Browsing by Subject "LUNG-CANCER"

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  • Loukola, Anu; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Gupta, Richa; Palviainen, Teemu; Hallfors, Jenni; Tikkanen, Emmi; Korhonen, Tellervo; Ollikainen, Miina; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Ripatti, Samuli; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Salomaa, Veikko; Rose, Richard J.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2015)
    Individuals with fast nicotine metabolism typically smoke more and thus have a greater risk for smoking-induced diseases. Further, the efficacy of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy is dependent on the rate of nicotine metabolism. Our objective was to use nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), an established biomarker of nicotine metabolism rate, in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants influencing nicotine metabolism. A heritability estimate of 0.81 (95% CI 0.70-0.88) was obtained for NMR using monozygotic and dizygotic twins of the FinnTwin cohort. We performed a GWAS in cotinine-verified current smokers of three Finnish cohorts (FinnTwin, Young Finns Study, FIN-RISK2007), followed by a meta-analysis of 1518 subjects, and annotated the genome-wide significant SNPs with methylation quantitative loci (meQTL) analyses. We detected association on 19q13 with 719 SNPs exceeding genome-wide significance within a 4.2 Mb region. The strongest evidence for association emerged for CYP2A6 (min p = 5.77E-86, in intron 4), the main metabolic enzyme for nicotine. Other interesting genes with genome-wide significant signals included CYP2B6, CYP2A7, EGLN2, and NUMBL. Conditional analyses revealed three independent signals on 19q13, all located within or in the immediate vicinity of CYP2A6. A genetic risk score constructed using the independent signals showed association with smoking quantity (p = 0.0019) in two independent Finnish samples. Our meQTL results showed that methylation values of 16 CpG sites within the region are affected by genotypes of the genome-wide significant SNPs, and according to causal inference test, for some of the SNPs the effect on NMR is mediated through methylation. To our knowledge, this is the first GWAS on NMR. Our results enclose three independent novel signals on 19q13.2. The detected CYP2A6 variants explain a strikingly large fraction of variance (up to 31%) in NMR in these study samples. Further, we provide evidence for plausible epigenetic mechanisms influencing NMR.
  • Scheinin, Ilari; Ferreira, Jose A.; Knuutila, Sakari; Meijer, Gerrit A.; van de Wiel, Mark A.; Ylstra, Bauke (2010)
  • Vesterinen, Tiina; Mononen, Sanna; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Mustonen, Harri; Ilonen, Ilkka; Knuuttila, Aija; Haglund, Caj; Arola, Johanna (2018)
    Background: Pulmonary carcinoids (PC) are rare malignant neoplasms that cover approximately 1% of all lung cancers. PCs are classified by histological criteria as either typical (TC) or atypical (AC). Histological subtype is the most studied prognostic factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate if other tissue or clinical features are associated with patient outcomes.Material and methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical records of 133PC patients who underwent operation in the Helsinki University Hospital between 1990 and 2013. Tissue specimens were re-evaluated, processed into tissue microarray format and stained immunohistochemically with serotonin, calcitonin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and Ki-67. Survival and risk analyses were performed.Results: Based on histology, 75% (n=100) of the tumors were TCs and 25% (n=33) ACs. TCs had higher 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rate than ACs (99% (95% CI, 93-100%) for TCs vs. 82% (95% CI, 61-92%) for ACs). Hormonally active tumors expressing serotonin, calcitonin or ACTH were noted in 53% of the specimens but hormonal expression was not associated with DSS. TTF-1 was positive in 78% of the specimens but was not associated with DSS. Ki-67 index varied between
  • Riihila, Pilvi; Nissinen, Liisa; Farshchian, Mehdi; Kallajoki, Markku; Kivisaari, Atte; Meri, Seppo; Grenman, Reidar; Peltonen, Sirkku; Peltonen, Juha; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Kahari, Veli-Matti (2017)
    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most common metastatic skin cancers with increasing incidence. We examined the roles of complement component C3 and complement factor B (CFB) in the growth of cSCC. Analysis of cSCC cell lines (n = 8) and normal human epidermal kerati-nocytes (n = 11) with real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting revealed up-regulation of C3 and CFB expression in cSCC cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed stronger tumor cell specific Labeling for C3 and CFB in invasive cSCCs (n = 71) and recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa-associated cSCCs (n = 11) than in cSCC in situ (n = 69), actinic keratoses (n = 63), and normal skin (n = 5). Significant up-regulation of C3 and CFB mRNA expression was noted in chemically induced mouse cSCCs, compared to benign papillomas. Knockdown of C3 and CFB expression inhibited migration and proliferation of cSCC cells and resulted in potent inhibition of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 activation. Knockdown of C3 and CFB markedly inhibited growth of human cSCC xenograft tumors in vivo. These results provide evidence for the rotes of C3 and CFB in the development of cSCC and identify them as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in this metastatic skin cancer.
