Pinter, Krisztina; Pio, Casimiro; Pita, Gabriel; Powell, Thomas L.; Rambal, Serge; Randerson, James T.; von Randow, Celso; Rebmann, Corinna; Rinne, Janne; Rossi, Federica; Roulet, Nigel; Ryel, Ronald J.; Sagerfors, Jorgen; Saigusa, Nobuko; Sanz, Maria Jose; Mugnozza, Giuseppe-Scarascia; Schmid, Hans Peter; Seufert, Guenther; Siqueira, Mario; Soussana, Jean-Francois; Starr, Gregory; Sutton, Mark A.; Tenhunen, John; Tuba, Zoltan; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Valentini, Riccardo; Vogel, Christoph S.; Wang, Shaoqiang; Wang, Weiguo; Welp, Lisa R.; Wen, Xuefa; Wharton, Sonia; Wilkinson, Matthew; Williams, Christopher A.; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Yamamoto, Susumu; Yu, Guirui; Zampedri, Roberto; Zhao, Bin; Zhao, Xinquan (2010)
  • Ylivinkka, Ilona; Kaupinmäki, Santeri; Virman, Meri; Peltola, Maija; Taipale, Ditte; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku; Ezhova, Ekaterina (2020)
    We developed a simple algorithm to classify clouds based on global radiation and cloud base height measured by pyranometer and ceilometer, respectively. We separated clouds into seven different classes (stratus, stratocumulus, cumulus, nimbostratus, altocumulus + altostratus, cirrus + cirrocumulus + cirrostratus and clear sky + cirrus). We also included classes for cumulus and cirrus clouds causing global radiation enhancement, and we classified multilayered clouds, when captured by the ceilometer, based on their height and characteristics (transmittance, patchiness and uniformity). The overall performance of the algorithm was nearly 70% when compared with classification by an observer using total-sky images. The performance was best for clouds having well-distinguishable effects on solar radiation: nimbostratus clouds were classified correctly in 100% of the cases. The worst performance corresponds to cirriform clouds (50 %). Although the overall performance of the algorithm was good, it is likely to miss the occurrences of high and multilayered clouds. This is due to the technical limits of the instrumentation: the vertical detection range of the ceilometer and occultation of the laser pulse by the lowest cloud layer. We examined the use of clearness index, which is defined as a ratio between measured global radiation and modeled radiation at the top of the atmosphere, as an indicator of clear-sky conditions. Our results show that cumulus, altocumulus, altostratus and cirriform clouds can be present when the index indicates clear-sky conditions. Those conditions have previously been associated with enhanced aerosol formation under clear skies. This is an important finding especially in the case of low clouds coupled to the surface, which can influence aerosol population via aerosol-cloud interactions. Overall, caution is required when the clearness index is used in the analysis of processes affected by partitioning of radiation by clouds.
  • Seppala, Toni; Pylvanainen, Kirsi; Evans, Dafydd Gareth; Jarvinen, Heikki; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Bernstein, Inge; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Sala, Paola; Lindblom, Annika; Macrae, Finlay; Blanco, Ignacio; Sijmons, Rolf; Jeffries, Jacqueline; Vasen, Hans; Burn, John; Nakken, Sigve; Hovig, Eivind; Rodland, Einar Andreas; Tharmaratnam, Kukatharmini; Cappel, Wouter H. de Vos tot Nederveen; Hill, James; Wijnen, Juul; Jenkins, Mark; Genuardi, Maurizio; Green, Kate; Lalloo, Fiona; Sunde, Lone; Mints, Miriam; Bertario, Lucio; Pineda, Marta; Navarro, Matilde; Morak, Monika; Frayling, Ian M.; Plazzer, John-Paul; Sampson, Julian R.; Capella, Gabriel; Moslein, Gabriela; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Moller, Pal; Collaboration Mallorca Grp (2017)
    Background: We have previously reported a high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in carriers of pathogenic MLH1 variants (path_MLH1) despite follow-up with colonoscopy including polypectomy. Methods: The cohort included Finnish carriers enrolled in 3-yearly colonoscopy (n = 505; 4625 observation years) and carriers from other countries enrolled in colonoscopy 2-yearly or more frequently (n = 439; 3299 observation years). We examined whether the longer interval between colonoscopies in Finland could explain the high incidence of CRC and whether disease expression correlated with differences in population CRC incidence. Results: Cumulative CRC incidences in carriers of path_MLH1 at 70-years of age were 41% for males and 36% for females in the Finnish series and 