Browsing by Subject "LOW-BACK-PAIN"

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  • Kringel, D.; Lippmann, C.; Parnham, M. J.; Kalso, E.; Ultsch, A.; Lötsch, J. (2018)
    Background Human genetic research has implicated functional variants of more than one hundred genes in the modulation of persisting pain. Artificial intelligence and machine-learning techniques may combine this knowledge with results of genetic research gathered in any context, which permits the identification of the key biological processes involved in chronic sensitization to pain. MethodsResultsBased on published evidence, a set of 110 genes carrying variants reported to be associated with modulation of the clinical phenotype of persisting pain in eight different clinical settings was submitted to unsupervised machine-learning aimed at functional clustering. Subsequently, a mathematically supported subset of genes, comprising those most consistently involved in persisting pain, was analysed by means of computational functional genomics in the Gene Ontology knowledgebase. Clustering of genes with evidence for a modulation of persisting pain elucidated a functionally heterogeneous set. The situation cleared when the focus was narrowed to a genetic modulation consistently observed throughout several clinical settings. On this basis, two groups of biological processes, the immune system and nitric oxide signalling, emerged as major players in sensitization to persisting pain, which is biologically highly plausible and in agreement with other lines of pain research. ConclusionsSignificanceThe present computational functional genomics-based approach provided a computational systems-biology perspective on chronic sensitization to pain. Human genetic control of persisting pain points to the immune system as a source of potential future targets for drugs directed against persisting pain. Contemporary machine-learned methods provide innovative approaches to knowledge discovery from previous evidence. We show that knowledge discovery in genetic databases and contemporary machine-learned techniques can identify relevant biological processes involved in Persitent pain.
  • Heikkala, Eveliina; Remes, Jouko; Paananen, Markus; Taimela, Simo; Auvinen, Juha; Karppinen, Jaro (2014)
  • Kuisma, Mari; Karppinen, Jaro; Haapea, Marianne; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Ojala, Risto; Heliövaara, Markku; Korpelainen, Raija; Kaikkonen, Kaisu; Taimela, Simo; Natri, Antero; Tervonen, Osmo (2008)
  • Takatalo, Jani; Karppinen, Jaro; Taimela, Simo; Niinimaki, Jaakko; Laitinen, Jaana; Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco; Samartzis, Dino; Korpelainen, Raija; Nayha, Simo; Remes, Jouko; Tervonen, Osmo (2013)
  • Heikkala, Eveliina; Paananen, Markus; Taimela, Simo; Auvinen, Juha; Karppinen, Jaro (2019)
    Background Musculoskeletal (MS) pain is common. It often exists in several sites and is recurrent. Psychosocial difficulties and unhealthy behaviours have been related to multisite MS pain, but no literature has assessed the impact of accumulated psychosocial and lifestyle factors on recurrent multiple MS pain. Methods Our data were gathered from two questionnaires of the well-known Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986), sent to members when they were aged 16 and 18. A total of 1,625 adolescents (712 boys and 913 girls) answered questions on smoking, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleeping and emotional and behavioural problems at 16 years and on musculoskeletal pain at 16 and 18 years. Weight and height measurements were taken at a health examination at baseline. A latent class analysis and multinomial regression analysis were conducted. Results We identified four clusters among both sexes. "Externalizing behavior" among both genders (OR 2.98, CI 1.73-5.13 among boys; OR 2.38, CI 1.38-4.11 among girls), "Multiple risk behaviors" among girls (OR 2.73, CI 1.30-5.71) and a "Sedentary" cluster among boys (OR 1.85, CI 1.21-2.82) were associated to recurrent multisite MS pain. "Obese" clusters had no significant associations with recurrent multiple MS pain. Conclusions Adolescents with psychosocial difficulties and/or several adverse health behaviours were at an increased risk of recurrent multisite MS pain, which emphasizes the importance of simultaneously studying multiple rather than single factors. The identification of risk groups may help more accurately target preventive interventions. Significance This study found subgroups of adolescents at risk of recurrent multisite musculoskeletal pain during late adolescence. The accumulation of multiple adverse behaviours is likely to provide new perspectives for understanding the multidimensional nature of multiple MS pains.
