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  • Nuutila, Katariina; Tuominen, Heta; Tapola, Anna; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Niemivirta, Markku (2018)
    This study examined cross-task consistency and longitudinal stability in elementary school students' task interest, success expectancy, and performance from fourth to sixth grade, and their predictive effects on sixth-grade intrinsic value, self-concept, and achievement in mathematics. The results demonstrated consistency in interest, success expectancy, and performance across tasks and stability over time, and these to predict domain-specific motivation and achievement. Virtually no evidence for reciprocal effects was found for task-specific measures, as only previous task performance predicted change in later success expectancy. Cross-lagged effects were observed, however, for predictions of task motivation and performance on domain-specific motivation and achievement, so that success expectancy predicted intrinsic value, interest predicted self-concept, and task performance predicted both self-concept and achievement. Based on the findings, it would seem that students' task-related motivational experiences are associated with their domain-specific beliefs, and that those, in turn, are to some extent manifested in students' task motivation.
  • Jokela, Markus (2020)
    Neighborhood characteristics have been associated with psychological distress, but it is uncertain whether these associations are causal. The current article reviews data from interventions and quasi-experimental studies that have addressed the question of causality of neighborhood associations. Overall, data from neighborhood interventions, longitudinal studies, and twin studies have provided only limited and inconsistent evidence to support causal interpretation of neighborhood associations with psychological distress: very few findings have been replicated across different samples, and many associations have been observed only with some of the multiple measures included the studies. Studies that examine the effects of neighborhood change on people's wellbeing are needed to improve causal inference and policy relevance of neighborhood studies.
  • Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Frojd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri (2016)
    Sexual harassment has been studies as a mechanism reproducing inequality between sexes, as gender based discrimination, and more recently, as a public health problem. The role of family-related factors for subjection to sexual harassment in adolescent has been little studied. Our aim was to study the role of socio-demographic family factors and parental involvement in adolescent's persona life for experiences of sexual harassment among 14-18-year-old population girls and boys. An anonymous cross-sectional classroom survey was carried out in comprehensive and secondary schools in Finland. 90 953 boys and 91 746 girls aged 14-18 participated. Sexual harassment was elicited with five questions. Family structure, parental education, parental unemployment and parental involvement as perceived by the adolescent were elicited. The data were analyzed using cross-tabulations with chi-square statistics and logistic regressions. All types of sexual harassment experiences elicited were more common among girls than among boys. Parental unemployment, not living with both parents and low parental education were associated with higher likelihood of reporting experiences of sexual harassment, and parental involvement in the adolescent's personal life was associated with less reported sexual harassment. Parental involvement in an adolescent's life may be protective of perceived sexual harassment. Adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged families are more vulnerable to sexual harassment than their more advantaged peers. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Ekstam, Ulrika; Korhonen, Johan; Linnanmäki, Karin; Aunio, Pirjo (2018)
    Educational reforms during the last decade have led to a more inclusive environment for students with different needs and have placed demands on teachers' readiness to instruct diverse students in the general classroom. Previous research has ascertained that student achievement is correlated with teacher quality and teachers' efficacy beliefs. Today, basic competence in mathematics is more important than ever for managing routine day-to-day activities and therefore, identifying and educationally supporting students with low performance in mathematics is necessary. The aim of the study was to investigate the perceived teacher efficacy beliefs of special education and mathematics teachers when teaching mathematics to low-performing middle school students. Results indicated that special education teachers had higher teacher efficacy beliefs than mathematics teachers. Teacher experience, certification or gender had no effect on teachers' efficacy beliefs. Furthermore, subject teachers reported high pedagogical knowledge for teaching low-performing students, and special education teachers reported having moderate mathematical subject knowledge.
  • Ekstam, Ulrika; Korhonen, Johan; Linnanmäki, Karin; Aunio, Pirjo (2017)
    Teacher efficacy beliefs is an important characteristic to predict instructional quality and the level of cognitive activation and educational support. Since teacher efficacy beliefs are context and domain specific, this study focuses on how special education pre-service teachers' individual interest and subject knowledge in mathematics predict their efficacy beliefs in teaching mathematics. Data were collected from 57 special education pre-service teachers. The results indicated that the individual interest of pre-service teachers has a strong effect on teacher efficacy beliefs, while subject knowledge has only an indirect effect. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.