58% and 55% in the non-Finnish series, respectively (p > 0.05). Mean time from last colonoscopy to CRC was 32.7 months in the Finnish compared to 31.0 months in the non-Finnish (p > 0.05) and was therefore unaffected by the recommended colonoscopy interval. Differences in population incidence of CRC could not explain the lower point estimates for CRC in the Finnish series. Ten-year overall survival after CRC was similar for the Finnish and non-Finnish series (88% and 91%, respectively; p > 0.05). Conclusions: The hypothesis that the high incidence of CRC in path_MLH1 carriers was caused by a higher incidence in the Finnish series was not valid. We discuss whether the results were influenced by methodological shortcomings in our study or whether the assumption that a shorter interval between colonoscopies leads to a lower CRC incidence may be wrong. This second possibility is intriguing, because it suggests the dogma that CRC in path_MLH1 carriers develops from polyps that can be detected at colonoscopy and removed to prevent CRC may be erroneous. In view of the excellent 10-year overall survival in the Finnish and non-Finnish series we remain strong advocates of current surveillance practices for those with LS pending studies that will inform new recommendations on the best surveillance interval.
  • Barba, J; Cueva, A; Bahn, M; Barron-Gafford, GA; Bond-Lamberty, B; Hanson, PJ; Jaimes, A; Kulmala, Liisa-Maija; Pumpanen, J; Scott, RL; Wohlfahrt, G; Vargas, R (2018)
    The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is the difference between ecosystem CO2 assimilation and CO2 losses to the atmosphere. Ecosystem respiration (R-eco), the efflux of CO2 from the ecosystem to the atmosphere, includes the soil-to-atmosphere carbon flux (i.e., soil respiration; R-soil) and aboveground plant respiration. Therefore, R-soil is a fraction of R-eco and theoretically has to be smaller than R-eco at daily, seasonal, and annual scales. However, several studies estimating R-eco with the eddy covariance technique and measuring R-soll within the footprint of the tower have reported higher R-soil than R-eco, at different time scales. Here, we compare four different and contrasting ecosystems (from forest to grasslands, and from boreal to semiarid) to test if measurements of R-eco are consistently higher than R-soil. In general, both fluxes showed similar temporal patterns, but R-eco, was not consistently higher than R-soil from daily to annual scales across sites. We identified several issues that apply for measuring NEE and measuring/upscaling R-soil that could result in an underestimation of R-eco and/or an overestimation of R-soil. These issues are discussed based on (a) nighttime measurements of NEE, (b) R-soil measurements, and (c) the interpretation of the functional relationships of these fluxes with temperature (i.e., Q(10)). We highlight that there is still a need for better integration of R-soil with eddy covariance measurements to address challenges related to the spatial and temporal variability of R-eco, and R-soil.
  • Lehikoinen, Petteri; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Mikkola-Roos, Markku; Jaatinen, Kim (2017)
    Human actions have led to loss and degradation of wetlands, impairing their suitability as habitat especially for waterbirds. Such negative effects may be mitigated through habitat management. To date scientific evidence regarding the impacts of these actions remains scarce. We studied guild specific abundances of breeding and staging birds in response to habitat management on 15 Finnish wetlands. In this study management actions comprised several means of vegetation removal to thwart overgrowth. Management cost efficiency was assessed by examining the association between site-specific costs and bird abundances. Several bird guilds exhibited positive connections with both habitat management as well as with invested funds. Most importantly, however, red-listed species and species with special conservation concern as outlined by the EU showed positive correlations with management actions, underlining the conservation value of wetland management. The results suggest that grazing was especially efficient in restoring overgrown wetlands. As a whole this study makes it clear that wetland habitat management constitutes a feasible conservation tool. The marked association between invested funds and bird abundance may prove to be a valuable tool for decision makers when balancing costs and impact of conservation measures against one another.