  • Takatalo, Jani; Karppinen, Jaro; Taimela, Simo; Niinimaki, Jaakko; Laitinen, Jaana; Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco; Paananen, Markus; Remes, Jouko; Nayha, Simo; Tammelin, Tuija; Korpelainen, Raija; Tervonen, Osmo (2013)
  • Cognitive Behav Therapy-Overview; Fordham, Beth; Kaidesoja, Milla (2021)
    Background: Cognitive-behavioural therapy aims to increase quality of life by changing cognitive and behavioural factors that maintain problematic symptoms. A previous overview of cognitive-behavioural therapy systematic reviews suggested that cognitive-behavioural therapy was effective for many conditions. However, few of the included reviews synthesised randomised controlled trials. Objectives: This project was undertaken to map the quality and gaps in the cognitive-behavioural therapy systematic review of randomised controlled trial evidence base. Panoramic meta-analyses were also conducted to identify any across-condition general effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy. Data sources: The overview was designed with cognitive-behavioural therapy patients, clinicians and researchers. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Child Development & Adolescent Studies, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and OpenGrey databases were searched from 1992 to January 2019. Review methods: Study inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) fulfil the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination criteria; (2) intervention reported as cognitive-behavioural therapy or including one cognitive and one behavioural element; (3) include a synthesis of cognitive-behavioural therapy trials; (4) include either health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety or pain outcome; and (5) available in English. Review quality was assessed with A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews (AMSTAR)-2. Reviews were quality assessed and data were extracted in duplicate by two independent researchers, and then mapped according to condition, population, context and quality. The effects from high-quality reviews were pooled within condition groups, using a random-effect panoramic meta-analysis. If the across-condition heterogeneity was I-2 < 75%, we pooled across conditions. Subgroup analyses were conducted for age, delivery format, comparator type and length of follow-up, and a sensitivity analysis was performed for quality. Results: A total of 494 reviews were mapped, representing 68% (27/40) of the categories of the International Classification of Diseases, Eleventh Revision, Mortality and Morbidity Statistics. Most reviews (71%, 351/494) were of lower quality. Research on older adults, using cognitive-behavioural therapy preventatively, ethnic minorities and people living outside Europe, North America or Australasia was limited. Out of 494 reviews, 71 were included in the primary panoramic meta-analyses. A modest effect was found in favour of cognitive-behavioural therapy for health-related quality of life (standardised mean difference 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.41, prediction interval -0.05 to 0.50, I-2 = 32%), anxiety (standardised mean difference 0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.43, prediction interval -0.28 to 0.88, I-2 = 62%) and pain (standardised mean difference 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.41, prediction interval -0.28 to 0.74, I-2 = 64%) outcomes. All condition, subgroup and sensitivity effect estimates remained consistent with the general effect. A statistically significant interaction effect was evident between the active and non-active comparator groups for the health-related quality-of-life outcome. A general effect for depression outcomes was not produced as a result of considerable heterogeneity across reviews and conditions. Limitations: Data extraction and analysis were conducted at the review level, rather than returning to the individual trial data. This meant that the risk of bias of the individual trials could not be accounted for, but only the quality of the systematic reviews that synthesised them. Conclusion: Owing to the consistency and homogeneity of the highest-quality evidence, it is proposed that cognitive-behavioural therapy can produce a modest general, across-condition benefit in health-related quality-of-life, anxiety and pain outcomes. Future work: Future research should focus on how the modest effect sizes seen with cognitive-behavioural therapy can be increased, for example identifying alternative delivery formats to increase adherence and reduce dropout, and pursuing novel methods to assess intervention fidelity and quality. Study registration: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42017078690.
  • Boström, Anna; Hielm-Bjorkman, Anna; Chang, Yu-Mei; Weller, Renate; Davies, Emma (2014)
  • Boström, Anna F.; Parzefall, Birgit; Blutke, Andreas; Davies, Emma S. (2022)
    Cross-sectional area (CSA) decreases and fat infiltration increases in epaxial muscles of Dachshunds with intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), but less is known about large breed dogs with IVDD. The aim here was to investigate thoracolumbar epaxial muscle CSA and fat infiltration in large breed dogs with compressive IVDD and acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion (ANNPE) or fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE). This retrospective study included large breed dogs with MRI-confirmed IVDD (n = 17) and ANNPE or FCE (n = 13). The CSA and fat infiltration of the thoracolumbar M. longissimus and Mm. multifidi were assessed from T1-weighted transverse MR images using Osirix. The CSA was significantly smaller in dogs with compressive IVDD than in dogs with non-compressive ANNPE or FCE for Mm. multifidi (p = 0.015), M. longissimus (p = 0.070), and these two muscles combined (p = 0.016). Fat infiltration in all muscle measurements was significantly higher in dogs with compressive IVDD than in dogs with non-compressive ANNPE or FCE (all P < 0.050). A significant positive correlation existed between age, duration of clinical signs, and fat infiltration, suggesting more fat infiltration in older dogs with more chronic signs. These signs of muscle atrophy are likely caused by denervation and secondary disuse due to chronic spinal cord compression and prolonged duration of clinical signs.