  • Eskian, Mahsa; Alavi, Abass; Khorasanizadeh, MirHojjat; Viglianti, Benjamin L.; Jacobsson, Hans; Barwick, Tara D.; Meysamie, Alipasha; Yi, Sun K.; Iwano, Shingo; Bybel, Bohdan; Caobelli, Federico; Lococo, Filippo; Gea, Joaquim; Sancho-Munoz, Antonio; Schildt, Jukka; Tatci, Ebru; Lapa, Constantin; Keramida, Georgia; Peters, Michael; Boktor, Raef R.; John, Joemon; Pitman, Alexander G.; Mazurek, Tomasz; Rezaei, Nima (2019)
    Objectives To evaluate the effect of pre-scan blood glucose levels (BGL) on standardized uptake value (SUV) in F-18-FDG-PET scan. Methods A literature review was performed in the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane library databases. Multivariate regression analysis was performed on individual datum to investigate the correlation of BGL with SUVmax and SUVmean adjusting for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus diagnosis, F-18-FDG injected dose, and time interval. The ANOVA test was done to evaluate differences in SUVmax or SUVmean among five different BGL groups (200 mg/dl). Results Individual data for a total of 20,807 SUVmax and SUVmean measurements from 29 studies with 8380 patients was included in the analysis. Increased BGL is significantly correlated with decreased SUVmax and SUVmean in brain (p <0.001, p <0.001,) and muscle (p <0.001, p <0.001) and increased SUVmax and SUVmean in liver (p = 0.001, p = 0004) and blood pool (p=0.008, p200 mg/dl had significantly lower SUVmax. Conclusion If BGL is lower than 200mg/dl no interventions are needed for lowering BGL, unless the liver is the organ of interest. Future studies are needed to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET scan in diagnosis of malignant lesions in hyperglycemia.
  • Rajala, Kaisa; Lehto, Juho T.; Saarinen, M.; Sutinen, E.; Saarto, T.; Myllarniemi, M. (2016)
    Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with median survival from 2 to 7 years. Palliative care is an important part of patients' care as lung transplantation is not an option for the majority of patients. The aim of this study was to describe treatment practices, decision-making and symptoms during end-of-life care of IPF patients. Methods: We identified 59 deceased patients from a national prospective IPF cohort study (FinnishIPF) and analyzed retrospectively their health care documentation during the 6 months that preceded death. Results: Hospital was the place of death for 47 patients (80 %). A majority of the patients (93 %) were hospitalized for a mean of 30 days (range 1-96 days) during the last 6 months of their life. Altogether, patients spent 15 % of their last 6 months of life in a hospital. End-of-life decisions and do not resuscitate (DNR) orders were made for 19 (32 %) and 34 (57 %) of the patients, respectively, and 22 (42 %) of these decisions were made Conclusions: The majority of IPF patients died in a hospital with ongoing life-prolonging procedures until death. The frequent use of opioids is an indicator of an intention to relieve symptoms, but end-of-life decisions were still made very late. Early integrated palliative care with advance care plan could improve the end-of-life care of dying IPF patients.