  • Kivekäs, Niku; Carpman, Jimmie; Roldin, Pontus; Leppa, Johannes; O'Connor, Ewan; Kristensson, Adam; Asmi, Eija (2016)
    Field observations of new particle formation and the subsequent particle growth are typically only possible at a fixed measurement location, and hence do not follow the temporal evolution of an air parcel in a Lagrangian sense. Standard analysis for determining formation and growth rates requires that the time-dependent formation rate and growth rate of the particles are spatially invariant; air parcel advection means that the observed temporal evolution of the particle size distribution at a fixed measurement location may not represent the true evolution if there are spatial variations in the formation and growth rates. Here we present a zero-dimensional aerosol box model coupled with one-dimensional atmospheric flow to describe the impact of advection on the evolution of simulated new particle formation events. Wind speed, particle formation rates and growth rates are input parameters that can vary as a function of time and location, using wind speed to connect location to time. The output simulates measurements at a fixed location; formation and growth rates of the particle mode can then be calculated from the simulated observations at a stationary point for different scenarios and be compared with the 'true' input parameters. Hence, we can investigate how spatial variations in the formation and growth rates of new particles would appear in observations of particle number size distributions at a fixed measurement site. We show that the particle size distribution and growth rate at a fixed location is dependent on the formation and growth parameters upwind, even if local conditions do not vary. We also show that different input parameters used may result in very similar simulated measurements. Erroneous interpretation of observations in terms of particle formation and growth rates, and the time span and areal extent of new particle formation, is possible if the spatial effects are not accounted for.
  • Popp, Alina; Kivela, Laura; Fuchs, Valma; Kurppa, Kalle (2019)
    Celiac disease is one of the most common food-related chronic disorders in children. Unfortunately, this multifaceted disease is challenging to recognize and remains markedly underdiagnosed. Screening of either known at-risk groups or even the whole population could increase the suboptimal diagnostic yield substantially. Many recent guidelines recommend screening of at least selected risk groups, but more wide-scale screening remains controversial. The increasing prevalence of celiac disease and the development of autoantibody assays have also led to a gradual shift in the diagnostics towards less invasive serology-based criteria in a subgroup of symptomatic children. The main open questions concern whether these criteria are applicable to all countries and clinical settings, as well as to adult patients. On the other hand, widening screening and the mistaken practice of initiating a gluten-free diet before the appropriate exclusion of celiac disease increase the number of borderline seropositive cases, which may also challenge the classical histopathological diagnostics. Sophisticated diagnostic methods and a deeper understanding of the natural history of early developing celiac disease may prove useful in these circumstances.
  • James, F. M. K.; Cortez, M. A.; Monteith, G.; Jokinen, T. S.; Sanders, S.; Wielaender, F.; Fischer, A.; Lohi, H. (2017)
    Background: Poor agreement between observers on whether an unusual event is a seizure drives the need for a specific diagnostic tool provided by video-electroencephalography (video-EEG) in human pediatric epileptology. Objective: That successful classification of events would be positively associated with increasing EEG recording length and higher event frequency reported before video-EEG evaluation; that a novel wireless video-EEG technique would clarify whether unusual behavioral events were seizures in unsedated dogs. Animals: Eighty-one client-owned dogs of various breeds undergoing investigation of unusual behavioral events at 4 institutions. Methods: Retrospective case series: evaluation of wireless video-EEG recordings in unsedated dogs performed at 4 institutions. Results: Electroencephalography achieved/excluded diagnosis of epilepsy in 58 dogs (72%); 25 dogs confirmed with epileptic seizures based on ictal/interictal epileptiform discharges, and 33 dogs with no EEG abnormalities associated with their target events. As reported frequency of the target events decreased (annually, monthly, weekly, daily, hourly, minutes, seconds), EEG was less likely to achieve diagnosis (P <0.001). Every increase in event frequency increased the odds of achieving diagnosis by 2.315 (95% confidence interval: 1.36-4.34). EEG recording length (mean = 3.69 hours, range: 0.17-22.5) was not associated (P = 0.2) with the likelihood of achieving a diagnosis. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Wireless video-EEG in unsedated dogs had a high success for diagnosis of unusual behavioral events. This technique offered a reliable clinical tool to investigate the epileptic origin of behavioral events in dogs.