  • Shiri, Rahman; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Leino-Arjas, Päivi (2020)
    Objective. To estimate the effects of excess body mass and leisure time physical activity on the incidence and persistence of chronic pain. Design. A prospective cohort study. Methods. As a part of the Finnish Helsinki Health Study, we included three cohorts of employees of the City of Helsinki (18,562 observations) and defined incident chronic pain as having pain in any part of the body for more than three months at follow-up in participants without chronic pain at baseline (N = 13,029 observations). Persistent chronic pain was defined as having pain for more than three months at both baseline and follow-up (N = 5,533 observations). Results. Overweight (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-1.31) and obesity (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.45-1.88) increased the incidence of chronic pain. Moreover, overweight (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.02-1.32) and obesity (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.26-1.74) increased the risk of persistent chronic pain. Vigorous leisure time physical activity reduced the incidence of chronic pain (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.75-0.96). Physical activity did not influence the risk of persistent chronic pain. Furthermore, overweight/obesity modified the effect of leisure time physical activity on incident chronic pain. Inactive overweight or obese participants were at the highest risk of chronic pain (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.40-2.09), while the OR dropped to 1.44 (95% CI = 1.19-1.75) in moderately active overweight or obese participants and to 1.20 (95% CI = 0.97-1.47) in highly active overweight or obese participants. Conclusions. Obesity not only increases the risk of developing chronic pain, but also increases the risk of persistent pain, while leisure time physical activity reduces the risk of developing chronic pain.
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Shiri, Rahman; Mänty, Minna; Sumanen, Hilla; Solovieva, Svetlana; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Lallukka, Tea (2019)
    Objectives To examine whether exposure to heavy physical work from early to later adulthood is associated with primary healthcare visits due to cause-specific musculoskeletal diseases in midlife. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nationally representative Young Finns Study cohort, Finland. Participants 1056 participants of the Young Finns Study cohort. Exposure measure Physical work exposure was surveyed in early (18-24years old, 1986 or 1989) and later adulthood (2007 and 2011), and it was categorised as: 'no exposure', 'early exposure only', 'later exposure only' and 'early and later exposure'. Primary and secondary outcome measures Visits due to any musculoskeletal disease and separately due to spine disorders, and upper extremity disorders were followed up from national primary healthcare register from the date of the third survey in 2011 until 2014. Results Prevalence of any musculoskeletal disease during the follow-up was 20%, that for spine disorders 10% and that for upper extremity disorders 5%. Those with physically heavy work in early adulthood only had an increased risk of any musculoskeletal disease (risk ratio (RR) 1.55, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.28) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, physical activity and parental occupational class. Later exposure only was associated with visits due to any musculoskeletal disease (RR 1.46, 95%CI 1.01 to 2.12) and spine disorders (RR 2.40, 95%CI 1.41 to 4.06). Early and later exposure was associated with all three outcomes: RR 1.99 (95% CI 1.44 to 2.77) for any musculoskeletal disease, RR 2.43 (95% CI 1.42 to 4.14) for spine disorders and RR 3.97 (95% CI 1.86 to 8.46) for upper extremity disorders. Conclusions To reduce burden of musculoskeletal diseases, preventive actions to reduce exposure to or mitigate the consequences of physically heavy work throughout the work career are needed.
