Browsing by Subject "LOS"

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  • Vuorinen, Markku; Mäkinen, Tatu Johannes; Rantasalo, Mikko; Huotari, Kaisa (2021)
    Background A multidisciplinary team responsible for the management plan of prosthetic joint infections (PJI) was founded in January 2008. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a decrease in the number of surgeries and length of stay (LOS) was seen in the management of PJI with the aid of the multidisciplinary team. Methods This retrospective cohort study consisted of a total of 154 postoperative PJIs from three time periods: 21 PJIs from 2005 to 2007 (Group 1), 65 PJIs from 2011 to 2013 (Group 2), and 68 PJIs from 2015 to 2016 (Group 3). Successful outcome was classified as the retention of the original implant or revised implant and no infection-related death. Results The median number of operations decreased from 2.0 operations (Group 1) to 1.0 operation (Group 3) (p = .023), and the median LOS was shortened from 49.0 days (Group 1) to 17.0 days (Group 3) (p = .000). The number of PJIs treated with two-stage exchange decreased from 52.4% (11/21, Group 1) to 16.2% (11/68, Group 3) (p = .004). Simultaneously, debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) as primary surgical treatment increased from 42.9% (9/21, Group 1) to 89.7% (61/68, Group 3) (p = .000). The successful outcome of DAIR improved from 55.6% (5/9, Group 1) to 85.2% (52/61, Group 3) (p = .077). Conclusions Treatment of PJI in a specialized centre with the aid of a multidisciplinary team lead to fewer surgeries and reduced LOS. Successful outcome of DAIR improved over time.
  • Burstrom, Lena; Engstrom, Marie-Louise; Castren, Maaret; Wiklund, Tony; Enlund, Mats (2016)
    Background: Overcrowding in the emergency department (ED) may negatively affect patient outcomes, so different triage models have been introduced to improve performance. Physician-led team triage obtains better results than other triage models. We compared efficiency and quality measures before and after reorganization of the triage model in the ED at our county hospital. Materials and methods: We retrospectively compared two study periods with different triage models: nurse triage in 2008 (baseline) and physician-led team triage in 2012 (follow-up). Physician-led team triage was in use during day-time and early evenings on weekdays. Data were collected from electronic medical charts and the National Mortality Register. Results: We included 20,073 attendances in 2008 and 23,765 in 2012. The time from registration to physician presentation decreased from 80 to 33 min (P <0.001), and the length of stay decreased from 219 to 185 min (P <0.001) from 2008 to 2012, respectively. All of the quality variables differed significantly between the two periods, with better results in 2012. The odds ratio for patients who left before being seen or before treatment was completed was 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.54-0.72). The corresponding result for unscheduled returns was 0.36 (0.32-0.40), and for the mortality rates within 7 and 30 days 0.72 (0.59-0.88) and 0.84 (0.73-0.97), respectively. The admission rate was 37% at baseline and 32% at follow-up (P <0.001). Conclusion: Physician-led team triage improved the efficiency and quality in EDs.
  • Ellstrom, Patrik; Hansson, Ingrid; Nilsson, Anna; Rautelin, Hilpi; Engvall, Eva Olsson (2016)
    Background: Campylobacter cause morbidity and considerable economic loss due to hospitalization and post infectious sequelae such as reactive arthritis, Guillain Barr-and Miller Fischer syndromes. Such sequelae have been linked to C. jejuni harboring sialic acid structures in their lipooligosaccharide (LOS) layer of the cell wall. Poultry is an important source of human Campylobacter infections but little is known about the prevalence of sialylated C. jejuni isolates and the extent of transmission of such isolates to humans. Results: Genotypes of C. jejuni isolates from enteritis patients were compared with those of broiler chicken with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), to study the patterns of LOS biosynthesis genes and other virulence associated genes and to what extent these occur among Campylobacter genotypes found both in humans and chickens. Chicken and human isolates generally had similar distributions of the putative virulence genes and LOS locus classes studied. However, there were significant differences regarding LOS locus class of PFGE types that were overlapping between chicken and human isolates and those that were distinct to each source. Conclusions: The study highlights the prevalence of virulence associated genes among Campylobacter isolates from humans and chickens and suggests possible patterns of transmission between the two species.