  • Zheng, Danni; Sato, Shoichiro; Arima, Hisatomi; Heeley, Emma; Delcourt, Candice; Cao, Yongjun; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S.; INTERACT2 Investigators; Scheperjans, Filip; Kaste, Markku (2016)
    Background: The kidney-brain interaction has been a topic of growing interest. Past studies of the effect of kidney function on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) outcomes have yielded inconsistent findings. Although the second, main phase of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2) suggests the effectiveness of early intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering in improving functional recovery after ICH, the balance of potential benefits and harms of this treatment in those with decreased kidney function remains uncertain. Study Design: Secondary analysis of INTERACT2, which randomly assigned patients with ICH with elevated systolic BP (SBP) to intensive (target SBP <140 mm Hg) or contemporaneous guideline-based (target SBP, 180 mm Hg) BP management. Setting & Participants: 2,823 patients from 144 clinical hospitals in 21 countries. Predictors: Admission estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) of patients were categorized into 3 groups based on the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) creatinine equation: normal or high, mildly decreased, and moderately to severely decreased (>90, 60-90, and Outcomes: The effect of admission eGFR on the primary outcome of death or major disability at 90 days (defined as modified Rankin Scale scores of 3-6) was analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression model. Potential effect modification of intensive BP lowering treatment by admission eGFR was assessed by interaction terms. Results: Of 2,623 included participants, 912 (35%) and 280 (11%) had mildly and moderately/severely decreased eGFRs, respectively. Patients with moderately/severely decreased eGFRs had the greatest risk for death or major disability at 90 days (adjusted OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.28-2.61). Effects of early intensive BP lowering were consistent across different eGFRs (P = 0.5 for homogeneity). Limitations: Generalizability issues arising from a clinical trial population. Conclusions: Decreased eGFR predicts poor outcome in acute ICH. Early intensive BP lowering provides similar treatment effects in patients with ICH with decreased eGFRs. Am J Kidney Dis. 68(1): 94-102. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the National Kidney Foundation, Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
  • Tammeorg, Olga; Haldna, Marina; Noges, Peeter; Appleby, Peter; Mols, Tonu; Niemisto, Juha; Tammeorg, Priit; Horppila, Jukka (2018)
    Phosphorus retention (TPacc) is one of the major water quality regulators in lakes. The current study aimed at ascertaining the specific lake characteristics regulating TPacc. Moreover, we were interested whether NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation), a proxy of climatic forcing, can explain variability in TPacc, additionally to that ascribed to lake characteristics. Sediment cores were obtained from 21 Finnish lakes, subject to radiometric dating and measurements of TP concentrations. Principal components (PCs) were generated using lake characteristics that are usually included into the modelling of TPacc (e.g. lake area, lake depth, catchment area, P inflow) but also the parameters that the classical models usually missed (e.g. anoxic factor). We used significant principal components (PCs), specific combinations of lake characteristics and monthly NAO values as predictors of TPacc. Lake characteristics explained the bulk of TPacc variability. The most influential factors (positive drivers) behind TPacc included PC1 (representing mainly deep lakes), PC2 (small lakes with high levels of anoxia and water column stability), PC3 (productive lakes with large catchment area and short water residence time), PC4 (lakes with high water column stability, low anoxic factor and relatively high sediment focusing) and PC5 (lakes with high levels of P inflow, anoxia and long water residence time). Additionally, we found a potential negative effect of NAO in October on the annual TPacc. This NAO was significantly positively related to temperatures in surface and near-bottom water layer (also their difference) in autumn, suggesting the possible implications for the internal P dynamics. Increased mineralization of organic matter is the most likely explanation for the reduced TPacc associated with NAO-driven water temperature increase. The analysis presented here contributes to the knowledge of the factors controlling P retention. Moreover, this spatially and temporally comprehensive sediment data can potentially be a valuable source for modelling climate change implications.
  • Varendi, Kärt; Mätlik, Kert; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle (2015)
    During the past decade, the identification of microRNA (miR) targets has become common laboratory practice, and various strategies are now used to detect interactions between miRs and their mRNA targets. However, the current lack of a standardized identification process often leads to incomplete and/or conflicting results. Here, we review the problems most commonly encountered when verifying miR-mRNA interactions, and we propose a workflow for future studies. To illustrate the challenges faced when validating a miR target, we discuss studies in which the regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by miRs was investigated, and we highlight several controversies that emerged from these studies. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic use of miR inhibitors, and we discuss several questions that should be addressed before proceeding to preclinical testing.