  • Lemmelä, Susanna; Solovieva, Svetlana; Shiri, Rahman; Benner, Christian; Heliovaara, Markku; Kettunen, Johannes; Anttila, Verneri; Ripatti, Samuli; Perola, Markus; Seppala, Ilkka; Juonala, Markus; Kahonen, Mika; Salomaa, Veikko; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Palotie, Aarno; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti (2016)
    Sciatica or the sciatic syndrome is a common and often disabling low back disorder in the working-age population. It has a relatively high heritability but poorly understood molecular mechanisms. The Finnish population is a genetic isolate where small founder population and bottleneck events have led to enrichment of certain rare and low frequency variants. We performed here the first genome-wide association (GWAS) and meta-analysis of sciatica. The meta-analysis was conducted across two GWAS covering 291 Finnish sciatica cases and 3671 controls genotyped and imputed at 7.7 million autosomal variants. The most promising loci (p
  • Vartiainen, Pekka; Heiskanen, Tarja; Sintonen, Harri; Roine, Risto P.; Kalso, Eija (2019)
    Background Multidisciplinary pain management (MPM) is a generally accepted method for treating chronic pain, but heterogeneous outcome measures provide only limited conclusions concerning its effectiveness. Therefore, further studies on the effectiveness of MPM are needed to identify subgroups of patients who benefit, or do not benefit, from these interventions. Our aim was to analyse health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes after MPM and to identify factors associated with treatment outcomes. Methods We carried out a real world observational follow-up study of chronic pain patients referred to a tertiary multidisciplinary outpatient pain clinic to describe, using the validated HRQoL instrument 15D, the HRQoL change after MPM and to identify factors associated with this change. 1,043 patients responded to the 15D HRQoL questionnaire at baseline and 12 months after the start of treatment. Background data were collected from the pre-admission questionnaire of the pain clinic. Results Fifty-three percent of the patients reported a clinically important improvement and, of these, 81% had a major improvement. Thirty-five percent reported a clinically important deterioration, and 12% had no change in HRQoL. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that major improvement was positively associated with shorter duration of pain (
  • Kausto, Johanna; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Virta, Lauri J.; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2017)
    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the length of sickness absence and sustained return to work (SRTW) and the predictors of SRTW in depression, anxiety disorders, intervertebral disc disorders, and back pain in a population-based cohort of employees in the Finnish public sector. Methods We linked data from employers' registers and four national population registers. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis with a cluster option was applied. SRTW was defined as the end of the sickness benefit period not followed by a recurrent sickness benefit period in 30 days. Results For depression, the median time to SRTW was 46 and 38 days among men and women, respectively. For anxiety disorders, the figures were 24 and 22 days, for intervertebral disc disorders, 42 and 41 days, and, for back pain, 21 and 22 days among men and women respectively. Higher age and the persistence of the health problem predicted longer time to SRTW throughout the diagnostic categories. Comorbid conditions predicted longer time to SRTW in depression and back pain among women. Conclusions This large cohort study adds scientific evidence on the length of sickness absence and SRTW in four important diagnostic categories among public sector employees in Finland. Further research taking into account, eg, features of the work environment is suggested. Recommendations on the length of sickness absence at this point should be based on expert opinion and supplemented with research findings.
  • Shiri, Rahman; Euro, Ulla; Heliovaara, Markku; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Karppinen, Jaro; Lahti, Jouni; Rahkonen, Ossi; Raitakari, Olli T.; Solovieva, Svetlana; Yang, Xiaolin; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Lallukka, Tea (2017)
    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of lifestyle risk factors on the risk of hospitalization for sciatica and to determine whether overweight or obesity modifies the effect of leisure-time physical activity on hospitalization for sciatica. METHODS: We included 4 Finnish prospective cohort studies (Health 2000 Survey, Mobile Clinic Survey, Helsinki Health Study, and Young Finns Study) consisting of 34,589 participants and 1259 hospitalizations for sciatica during 12 to 30 years of follow-up. Sciatica was based on hospital discharge register data. We conducted a random-effects individual participant data meta-analysis. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounding factors, current smoking at baseline increased the risk of subsequent hospitalization for sciatica by 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13%-56%), whereas past smokers were no longer at increased risk. Obesity defined by body mass index increased the risk of hospitalization for sciatica by 36% (95% CI 7%-74%), and abdominal obesity defined by waist circumference increased the risk by 41% (95% CI 3%-93%). Walking or cycling to work reduced the risk of hospitalization for sciatica by 33% (95% CI 4%-53%), and the effect was independent of body weight and other leisure activities, while other types of leisure activities did not have a statistically significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking and obesity increase the risk of hospitalization for sciatica, whereas walking or cycling to work protects against hospitalization for sciatica. Walking and cycling can be recommended for the prevention of sciatica in the general population. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Hyytiäinen, Heli K.; Mykkänen, Anna K.; Hielm-Björkman, Anna K.; Stubbs, Narelle C.; McGowan, Catherine M. (2014)
