Browsing by Subject "LUMINOSITY"

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  • Comparat, J.; Merloni, A.; Salvato, M.; Nandra, K.; Boller, T.; Georgakakis, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Dwelly, T.; Buchner, J.; Del Moro, A.; Clerc, N.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, G.; Prada, F.; Yepes, G.; Brusa, M.; Krumpe, M.; Liu, T. (2019)
    In the context of the upcoming SRG/eROSITA survey, we present an N-body simulation-based mock catalogue for X-ray-selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) samples. The model reproduces the observed hard X-ray AGN luminosity function (XLF) and the soft X-ray logN-logS from redshift 0 to 6. The XLF is reproduced to within +/- 5 per cent and the logN-logS to within +/- 20 per cent. We develop a joint X-ray - optical extinction and classification model. We adopt a set of empirical spectral energy distributions to predict observed magnitudes in the UV, optical, and NIR. With the latest eROSITA all sky survey sensitivity model, we create a high-fidelity full-sky mock catalogue of X-ray AGN. It predicts their distributions in right ascension, declination, redshift, and fluxes. Using empirical medium resolution optical spectral templates and an exposure time calculator, we find that 1.1 x 10(6) (4 x 10(5)) fibre-hours are needed to follow-up spectroscopically from the ground the detected X-ray AGN with an optical magnitude 21 <r <22.8 (22.8 <r <25) with a 4-m (8-m) class multiobject spectroscopic facility. We find that future clustering studies will measure the AGN bias to the per cent level at redshift z <1.2 and should discriminate possible scenarios of galaxy-AGN co-evolution. We predict the accuracy to which the baryon acoustic oscillation standard ruler will be measured using X-ray AGN: better than 3 per cent for AGN between redshift 0.5 to 3 and better than 1 per cent using the Ly alpha forest of X-ray QSOs discovered between redshift 2 and 3. eROSITA will provide an outstanding set of targets for future galaxy evolution and cosmological studies.
  • Bianconi, M.; Smith, G. P.; Haines, C. P.; McGee, S. L.; Finoguenov, A.; Egami, E. (2018)
    We report direct evidence of pre-processing of the galaxies residing in galaxy groups falling into galaxy clusters drawn from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey (LoCuSS). 34 groups have been identified via theirX-ray emission in the infall regions of 23 massive (<M-200 > = 10(15) M-circle dot) clusters at 0.15 <z <0.3. Highly complete spectroscopic coverage combined with 24 mu m imaging from Spitzer allows us to make a consistent and robust selection of cluster and group members including star-forming galaxies down to a stellar mass limit of M* = 2 x 10(10) M-circle dot. The fraction f(SF) of star-forming galaxies in infalling groups is lower and with a flatter trend with respect to clustercentric radius when compared to the rest of the cluster galaxy population. At R approximate to 1.3 r(200), the fraction of star-forming galaxies in infalling groups is half that in the cluster galaxy population. This is direct evidence that star-formation quenching is effective in galaxies already prior to them settling in the cluster potential, and that groups are favourable locations for this process.
  • Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Yoo, Hyunju; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Qin, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Qizhou; Wu, Yuefang; Wang, Ke; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Juvela, Mika; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Toth, L. Viktor; Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido; Bronfman, Leonardo; Cunningham, Maria R.; Li, Di; Lo, Nadia; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Schnee, Scott (2016)
    We observed 146 Galactic clumps in HCN (4-3) and CS (7-6) with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope. A tight linear relationship between star formation rate and gas mass traced by dust continuum emission was found for both Galactic clumps and the high redshift (z > 1) star forming galaxies (SFGs), indicating a constant gas depletion time of similar to 100 Myr for molecular gas in both Galactic clumps and high z SFGs. However, low z galaxies do not follow this relation and seem to have a longer global gas depletion time. The correlations between total infrared luminosities (L-TIR) and molecular line luminosities (L-mol') of HCN (4-3) and CS (7-6) are tight and sublinear extending down to clumps with L-TIR similar to 10(3) L-circle dot. These correlations become linear when extended to external galaxies. A bimodal behavior in the L-TIR-L-mol' correlations was found for clumps with different dust temperature, luminosity-to-mass ratio, and sigma(line)/sigma(vir). Such bimodal behavior may be due to evolutionary effects. The slopes of L-TIR-L-mol' correlations become more shallow as clumps evolve. We compared our results with lower J transition lines in Wu et al. (2010). The correlations between clump masses and line luminosities are close to linear for low effective excitation density tracers but become sublinear for high effective excitation density tracers for clumps with L-TIR larger than L-TIR similar to 10(4.5) L-circle dot. High effective excitation density tracers cannot linearly trace the total clump masses, leading to a sublinear correlations for both M-clump-L-mol' and L-TIR-L-mol' relations.