  • Pulkkinen, Maria; Jousela, Irma; Engblom, Janne; Salanterä, Sanna; Junttila, Kristiina (2020)
    Background: The shortened length of hospital stays (LOS) requires efficient and patient-participatory perioperative nursing approaches to enable early and safe discharge from hospitals for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The primary aim of this study was to explore the effect comparative to standard perioperative care of a new perioperative practice model (NPPM) on the LOS and the time points of the surgical care process in patients undergoing THA and TKA under spinal anesthesia. The secondary aim was to find out if any subgroups with different response could be found. Methods: Patients scheduled for elective, primary THA and TKA were assessed for eligibility. A two-group parallel randomized clinical trial was conducted with an intervention group (n = 230) and control group (n = 220), totaling 450 patients. The patients in the intervention group were each designated with one named anesthesia nurse, who took care of the patient during the entire perioperative process and visited the patient postoperatively. The patients in the control group received standard perioperative care from different nurses during their perioperative processes and without postoperative visits. The surgical care process time points for each study patient were gathered from the operating room management software and hospital information system until hospital discharge. Results: We did not find any statistically significant differences between the intervention and control groups regarding to LOS. Only slight differences in the time points of the surgical care process could be detected. The subgroup examination revealed that higher age, type of arthroplasty and ASA score 3-4 all separately caused prolonged LOS. Conclusion: We did not find the new perioperative practice model to shorten either length of hospital stays or the surgical care process in patients undergoing THA and TKA. Further studies at the subgroup level (gender, old age, and ASA score 3 and 4) are needed to recognize the patients who might benefit most from the NPPM.
  • Pulkkinen, Maria; Jousela, Irma; Engblom, Janne; Salanterä, Sanna; Junttila, Kristiina (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background The shortened length of hospital stays (LOS) requires efficient and patient-participatory perioperative nursing approaches to enable early and safe discharge from hospitals for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The primary aim of this study was to explore the effect comparative to standard perioperative care of a new perioperative practice model (NPPM) on the LOS and the time points of the surgical care process in patients undergoing THA and TKA under spinal anesthesia. The secondary aim was to find out if any subgroups with different response could be found. Methods Patients scheduled for elective, primary THA and TKA were assessed for eligibility. A two-group parallel randomized clinical trial was conducted with an intervention group (n = 230) and control group (n = 220), totaling 450 patients. The patients in the intervention group were each designated with one named anesthesia nurse, who took care of the patient during the entire perioperative process and visited the patient postoperatively. The patients in the control group received standard perioperative care from different nurses during their perioperative processes and without postoperative visits. The surgical care process time points for each study patient were gathered from the operating room management software and hospital information system until hospital discharge. Results We did not find any statistically significant differences between the intervention and control groups regarding to LOS. Only slight differences in the time points of the surgical care process could be detected. The subgroup examination revealed that higher age, type of arthroplasty and ASA score 3–4 all separately caused prolonged LOS. Conclusion We did not find the new perioperative practice model to shorten either length of hospital stays or the surgical care process in patients undergoing THA and TKA. Further studies at the subgroup level (gender, old age, and ASA score 3 and 4) are needed to recognize the patients who might benefit most from the NPPM. Trial registration This study was registered in NIH Clinical.Trials.gov under registration number NCT02906033 , retrospectively registered September 19, 2016.
  • Kankaanpää, Meri (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Background: To assess whether the use of point-of-care testing (POCT) and early assessment team (EAT) model shortens emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS). Methods: This observational study was performed in three phases in a metropolitan ED with 57,000 annual visits. Data were collected from adult ambulatory patients who were discharged home. Phase 1 served as a control (n=1559 in one month). In phase 2, a comprehensive POCT panel including complete blood count, sodium, potassium, glucose, C-reactive protein, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, amylase, and D-dimer was launched (n=1442 in one month). In phase 3 (n=3356 in subsequent two months), POCT approach continued. In addition, the working process was changed by establishing an EAT consisting of an emergency medicine resident and a nurse. The team operated from 12 noon to 10 p.m. was. The primary outcome was LOS (hh:mm) in the ED. Waiting times for patients requiring laboratory testing were analysed also, including time from admission to laboratory blood sampling (A2S interval), time from blood sampling to results ready (S2R interval) and time from results to discharge (R2D interval). Results: Median LOS of patients requiring laboratory tests in phase 1 was 3:51 (95% confidence interval 03:38–04:04). During phase 2, introduction of POCT reduced median LOS by 29 minutes to 03:22 (03:12–03:31, p=0.000). In phase 3, the EAT model reduced median LOS further by 17 minutes to 03:05 (02:59–03:12, p=0.033). Altogether, the process was expedited by 46 minutes compared with the phase 1. Surprisingly, A2S interval was unaffected by the interventions among all patients needing laboratory testing. In comparison to phase 1, shortening of S2R interval was observed in phase 2 and 3, and that of R2D interval in all patients with laboratory assessments in phase 3. Conclusions: The advantage of POCT alone compared with central laboratory seemed to lie in shorter waiting times for results and earlier discharge home. Moreover, POCT and EAT model shorten LOS additively compared with conventional processes. However, a longer time is seemingly needed to adopt a new working process in the ED, and to establish its full benefit.