  • Pekkala, Johanna; Blomgren, Jenni; Pietilainen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (2017)
    Background: Musculoskeletal diseases and mental disorders are major causes of long-term sickness absence in Western countries. Although sickness absence is generally more common in lower occupational classes, little is known about class differences in diagnostic-specific absence over time. Focusing on Finland during 2005-2014, we therefore set out to examine the magnitude of and changes in absolute and relative occupational class differences in long-term sickness absence due to major diagnostic causes. Methods: A 70-per-cent random sample of Finns aged 25-64 linked to register data on medically certified sickness absence (of over 10 working days) in 2005-2014 was retrieved from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Information on occupational class was obtained from Statistics Finland and linked to the data. The study focused on female (n = 658,148-694,142) and male (n = 604,715-642,922) upper and lower non-manual employees and manual workers. The age-standardised prevalence, the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were calculated for each study year to facilitate examination of the class differences. Results: The prevalence of each diagnostic cause of sickness absence declined during the study period, the most common causes being musculoskeletal diseases, mental disorders and injuries. The prevalence of other causes under scrutiny was less than 1 % annually. By far the largest absolute and relative differences were in musculoskeletal diseases among both women and men. Moreover, the absolute differences in both genders (p <0. 0001) and the relative differences in men (p <0.0001) narrowed over time as the prevalence declined most among manual workers. Both genders showed modest and stable occupational class differences in mental disorders. In the case of injuries, no major changes occurred in absolute differences but relative differences narrowed over time in men (p <0.0001) due to a strong decline in prevalence among manual workers. Class differences in the other studied diagnostic causes under scrutiny appeared negligible. Conclusions: By far the largest occupational class differences in long-term sickness absence concerned musculoskeletal diseases, followed by injuries. The results highlight potential targets for preventive measures aimed at reducing sickness absence and narrowing class differences in the future.
  • Morlion, Bart; Coluzzi, Flaminia; Aldington, Dominic; Kocot-Kepska, Magdalena; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Mangas, Ana Cristina; Ahlbeck, Karsten; Kalso, Eija (2018)
    Objective: Pain is one of the most common reasons for an individual to consult their primary care physician, with most chronic pain being treated in the primary care setting. However, many primary care physicians/non-pain medicine specialists lack enough awareness, education and skills to manage pain patients appropriately, and there is currently no clear, common consensus/formal definition of pain chronification. Methods: This article, based on an international Change Pain Chronic Advisory Board meeting which was held in Wiesbaden, Germany, in October 2016, provides primary care physicians/non-pain medicine specialists with a narrative overview of pain chronification, including underlying physiological and psychosocial processes, predictive factors for pain chronification, a brief summary of preventive strategies, and the role of primary care physicians and non-pain medicine specialists in the holistic management of pain chronification. Results: Based on currently available evidence, we propose the following consensus-based definition of pain chronification which provides a common framework to raise awareness among non-pain medicine specialists: Pain chronification describes the process of transient pain progressing into persistent pain; pain processing changes as a result of an imbalance between pain amplification and pain inhibition; genetic, environmental and biopsychosocial factors determine the risk, the degree, and time-course of chronification. Conclusions: Early intervention plays an important role in preventing pain chronification and, as key influencers in the management of patients with acute pain, it is critical that primary care physicians are equipped with the necessary awareness, education and skills to manage pain patients appropriately.
  • Ehrström, Jolanda; Pöyhiä, Reino; Kettunen, Jyrki; Santavirta, Nina; Pyörälä, Eeva (2022)
    Background: Health care providers' beliefs influence the outcomes of low back pain patients care. Objectives: The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Health Care Providers' Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale into Finnish (HC-PAIRS-FI) and to evaluate its psychometric properties and factor structure in a sample of Finnish physiotherapists and physiotherapy students. Methods: The translation was performed using established guidelines. Participants answered an online survey consisting of HC-PAIRS-FI and the Finnish Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia adapted for health care providers (TSK-HC-FI). Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine test-retest reliability. A second round of analysis, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed as the fit indices of the initial CFA were not satisfactory. Results: A sample of 202 physiotherapists and 97 physiotherapy students completed the survey. The second round of analysis EFA and CFA, conducted on a randomly split subsample, revealed and confirmed a three-factor, 11item HC-PAIRS-FI scale with satisfactory model fit indices. Cronbach's alpha 0.79 and ICC = 0.82 (p < 0.001) indicate good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The standard error of measurement was 2.12. HCPAIRS-FI scores correlated moderately with TSK-HC-FI (r = 0.69, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The 11 items HC-PAIRS-FI appears to be a valid and reliable questionnaire to evaluate Finnish physiotherapists' and physiotherapy students' attitudes and beliefs about the relationship between chronic low back pain and impairment. Future studies are required to validate this scale for other health care providers.