  • Quach, Bryan C.; Bray, Michael J.; Gaddis, Nathan C.; Liu, Mengzhen; Palviainen, Teemu; Minica, Camelia C.; Zellers, Stephanie; Sherva, Richard; Aliev, Fazil; Nothnagel, Michael; Young, Kendra A.; Marks, Jesse A.; Young, Hannah; Carnes, Megan U.; Guo, Yuelong; Waldrop, Alex; Sey, Nancy Y. A.; Landi, Maria T.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Drichel, Dmitriy; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Markunas, Christina A.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Iacono, William G.; Kranzler, Henry R.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Neale, Michael C.; Madden, Pamela; Rietschel, Marcella; Marazita, Mary L.; McGue, Matthew; Won, Hyejung; Winterer, Georg; Grucza, Richard; Dick, Danielle M.; Gelernter, Joel; Caporaso, Neil E.; Baker, Timothy B.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hokanson, John E.; Vrieze, Scott; Bierut, Laura J.; Johnson, Eric O.; Hancock, Dana B. (2020)
    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Genetic variation contributes to initiation, regular smoking, nicotine dependence, and cessation. We present a Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)-based genome-wide association study in 58,000 European or African ancestry smokers. We observe five genome-wide significant loci, including previously unreported loci MAGI2/GNAI1 (rs2714700) and TENM2 (rs1862416), and extend loci reported for other smoking traits to nicotine dependence. Using the heaviness of smoking index from UK Biobank (N=33,791), rs2714700 is consistently associated; rs1862416 is not associated, likely reflecting nicotine dependence features not captured by the heaviness of smoking index. Both variants influence nearby gene expression (rs2714700/MAGI2-AS3 in hippocampus; rs1862416/TENM2 in lung), and expression of genes spanning nicotine dependence-associated variants is enriched in cerebellum. Nicotine dependence (SNP-based heritability = 8.6%) is genetically correlated with 18 other smoking traits (r(g)=0.40-1.09) and co-morbidities. Our results highlight nicotine dependence-specific loci, emphasizing the FTND as a composite phenotype that expands genetic knowledge of smoking. There is strong genetic evidence for cigarette smoking behaviors, yet little is known on nicotine dependence (ND). Here, the authors perform a genome-wide association study on ND in 58,000 smokers, identifying five genome-wide significant loci.
  • Mroueh, Rayan; Tanskanen, Tomas; Haapaniemi, Aaro; Salo, Tuula; Malila, Nea; Mäkitie, Antti; Pitkäniemi, Janne (2020)
    Background Reported patterns of familial aggregation of head and neck cancer (HNC) vary greatly, with many studies hampered by the limited number of subjects. Methods Altogether 923 early-onset ( Results Of all early-onset HNC families, only 21 (2.3%) had familial HNC cancers at any age and less than five familial early onset HNC cancers among first-degree relatives. The cumulative risk of HNC for siblings by age 60 (0.52%) was at population level (0.33%). No increased familial risk of early-onset HNC could be discerned in family members (SIR 2.68, 95% CI 0.32-9.68 for first-degree relatives). Conclusions Our study indicates that the cumulative and relative familial risk of early-onset HNC is modest in the Finnish population and, at most, only a minor proportion of early-onset HNCs are due solely to inherited genetic mutations.
  • Rodrigues, Priscila Campioni; Sawazaki-Calone, Iris; de Oliveira, Carine Ervolino; Soares Macedo, Carolina Carneiro; Dourado, Mauricio Rocha; Cervigne, Nilva K.; Miguel, Marcia Costa; do Carmo, Andreia Ferreira; Lambert, Daniel W.; Graner, Edgard; da Silva, Sabrina Daniela; Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay A.; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Salo, Tuula A.; Coletta, Ricardo D. (2017)
    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) prognosis is related to clinical stage and histological grade. However, this stratification needs to be refined. We conducted a comparative proteome study in microdissected samples from normal oral mucosa and OSCC to identify biomarkers for malignancy. Fascin and plectin were identified as differently expressed and both are implicated in several malignancies, but the clinical impacts of aberrant fascin and plectin expression in OSCCs remains largely unknown. Immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR were carried out in ex vivo OSCC samples and cell lines. A loss-of-function strategy using shRNA targeting fascin was employed to investigate in vitro and in vivo the fascin role on oral tumorigenesis. Transfections of microRNA mimics were performed to determine whether the fascin overexpression is regulated by miR-138 and miR-145. We found that fascin and plectin are frequently upregulated in OSCC samples and cell lines, but only fascin overexpression is an independent unfavorable prognostic indicator of disease-specific survival. In combination with advanced T stage, high fascin level is also an independent factor of disease-free survival. Knockdown of fascin in OSCC cells promoted cell adhesion and inhibited migration, invasion and EMT, and forced expression of miR-138 in OSCC cells significantly decreased the expression of fascin. In addition, fascin downregulation leads to reduced filopodia formation and decrease on paxillin expression. The subcutaneous xenograft model showed that tumors formed in the presence of low levels of fascin were significantly smaller compared to those formed with high fascin levels. Collectively, our findings suggest that fascin expression correlates with disease progression and may serve as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target for patients with OSCC.