  • Erfanianfar, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Furnell, K.; Popesso, P.; Biviano, A.; Wuyts, S.; Collins, C. A.; Mirkazemi, M.; Comparat, J.; Khosroshahi, H.; Nandra, K.; Capasso, R.; Rykoff, E.; Wilman, D.; Merloni, A.; Clerc, N.; Salvato, M.; Chitham, J. I.; Kelvin, L. S.; Gozaliasl, G.; Weijmans, A.; Brownstein, J.; Egami, E.; Pereira, M. J.; Schneider, D. P.; Kirkpatrick, C.; Damsted, S.; Kukkola, A. (2019)
    We present the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) catalog for SPectroscoic IDentification of eROSITA Sources (SPIDERS) DR14 cluster program value-added catalog. We list the 416 BCGs identified as part of this process, along with their stellar mass, star formation rates (SFRs), and morphological properties. We identified the BCGs based on the available spectroscopic data from SPIDERS and photometric data from SDSS. We computed stellar masses and SFRs of the BCGs on the basis of SDSS, WISE, and GALEX photometry using spectral energy distribution fitting. Morphological properties for all BCGs were derived by Sersic profile fitting using the software package SIGMA in different optical bands (g,r,i). We combined this catalog with the BCGs of galaxy groups and clusters extracted from the deeper AEGIS, CDFS, COSMOS, XMM-CFHTLS, and XMM-XXL surveys to study the stellar mass-halo mass relation using the largest sample of X-ray groups and clusters known to date. This result suggests that the mass growth of the central galaxy is controlled by the hierarchical mass growth of the host halo. We find a strong correlation between the stellar mass of BCGs and the mass of their host halos. This relation shows no evolution since z similar to 0.65. We measure a mean scatter of 0.21 and 0.25 for the stellar mass of BCGs in a given halo mass at low (0.1 <z <0.3) and high (0.3 <z <0.65) redshifts, respectively. We further demonstrate that the BCG mass is covariant with the richness of the host halos in the very X-ray luminous systems. We also find evidence that part of the scatter between X-ray luminosity and richness can be reduced by considering stellar mass as an additional variable.
  • Cappelluti, Nico; Li, Yanxia; Ricarte, Angelo; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Allevato, Viola; Ananna, Tonima Tasnim; Ajello, Marco; Civano, Francesca; Comastri, Andrea; Elvis, Martin; Finoguenov, Alexis; Gilli, Roberto; Hasinger, Guenther; Marchesi, Stefano; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Pacucci, Fabio; Treister, E.; Urry, C. Megan (2017)
    Using Chandra observations in the 2.15 deg(2) COSMOS-legacy field, we present one of the most accurate measurements of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB) spectrum to date in the [0.3-7] keV energy band. The CXB has three distinct components: contributions from two Galactic collisional thermal plasmas at kT similar to 0.27 and 0.07 keV and an extragalactic power law with a photon spectral index Gamma = 1.45 +/- 0.02. The 1 keV normalization of the extragalactic component is 10.91 +/- 0.16 keV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) keV(-1). Removing all X-ray-detected sources, the remaining unresolved CXB is best fit by a power law with normalization 4.18 +/- 0.26 keV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) keV(-1) and photon spectral index Gamma = 1.57 +/- 0.10. Removing faint galaxies down to i(AB) similar to 27-28 leaves a hard spectrum with Gamma similar to 1.25 and a 1 keV normalization of similar to 1.37 keV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) keV(-1). This means that similar to 91% of the observed CXB is resolved into detected X-ray sources and undetected galaxies. Unresolved sources that contribute similar to 8%-9% of the total CXB show marginal evidence of being harder and possibly more obscured than resolved sources. Another similar to 1% of the CXB can be attributed to still undetected star-forming galaxies and absorbed active galactic nuclei. According to these limits, we investigate a scenario where early black holes totally account for non-source CXB fraction and constrain some of their properties. In order to not exceed the remaining CXB and the z similar to 6 accreted mass density, such a population of black holes must grow in Compton-thick envelopes with N-H > 1.6 x 10(25) cm(-2) and form in extremely low-metallicity environments (Z(circle dot)) similar to 10(-3).