  • Kankaanpää, Meri; Raitakari, Maria; Muukkonen, Leila; Gustafsson, Siv; Heitto, Merja; Palomäki, Ari; Suojanen, Kimmo; Harjola, Veli-Pekka (2016)
    Background: To assess whether the use of point-of-care testing (POCT) and early assessment team (EAT) model shortens emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS). Methods: This prospective, observational study with comparison between three study periods was performed in three phases in a metropolitan ED with 57,000 annual visits. Data were collected from adult ambulatory patients who were discharged home. Phase 1 served as a control (n = 1559 in one month). In phase 2, a comprehensive POCT panel including complete blood count, sodium, potassium, glucose, C-reactive protein, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, amylase, and D-dimer was launched (n = 1442 in one month). In phase 3 (n = 3356 in subsequent two months), POCT approach continued. In addition, the working process was changed by establishing an EAT consisting of an emergency medicine resident and a nurse. The team operated from 12 noon to 10 p.m. was. The primary outcome was LOS (hh: mm) in the ED. Waiting times for patients requiring laboratory testing were analysed also, including time from admission to laboratory blood sampling (A2S interval), time from blood sampling to results ready (S2R interval) and time from results to discharge (R2D interval). Results: Median LOS of patients requiring laboratory tests in phase 1 was 3:51 (95 % confidence interval 03:38-04:04). During phase 2, introduction of POCT reduced median LOS by 29 min to 03: 22 (03:12-03:31, p = 0.000). In phase 3, the EAT model reduced median LOS further by 17 min to 03:05 (02: 59-03:12, p = 0.033). Altogether, the process was expedited by 46 min compared with the phase 1. Surprisingly, A2S interval was unaffected by the interventions among all patients needing laboratory testing. In comparison to phase 1, shortening of S2R interval was observed in phase 2 and 3, and that of R2D interval in all patients with laboratory assessments in phase 3. Discussion: The present study included adult ambulatory patients and is the first one to examine the impact of comprehensive POC test panel, first alone and then with additional process change. As a result, LOS was reduced significantly for patients needing laboratory tests. Considerable shortening in LOS came from introduction of POCT, and EAT process decreased the LOS further. We used a comprehensive POC test panel in order to maximise the patient population benefiting from the positive impacts of POC on laboratory turnaround time and length of stay. In EAT, diverse setups exist, and these differences affect the interpretation of results. The process changes in phase 3 were done by rearranging work shifts and no extra resources were added. Regarding to staffing the process improvement was thus cost neutral. Conclusions: The advantage of POCT alone compared with central laboratory seemed to lie in shorter waiting times for results and earlier discharge home. Moreover, POCT and EAT model shorten LOS additively compared with conventional processes. However, a longer time is seemingly needed to adopt a new working process in the ED, and to establish its full benefit.
  • Kankaanpää, Meri; Raitakari, Maria; Muukkonen, Leila; Gustafsson, Siv; Heitto, Merja; Palomäki, Ari; Suojanen, Kimmo; Harjola, Veli-Pekka (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background To assess whether the use of point-of-care testing (POCT) and early assessment team (EAT) model shortens emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS). Methods This prospective, observational study with comparison between three study periods was performed in three phases in a metropolitan ED with 57,000 annual visits. Data were collected from adult ambulatory patients who were discharged home. Phase 1 served as a control (n = 1559 in one month). In phase 2, a comprehensive POCT panel including complete blood count, sodium, potassium, glucose, C-reactive protein, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, amylase, and D-dimer was launched (n = 1442 in one month). In phase 3 (n = 3356 in subsequent two months), POCT approach continued. In addition, the working process was changed by establishing an EAT consisting of an emergency medicine resident and a nurse. The team operated from 12 noon to 10 p.m. was. The primary outcome was LOS (hh:mm) in the ED. Waiting times for patients requiring laboratory testing were analysed also, including time from admission to laboratory blood sampling (A2S interval), time from blood sampling to results ready (S2R interval) and time from results to discharge (R2D interval). Results Median LOS of patients requiring laboratory tests in phase 1 was 3:51 (95 % confidence interval 03:38–04:04). During phase 2, introduction of POCT reduced median LOS by 29 min to 03:22 (03:12–03:31, p = 0.000). In phase 3, the EAT model reduced median LOS further by 17 min to 03:05 (02:59–03:12, p = 0.033). Altogether, the process was expedited by 46 min compared with the phase 1. Surprisingly, A2S interval was unaffected by the interventions among all patients needing laboratory testing. In comparison to phase 1, shortening of S2R interval was observed in phase 2 and 3, and that of R2D interval in all patients with laboratory assessments in phase 3. Discussion The present study included adult ambulatory patients and is the first one to examine the impact of comprehensive POC test panel, first alone and then with additional process change. As a result, LOS was reduced significantly for patients needing laboratory tests. Considerable shortening in LOS came from introduction of POCT, and EAT process decreased the LOS further. We used a comprehensive POC test panel in order to maximise the patient population benefiting from the positive impacts of POC on laboratory turnaround time and length of stay. In EAT, diverse setups exist, and these differences affect the interpretation of results. The process changes in phase 3 were done by rearranging work shifts and no extra resources were added. Regarding to staffing the process improvement was thus cost neutral. Conclusions The advantage of POCT alone compared with central laboratory seemed to lie in shorter waiting times for results and earlier discharge home. Moreover, POCT and EAT model shorten LOS additively compared with conventional processes. However, a longer time is seemingly needed to adopt a new working process in the ED, and to establish its full benefit.