  • Hancock, D. B.; Guo, Y.; Reginsson, G. W.; Gaddis, N. C.; Lutz, S. M.; Sherva, R.; Loukola, A.; Minica, C. C.; Markunas, C. A.; Han, Y.; Young, K. A.; Gudbjartsson, D. F.; Gu, F.; McNeil, D. W.; Qaiser, B.; Glasheen, C.; Olson, S.; Landi, M. T.; Madden, P. A. F.; Farrer, L. A.; Vink, J.; Saccone, N. L.; Neale, M. C.; Kranzler, H. R.; McKay, J.; Hung, R. J.; Amos, C. I.; Marazita, M. L.; Boomsma, D. I.; Baker, T. B.; Gelernter, J.; Kaprio, J.; Caporaso, N. E.; Thorgeirsson, T. E.; Hokanson, J. E.; Bierut, L. J.; Stefansson, K.; Johnson, E. O. (2018)
    Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable mortality worldwide. Nicotine dependence, which reduces the likelihood of quitting smoking, is a heritable trait with firmly established associations with sequence variants in nicotine acetylcholine receptor genes and at other loci. To search for additional loci, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of nicotine dependence, totaling 38,602 smokers (28,677 Europeans/European Americans and 9925 African Americans) across 15 studies. In this largest-ever GWAS meta-analysis for nicotine dependence and the largest-ever cross-ancestry GWAS meta-analysis for any smoking phenotype, we reconfirmed the well-known CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 genes and further yielded a novel association in the DNA methyltransferase gene DNMT3B. The intronic DNMT3B rs910083-C allele (frequency = 44-77%) was associated with increased risk of nicotine dependence at P = 3.7 x 10(-8) (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06 and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.07 for severe vs mild dependence). The association was independently confirmed in the UK Biobank (N = 48,931) using heavy vs never smoking as a proxy phenotype (P = 3.6 x 10(-4), OR = 1.05, and 95% CI = 1.02-1.08). Rs910083-C is also associated with increased risk of squamous cell lung carcinoma in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (N = 60,586, meta-analysis P = 0.0095, OR = 1.05, and 95% CI = 1.01-1.09). Moreover, rs910083-C was implicated as a cis-methylation quantitative trait locus (QTL) variant associated with higher DNMT3B methylation in fetal brain (N = 166, P = 2.3 x 10(-26)) and a cis-expression QTL variant associated with higher DNMT3B expression in adult cerebellum from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project (N = 103, P = 3.0 x 10(-6)) and the independent Brain eQTL Almanac (N = 134, P = 0.028). This novel DNMT3B cis-acting QTL variant highlights the importance of genetically influenced regulation in brain on the risks of nicotine dependence, heavy smoking and consequent lung cancer.
  • Ali, Mehreen; Khan, Suleiman A.; Wennerberg, Krister; Aittokallio, Tero (2018)
    Motivation: Proteomics profiling is increasingly being used for molecular stratification of cancer patients and cell-line panels. However, systematic assessment of the predictive power of large-scale proteomic technologies across various drug classes and cancer types is currently lacking. To that end, we carried out the first pan-cancer, multi-omics comparative analysis of the relative performance of two proteomic technologies, targeted reverse phase protein array (RPPA) and global mass spectrometry (MS), in terms of their accuracy for predicting the sensitivity of cancer cells to both cytotoxic chemotherapeutics and molecularly targeted anticancer compounds. Results: Our results in two cell-line panels demonstrate how MS profiling improves drug response predictions beyond that of the RPPA or the other omics profiles when used alone. However, frequent missing MS data values complicate its use in predictive modeling and required additional filtering, such as focusing on completely measured or known oncoproteins, to obtain maximal predictive performance. Rather strikingly, the two proteomics profiles provided complementary predictive signal both for the cytotoxic and targeted compounds. Further, information about the cellular-abundance of primary target proteins was found critical for predicting the response of targeted compounds, although the non-target features also contributed significantly to the predictive power. The clinical relevance of the selected protein markers was confirmed in cancer patient data. These results provide novel insights into the relative performance and optimal use of the widely applied proteomic technologies, MS and RPPA, which should prove useful in translational applications, such as defining the best combination of omics technologies and marker panels for understanding and predicting drug sensitivities in cancer patients.
  • Kurppa, Kari J.; Caton, Javier; Morgan, Peter R.; Ristimaki, Ari; Ruhin, Blandine; Kellokoski, Jari; Elenius, Klaus; Heikinheimo, Kristiina (2014)
  • Pikridas, M.; Sciare, J.; Freutel, F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; von der Weiden-Reinmueller, S. -L.; Borbon, A.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Merkel, M.; Crippa, M.; Kostenidou, E.; Psichoudaki, M.; Hildebrandt, L.; Engelhart, G. J.; Petäjä, T.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Drewnick, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kulmala, M.; Beekmann, M.; Pandis, S. N. (2015)
    Ambient particle number size distributions were measured in Paris, France, during summer (1-31 July 2009) and winter (15 January to 15 February 2010) at three fixed ground sites and using two mobile laboratories and one airplane. The campaigns were part of the Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation (MEGAPOLI) project. New particle formation (NPF) was observed only during summer on approximately 50% of the campaign days, assisted by the low condensation sink (about 10.7 +/- 5.9 x 10(-3) s(-1)). NPF events inside the Paris plume were also observed at 600m altitude onboard an aircraft simultaneously with regional events identified on the ground. Increased particle number concentrations were measured aloft also outside of the Paris plume at the same altitude, and were attributed to NPF. The Paris plume was identified, based on increased particle number and black carbon concentration, up to 200 km away from the Paris center during summer. The number concentration of particles with diameters exceeding 2.5 nm measured on the surface at the Paris center was on average 6.9 +/- 8.7 x 10(4) and 12.1 +/- 8.6 x 10(4) cm(-3) during summer and winter, respectively, and was found to decrease exponentially with distance from Paris. However, further than 30 km from the city center, the particle number concentration at the surface was similar during both campaigns. During summer, one suburban site in the NE was not significantly affected by Paris emissions due to higher background number concentrations, while the particle number concentration at the second suburban site in the SW increased by a factor of 3 when it was downwind of Paris.
  • Erzurumluoglu, A. Mesut; Liu, Mengzhen; Jackson, Victoria E.; Barnes, Daniel R.; Datta, Gargi; Melbourne, Carl A.; Young, Robin; Batini, Chiara; Surendran, Praveen; Jiang, Tao; Adnan, Sheikh Daud; Afaq, Saima; Agrawal, Arpana; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Baumbach, Clemens; Bierut, Laura; Bertelsen, Sarah; Boehnke, Michael; Bots, Michiel L.; Brazel, David M.; Chambers, John C.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Chu; Corley, Janie; Chou, Yi-Ling; David, Sean P.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; de Leeuw, Christiaan A.; Dennis, Joe G.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Eaton, Charles; Elliott, Paul; Evangelou, Evangelos; Faul, Jessica D.; Foroud, Tatiana; Goate, Alison; Gong, Jian; Grabe, Hans J.; Haessler, Jeff; Haiman, Christopher; Hallmans, Goran; Hammerschlag, Anke R.; Harris, Sarah E.; Hattersley, Andrew; Heath, Andrew; Hsu, Chris; Iacono, William G.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kapoor, Manav; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L.; Karpe, Fredrik; Kontto, Jukka; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Laakso, Markku; Lai, Dongbing; Langenberg, Claudia; Le, Nhung; Lettre, Guillaume; Loukola, Anu; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Mangino, Massimo; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Marouli, Eirini; Marten, Jonathan; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Moayyeri, Alireza; Moitry, Marie; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Naheed, Aliya; Nauck, Matthias; Neville, Matthew J.; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; North, Kari; Perola, Markus; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Pistis, Giorgio; Polderman, Tinca J.; Posthuma, Danielle; Poulter, Neil; Qaiser, Beenish; Rasheed, Asif; Reiner, Alex; Renstrom, Frida; Rice, John; Rohde, Rebecca; Rolandsson, Olov; Samani, Nilesh J.; Samuel, Maria; Schlessinger, David; Scholte, Steven H.; Scott, Robert A.; Sever, Peter; Shao, Yaming; Shrine, Nick; Smith, Jennifer A.; Starr, John M.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stram, Danielle; Stringham, Heather M.; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Thompson, Deborah J.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Tragante, Vinicius; Trompet, Stella; Turcot, Valerie; Tyrrell, Jessica; Vaartjes, Ilonca; van der Leij, Andries R.; van der Meer, Peter; Varga, Tibor V.; Verweij, Niek; Voelzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Warren, Helen R.; Weir, David R.; Weiss, Stefan; Wetherill, Leah; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Yavas, Ersin; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Fang; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Kaixin; Amouyel, Philippe; Blankenberg, Stefan; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J.; Deloukas, Panos; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Ferrario, Marco; Ferrieres, Jean; Franks, Paul W.; Frayling, Tim M.; Frossard, Philippe; Hall, Ian P.; Hayward, Caroline; Jansson, Jan-Hakan; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kee, Frank; Männistö, Satu; Metspalu, Andres; Munroe, Patricia B.; Nordestgaard, Borge Gronne; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sattar, Naveed; Spector, Timothy; Strachan, David Peter; van der Harst, Pim; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Saleheen, Danish; Butterworth, Adam S.; Wain, Louise V.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Danesh, John; Tobin, Martin D.; Vrieze, Scott; Liu, Dajiang J.; Howson, Joanna M. M. (2020)
    Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations withP <5 x 10(-8)in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P <5 x 10(-8)) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 nearTMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 inREV3L, rs12780116 inCNNM2, rs1190736 inGPR101, rs11539157 inPJA1, and rs12616219 nearTMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P <4.5 x 10(-3)) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, inCCDC141and two low-frequency SNVs inCEP350andHDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression ofREV3Lmay lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.
  • Dufraing, Kelly; van Krieken, J. Henricus; De Hertogh, Gert; Hoefler, Gerald; Oniscu, Anca; Kuhlmann, Tine P.; Weichert, Wilko; Marchio, Caterina; Ristimaki, Ari; Ryska, Ales; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Dequeker, Elisabeth (2019)
    Aims Results from external quality assessment revealed considerable variation in neoplastic cell percentages (NCP) estimation in samples for biomarker testing. As molecular biology tests require a minimal NCP, overestimations may lead to false negative test results. We aimed to develop recommendations to improve the NCP determination in a prototypical entity - colorectal carcinoma - that can be adapted for other cancer types. Methods and results A modified Delphi study was conducted to reach consensus by 10 pathologists from 10 countries with experience in determining the NCP for colorectal adenocarcinoma. This study included two online surveys and a decision-making meeting. Consensus was defined a priori as an agreement of > 80%. All pathologists completed both surveys. Consensus was reached for 8 out of 19 and 2 out of 13 questions in the first and second surveys, respectively. Remaining issues were resolved during the meeting. Twenty-four recommendations were formulated. Major recommendations resulted as follows: only pathologists should conduct the morphological evaluation; nevertheless molecular biologists/technicians may estimate the NCP, if specific training has been performed and a pathologist is available for feedback. The estimation should be determined in the area with the highest density of viable neoplastic cells and lowest density of inflammatory cells. Other recommendations concerned: the determination protocol itself, needs for micro- and macro-dissection, reporting and interpreting, referral practices and applicability to other cancer types. Conclusion We believe these recommendations may lead to more accurate NCP estimates, ensuring the correct interpretation of test results, and might help in validating digital algorithms in the future.