  • Jackson, Thomas M.; Rosario, D. J.; Alexander, D. M.; Scholtz, J.; McAlpine, Stuart; Bower, R. G. (2020)
    In this paper, we present data from 72 low-redshift, hard X-ray selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) taken from the Swift-BAT 58 month catalogue. We utilize spectral energy distribution fitting to the optical to infrared photometry in order to estimate host galaxy properties. We compare this observational sample to a volume- and flux-matched sample of AGN from the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) hydrodynamical simulations in order to verify how accurately the simulations can reproduce observed AGN host galaxy properties. After correcting for the known +0.2 dex offset in the SFRs between EAGLE and previous observations, we find agreement in the star formation rate (SFR) and X-ray luminosity distributions; however, we find that the stellar masses in EAGLE are 0.2-0.4 dex greater than the observational sample, which consequently leads to lower specific star formation rates (sSFRs). We compare these results to our previous study at high redshift, finding agreement in both the observations and simulations, whereby the widths of sSFR distributions are similar (similar to 0.4-0.6 dex) and the median of the SFR distributions lie below the star-forming main sequence by similar to 0.3-0.5 dex across all samples. We also use EAGLE to select a sample of AGN host galaxies at high and low redshift and follow their characteristic evolution from z = 8 to z = 0. We find similar behaviour between these two samples, whereby star formation is quenched when the black hole goes through its phase of most rapid growth. Utilizing EAGLE we find that 23 per cent of AGN selected at z similar to 0 are also AGN at high redshift, and that their host galaxies are among the most massive objects in the simulation. Overall, we find EAGLE reproduces the observations well, with some minor inconsistencies (similar to 0.2 dex in stellar masses and similar to 0.4 dex in sSFRs).
  • Käfer, Florian; Finoguenov, Alexis; Eckert, Dominique; Sanders, Jeremy S.; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Nandra, Kirpal (2019)
    Context. In the framework of the hierarchical model the intra-cluster medium properties of galaxy clusters are tightly linked to structure formation, which makes X-ray surveys well suited for cosmological studies. To constrain cosmological parameters accurately by use of galaxy clusters in current and future X-ray surveys, a better understanding of selection effects related to the detection method of clusters is needed. Aims. We aim at a better understanding of the morphology of galaxy clusters to include corrections between the different core types and covariances with X-ray luminosities in selection functions. In particular, we stress the morphological deviations between a newly described surface brightness profile characterization and a commonly used single beta-model. Methods. We investigated a novel approach to describe surface brightness profiles, where the excess cool-core emission in the centers of the galaxy clusters is modeled using wavelet decomposition. Morphological parameters and the residuals were compared to classical single beta-models, fitted to the overall surface brightness profiles. Results. Using single beta-models to describe the ensemble of overall surface brightness profiles leads on average to a non-zero bias (0.032 +/- 0.003) in the outer part of the clusters, that is an approximate 3% systematic difference in the surface brightness at large radii. Furthermore, beta-models show a general trend toward underestimating the flux in the outskirts for smaller core radii. Fixing the beta parameter to 2/3 doubles the bias and increases the residuals from a single beta-model up to more than 40%. Modeling the core region in the fitting procedure reduces the impact of these two effects significantly. In addition, we find a positive scaling between shape parameters and temperature, as well as a negative correlation of approximately -0.4 between extent and luminosity. Conclusion. We demonstrate the caveats in modeling galaxy clusters with single beta-models and recommend using them with caution, especially when the systematics are not taken into account. Our non-parametric analysis of the self-similar scaled emission measure profiles indicates no systematic core-type differences of median profiles in the galaxy cluster outskirts.