Browsing by Subject "LYMPH-NODES"

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  • Mäkitie, Antti; Kamali, Alexander; Mroueh, Rayan; Lindford, Andrew; Koivunen, Petri; Autio, Timo; Lassus, Patrik; Halle, Martin; Bäck, Leif; Palmgren, Björn; Hammarstedt-Nordenvall, Lalle (2020)
    Background and aims: Stage II cancer of the tongue is mostly managed surgically both locally and regionally. However, indications for postoperative radiotherapy and reconstructive options vary between centers. This paper aims to describe differences in treatment in a geographically homogenous cohort. Methods: A retrospective comparison was made between two cohorts of clinical T2N0 tongue cancer from Finland and Sweden. The Finnish cohort included 75 patients and the Swedish 54. All patients had curative intent of treatment and no previous head and neck cancer. Data analyzed consisted of pathological stage, size and thickness of tumor, frequency of reconstruction, radiotherapy delivered, and survival. Results: The Finnish cohort included a higher proportion of patients managed with reconstructive surgery (67%) than the Swedish cohort (0%), p <.00001. More patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy (84%) in the Swedish cohort than in the Finnish (54%), p <.0002. The Finnish cohort had a higher level of survival and included more frequent downstaging (cTNM to pTNM).
  • Hänninen, Arno; Toivonen, Raine; Pöysti, Sakari; Belzer, Clara; Plovier, Hubert; Ouwerkerk, Janneke P.; Emani, Rohini; Cani, Patrice D.; De Vos, Willem M. (2018)
    Objective Intestinal microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in humans and in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, but evidence on its causality and on the role of individual microbiota members is limited. We investigated if different diabetes incidence in two NOD colonies was due to microbiota differences and aimed to identify individual microbiota members with potential significance. Design We profiled intestinal microbiota between two NOD mouse colonies showing high or low diabetes incidence by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and colonised the high-incidence colony with the microbiota of the low-incidence colony. Based on unaltered incidence, we identified a few taxa which were not effectively transferred and thereafter, transferred experimentally one of these to test its potential significance. Results Although the high-incidence colony adopted most microbial taxa present in the low-incidence colony, diabetes incidence remained unaltered. Among the few taxa which were not transferred, Akkermansia muciniphila was identified. As A. muciniphila abundancy is inversely correlated to the risk of developing type 1 diabetes-related autoantibodies, we transferred A. muciniphila experimentally to the high-incidence colony. A. muciniphila transfer promoted mucus production and increased expression of antimicrobial peptide Reg3., outcompeted Ruminococcus torques from the microbiota, lowered serum endotoxin levels and islet toll-like receptor expression, promoted regulatory immunity and delayed diabetes development. Conclusion Transfer of the whole microbiota may not reduce diabetes incidence despite a major change in gut microbiota, but single symbionts such as A. muciniphila with beneficial metabolic and immune signalling effects may reduce diabetes incidence when administered as a probiotic.
  • Almangush, Alhadi; Pirinen, Matti; Youssef, Omar; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Leivo, Ilmo (2020)
    The eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC8) staging manual has major changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We searched PubMed, OvidMedline, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies that examined the performance of AJCC8 in OSCC. A total of 40 808 patients were included in the studies of our meta-analysis. A hazard ratio (HR) of 1.87 (95%CI 1.78-1.96) was seen for stage II, 2.65 (95%CI 2.51-2.80) for stage III, 3.46 (95%CI 3.31-3.61) for stage IVa, and 7.09 (95%CI 4.85-10.36) for stage IVb. A similar gradual increase in risk was noted for the N classification. For the T classification, however, there was a less clear variation in risk between T3 and T4. AJCC8 provides a good risk stratification for OSCC. Future research should examine the proposals introduced in the published studies to further improve the performance of AJCC8.
  • Harmati, Maria; Gyukity-Sebestyen, Edina; Dobra, Gabriella; Janovak, Laszlo; Dekany, Imre; Saydam, Okay; Hunyadi-Gulyas, Eva; Nagy, Istvan; Farkas, Attila; Pankotai, Tibor; Ujfaludi, Zsuzsanna; Horvath, Peter; Piccinini, Filippo; Kovacs, Maria; Biro, Tamas; Buzas, Krisztina (2019)
    Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), playing a crucial role in the intercellular communication in physiological as well as pathological processes. Here, we aimed to study whether the melanoma-derived sEV-mediated communication could adapt to microenvironmental stresses. We compared B16F1 cell-derived sEVs released under normal and stress conditions, including cytostatic, heat and oxidative stress. The miRNome and proteome showed substantial differences across the sEV groups and bioinformatics analysis of the obtained data by the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis also revealed significant functional differences. The in silico predicted functional alterations of sEVs were validated by in vitro assays. For instance, melanoma-derived sEVs elicited by oxidative stress increased Ki-67 expression of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); cytostatic stress-resulted sEVs facilitated melanoma cell migration; all sEV groups supported microtissue generation of MSC-B16F1 co-cultures in a 3D tumour matrix model. Based on this study, we concluded that (i) molecular patterns of tumour-derived sEVs, dictated by the microenvironmental conditions, resulted in specific response patterns in the recipient cells; (ii) in silico analyses could be useful tools to predict different stress responses; (iii) alteration of the sEV-mediated communication of tumour cells might be a therapy-induced host response, with a potential influence on treatment efficacy.