  • Baumert, Jens; Huang, Jie; McKnight, Barbara; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Steri, Maristella; Chu, Audrey Y.; Trompet, Stella; Lopez, Lorna M.; Fornage, Myriam; Teumer, Alexander; Tang, Weihong; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Maelarstig, Anders; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Kavousi, Maryam; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Hayward, Caroline; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Rose, Lynda M.; Basu, Saonli; Rumley, Ann; Stott, David J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Sanna, Serena; Masala, Marco; Biffar, Reiner; Homuth, Georg; Silveira, Angela; Sennblad, Bengt; Goel, Anuj; Watkins, Hugh; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Rueckerl, Regina; Taylor, Kent; Chen, Ming-Huei; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; de Maat, Moniek P. M.; Palotie, Aarno; Davies, Gail; Siscovick, David S.; Kolcic, Ivana; Wild, Sarah H.; Song, Jaejoon; McArdle, Wendy L.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Schlessinger, David; Grotevendt, Anne; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Illig, Thomas; Waldenberger, Melanie; Lumley, Thomas; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Räikkönen, Katri; Chasman, Daniel I.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Lowe, Gordon D.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Cucca, Francesco; Wallaschofski, Henri; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Seedorf, Udo; Koenig, Wolfgang; Bis, Joshua C.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; van Dongen, Jenny; Widen, Elisabeth; Franco, Oscar H.; Starr, John M.; Liu, Kiang; Ferrucci, Luigi; Polasek, Ozren; Wilson, James F.; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Campbell, Harry; Navarro, Pau; Bandinelli, Stefania; Eriksson, Johan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Dehghan, Abbas; Clarke, Robert; Hamsten, Anders; Boerwinkle, Eric; Jukema, J. Wouter; Naitza, Silvia; Ridker, Paul M.; Voezke, Henry; Deary, Ian J.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Tregoueet, David-Alexandre; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Strachan, David P.; Peters, Annette; Smith, Nicholas L. (2014)
  • Carter, Corey A.; Oronsky, Bryan T.; Roswarski, Joseph; Oronsky, Arnold L.; Oronsky, Neil; Scicinski, Jan; Lybeck, Harry; Kim, Michelle M.; Lybeck, Michelle; Reid, Tony R. (2017)
    Checkpoint inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies that inhibit PD-1 or CTLA-4, have revolutionized the treatment of multiple cancers. Despite the enthusiasm for the clinical successes of checkpoint inhibitors, and immunotherapy, in general, only a minority of patients with specific tumor types actually benefit from treatment. Emerging evidence implicates epigenetic alterations as a mechanism of clinical resistance to immunotherapy. This review presents evidence for that association, summarizes the epi-based mechanisms by which tumors evade immunogenic cell death, discusses epigenetic modulation as a component of an integrated strategy to boost anticancer T cell effector function in relation to a tumor immunosuppression cycle and, finally, makes the case that the success of this no-patient-left-behind strategy critically depends on the toxicity profile of the epigenetic agent(s).
  • Bulanova, Daria R.; Akimov, Yevhen A.; Rokka, Anne; Laajala, Teemu D.; Aittokallio, Tero; Kouvonen, Petri; Pellinen, Teijo; Kuznetsov, Sergey G. (2017)
    G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR), Class C, Group 5, Member A (GPRC5A) has been implicated in several malignancies. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. Using a panel of human cell lines, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout and RNAi-mediated depletion of GPRC5A impairs cell adhesion to integrin substrates: collagens I and IV, fibronectin, as well as to extracellular matrix proteins derived from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) mouse sarcoma (Matrigel). Consistent with the phenotype, knock-out of GPRC5A correlated with a reduced integrin beta 1 (ITGB1) protein expression, impaired phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and lower activity of small GTPases RhoA and Rac1. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence for a direct interaction between GPRC5A and a receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, an upstream regulator of FAK, although its contribution to the observed adhesion phenotype is unclear. Our findings reveal an unprecedented role for GPRC5A in regulation of the ITGB1-mediated cell adhesion and it's downstream signaling, thus indicating a potential novel role for GPRC5A in human epithelial cancers.
  • Yin, Miao; Soikkeli, Johanna; Jahkola, Tiina; Virolainen, Susanna; Saksela, Olli; Holtta, Erkki (2014)
  • Wadsten, C.; Wennstig, A. -K.; Garmo, H.; Nilsson, Greger; Blomqvist, Carl; Holmberg, Lars; Fredriksson, Irma; Wärnberg, F.; Sund, M. (2018)
    The use of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in the management of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is increasing. Left-sided breast irradiation may involve exposure of the heart to ionising radiation, increasing the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined the incidence of IHD in a population-based cohort of women with DCIS. The Breast Cancer DataBase Sweden (BCBase) cohort includes women registered with invasive and in situ breast cancers 1992-2012 and age-matched women without a history of breast cancer. In this analysis, 6270 women with DCIS and a comparison cohort of 31,257 women were included. Through linkage with population-based registers, data on comorbidity, socioeconomic status and incidence of IHD was obtained. Hazard ratios (HR) for IHD with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were analysed. Median follow-up time was 8.8 years. The risk of IHD was not increased for women with DCIS versus women in the comparison cohort (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.82-1.06), after treatment with radiotherapy versus surgery alone (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.60-0.98) or when analysing RT by laterality (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.53-1.37 for left-sided versus right-sided RT). The risk of IHD was lower for women with DCIS allocated to RT compared to non-irradiated women and to the comparison cohort, probably due to patient selection. Comparison of RT by laterality did not show any over-risk for irradiation of the left breast.