Browsing by Subject "LOOP"

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  • Ylinen, Sari; Nora, Anni; Service, Elisabet (2020)
    Language learning relies on both short-term and long-term memory. Phonological short-term memory (pSTM) is thought to play an important role in the learning of novel word forms. However, language learners may differ in their ability to maintain word representations in pSTM during interfering auditory input. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate how pSTM capacity in better and poorer pSTM groups is linked to language learning and the maintenance of pseudowords in pSTM. In particular, MEG was recorded while participants maintained pseudowords in pSTM by covert speech rehearsal, and while these brain representations were probed by presenting auditory pseudowords with first or third syllables matching or mismatching the rehearsed item. A control condition included identical stimuli but no rehearsal. Differences in response strength between matching and mismatching syllables were interpreted as the phonological mapping negativity (PMN). While PMN for the first syllable was found in both groups, it was observed for the third syllable only in the group with better pSTM. This suggests that individuals with better pSTM maintained representations of trisyllabic pseudowords more accurately during interference than individuals with poorer pSTM. Importantly, the group with better pSTM learned words faster in a paired-associate word learning task, linking the PMN findings to language learning.
  • Olkkonen, Juri; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Hynninen, Joel; Konttinen, Yrjo T.; Mandelin, Jami (2015)
    Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have altered circadian rhythm of circulating serum cortisol, melatonin and IL-6, as well as disturbance in the expression of clock genes ARNTL2 and NPAS2. In humans, TNF alpha increases the expression ARNTL2 and NPAS2 but paradoxically suppresses clock output genes DPB and PER3. Our objective was to investigate the expression of direct clock suppressors DEC1 and DEC2 (BHLHE 40 and 41 proteins) in response to TNF alpha and investigate their role during inflammation. Methods Cultured primary fibroblasts were stimulated with TNF alpha. Effects on DEC2 were studied using RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence staining. The role of NF-kappa B in DEC2 increase was analyzed using IKK-2 specific inhibitor IMD-0354. Cloned DEC2 was transfected into HEK293 cells to study its effects on gene expression. Transfections into primary human fibroblasts were used to confirm the results. The presence of DEC2 was analyzed in (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) synovial membranes by immunohistochemistry. Results TNF alpha increased DEC2 mRNA and DEC2 was mainly detected at nuclei after the stimulus. The effects of TNF alpha on DEC2 expression were mediated via NF-kappa B. Overexpression, siRNA and promoter activity studies disclosed that DEC2 directly regulates IL-1 beta, in both HEK293 cells and primary human fibroblasts. DEC2 was increased in synovial membrane in RA compared to OA. Conclusion Not only ARNTL2 and NPAS2 but also DEC2 is regulated by TNF alpha in human fibroblasts. NF-kappa B mediates the effect on DEC2, which upregulates IL-1 beta. Circadian clock has a direct effect on inflammation in human fibroblasts.
  • Pal, Sanchita; Kilpua, Emilia; Good, Simon; Pomoell, Jens; Price, Daniel (2021)
    Context. Magnetic clouds (MCs) are transient structures containing large-scale magnetic flux ropes from solar eruptions. The twist of magnetic field lines around the rope axis reveals information about flux rope formation processes and geoeffectivity. During propagation MC flux ropes may erode via reconnection with the ambient solar wind. Any erosion reduces the magnetic flux and helicity of the ropes, and changes their cross-sectional twist profiles. Aims. This study relates twist profiles in MC flux ropes observed at 1 AU to the amount of erosion undergone by the MCs in interplanetary space. Methods. The twist profiles of two clearly identified MC flux ropes associated with the clear appearance of post eruption arcades in the solar corona are analyzed. To infer the amount of erosion, the magnetic flux content of the ropes in the solar atmosphere is estimated, and compared to estimates at 1 AU. Results. The first MC shows a monotonically decreasing twist from the axis to the periphery, while the second displays high twist at the axis, rising twist near the edges, and lower twist in between. The first MC displays a larger reduction in magnetic flux between the Sun and 1 AU, suggesting more erosion than that seen in the second MC. Conclusions. In the second cloud the rising twist at the rope edges may have been due to an envelope of overlying coronal field lines with relatively high twist, formed by reconnection beneath the erupting flux rope in the low corona. This high-twist envelope remained almost intact from the Sun to 1 AU due to the low erosion levels. In contrast, the high-twist envelope of the first cloud may have been entirely peeled away via erosion by the time it reaches 1 AU.
  • Korsunova-Tsaruk, Angelina; Horn, Susanna; Vainio, Annukka (2021)
    It is generally accepted that governments, municipalities, businesses and citizens alike have a role to play in transitioning towards a circular economy (CE). Yet most academic and policy discussions of CE revolve around technological solutions and business models. Although CE also means significant changes to ways of living, these aspects of CE are barely addressed. The citizen role is traditionally assumed to be that of a consumer or user of the newly developed solutions, while also following the guidelines for sorting and recycling. Little is known about how citizens envision being part of the CE, and what skills and competences are relevant for CE. Our study addresses this gap by exploring the perceptions of young adults in Finland on how CE reflects into their everyday lives. Our dataset consists of 249 responses from high school students in Finland to open-ended questions regarding CE. The results highlight that young adults in Finland strongly associate CE with recycling, waste sorting and re-selling/buying second-hand, which is in line with the conventional roles of efficient recyclers and consumers. Although CE harbors wider potential for more active citizen roles related to repair, maintenance and upcycling, these aspects are often overlooked in favor of more familiar lifestyles. Building on the 5R framework for CE and emerging themes from student responses, we bring forward the new roles of upcycler, thrifter, expert/learner, giver/benefactor and conservationist. Supporting these emerging roles is an opportunity for cooperation between young adults, other citizen groups, cities, policy makers and businesses, and a key for jointly advancing the transition to CE. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Institution of Chemical Engineers. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (