Browsing by Subject "LYMPHOMA"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-11 of 11
  • Hervonen, Kaisa; Salmi, Teea T.; Ilus, Tuire; Paasikivi, Kaija; Vornanen, Martine; Laurila, Kaija; Lindfors, Katri; Viiri, Keijo; Saavalainen, Paivi; Collin, Pekka; Kaukinen, Katri; Reunala, Timo (2016)
    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a blistering skin disease, which is regarded as an extra-intestinal manifestation of coeliac disease. Refractory cases of coeliac disease, that do not respond to a gluten-free diet and which carry an increased risk of lymphoma, are well-known in coeliac disease. To determine whether refractory cases of DH with active rash and persistent small bowel atrophy occur we analysed our series of 403 patients with DH. Seven (1.7%) patients, who had been on a gluten-free diet for a mean of 16 years, but who still required dapsone to treat the symptoms of DH, were identified. Of these, one patient died from mucinous adenocarcinoma before re-examination. At re-examination skin immunoglobulin A (IgA) deposits were found in 5/6 refractory and 3/16 control DH patients with good dietary response. Small bowel mucosa was studied at re-examination from 5 refractory and 8 control DH patients and was normal in all 5 refractory and 7/8 control DH patients. One refractory DH patient died from adenocarcinoma, but no lymphoma developed in any of the patients. This study documents for the first time refractory DH, in which the rash is non-responsive to a gluten-free diet, but the small bowel mucosa heals. This differs from refractory coeliac disease, in which the small bowel mucosa does not heal on a gluten-free diet.
  • Ameratunga, Malaka; Brana, Irene; Bono, Petri; Postel-Vinay, Sophie; Plummer, Ruth; Aspegren, John; Korjamo, Timo; Snapir, Amir; de Bono, Johann S. (2020)
    Background Bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins are reported to be epigenetic anti-cancer drug targets. This first-in-human study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics and preliminary anti-tumour activity of the BET inhibitor ODM-207 in patients with selected solid tumours. Methods This was an open-label Phase 1 study comprised of a dose escalation part, and evaluation of the effect of food on pharmacokinetics. ODM-207 was administered orally once daily. The dose escalation part was initiated with a dose titration in the initial cohort, followed by a 3 + 3 design. Results Thirty-five patients were treated with ODM-207, of whom 12 (34%) had castrate-resistant prostate cancer. One dose-limiting toxicity of intolerable fatigue was observed. The highest studied dose achieved was 2 mg/kg due to cumulative toxicity observed beyond the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) treatment window. Common AEs included thrombocytopenia, asthenia, nausea, anorexia, diarrhoea, fatigue, and vomiting. Platelet count decreased proportionally to exposure with rapid recovery upon treatment discontinuation. No partial or complete responses were observed. Conclusions ODM-207 shows increasing exposure in dose escalation and was safe at doses up to 2 mg/kg but had a narrow therapeutic window.
  • Chattopadhyay, Subhayan; Yu, Hongyao; Sud, Amit; Sundquist, Jan; Försti, Asta; Hemminki, Akseli; Hemminki, Kari (2018)
  • Zheng, Guoqiao; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Försti, Asta; Hemminki, Akseli; Hemminki, Kari (2020)
    Background Many cancers are increased in immunosuppressed patients and evidence is accumulating that immune dysfunction may be a contributing risk factor for second primary cancers (SPCs). The aim of this study was to explore the potential influence of immune mechanisms in SPC. Methods We used the Swedish Cancer Registry (1990-2015) to select 13 male and 14 female first primary cancers (FPCs) that are known to be related to immune suppression. We assessed relative risks (RRs) for any of these as concordant (same first and second cancer) and discordant FPC-SPC pairs. Hierarchical clustering of significant RRs was performed for cancers as FPC and SPC. Results Concordant risks for SPCs were excessive in men and women for nasal (RRs 59.3 for men and 150.6 for women), tongue/mouth (51.7 and 100.8), and lip (32.4 and 61.2) cancers. Heatmaps showed that some cancers, such as skin cancer, tongue/mouth cancers, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma had multiple bidirectional associations as FPC and SPC. Nasal cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia had associations mainly as FPC while liver and kidney cancers showed most associations as SPC. Conclusions Immune dysfunction may be a plausible contributing factor for most of the associations, which calls for experimental verification.
  • Zhang, Luyao; Hemminki, Otto; Chen, Tianhui; Yu, Hongyao; Zheng, Guoqiao; Chattopadhyay, Subhayan; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari (2019)
    While treatment for testicular cancer (TC) has become standardized after the 1980s with an associated significant improvement in patient survival, this has been accompanied by an increased risk of second primary cancers (SPCs). Patients were identified from the Swedish Cancer Registry spanning the years from 1980 to 2015, including 8788 individuals with primary TC and their SPCs. Relative risks (RRs) for SPC were calculated using the generalized Poisson regression model. SPCs were diagnosed in 9.4% of patients with TC and half of them were late onset cancers not common in the population in their 40s. Overall RR of SPCs (excluding second TC) was 1.30 (95%CI: 1.20-1.40), including high risks for seven solid cancers, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and leukemia. Second TC was the most common SPC and the RR of 17.19 (95%CI: 14.89-19.85) was the highest recorded. Cancers known to be fatal as first primary cancers were also fatal as SPC in TC patients. Survival at 30 years of follow-up was approximately 80% for TC patients without SPC but it decreased to 40% for patients with SPC. The unexpected finding that half of the identified SPCs were typical late onset cancers in the middle-aged population raises concerns that therapy may facilitate premature aging. The risks of SPC are clinically important for the long-term management of TC patients and the high-mortality calls for a future management strategy.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao; Chattopadhyay, Subhayan; Sud, Amit; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Försti, Asta; Houlston, Richard; Hemminki, Akseli; Hemminki, Kari (2019)
    Improvement of survival in lymphocytic leukaemia has been accompanied by the occurrence of second primary cancer (SPCs). Based on Swedish Family Cancer Database, we applied bi-directional analyses in which relative risks (RRs) were calculated for any SPCs in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) and the risks of these leukaemias as SPCs. After CLL, RRs were significant for 20 SPCs, and high for skin squamous cell cancer (2458 for insitu and 763 for invasive), Merkel cell carcinoma (1436), Hodgkin lymphoma (716) and Kaposi sarcoma (676). Conversely, 15 CLL cancer pairs were reciprocally increased. The increased risks were reciprocal for ALL and four cancers. RR for ALL was 1535 after myeloid neoplasia. HCL showed reciprocally increased RRs with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and melanoma. The concordance between RRs for bi-directional associations between CLL and different cancers, and HCL and different cancers was highly significant. For CLL (also for HCL), the bi-directional risks with skin cancers and other immune-related cancers suggest the probable involvement of immune dysfunction. For ALL, treatment may contribute to risks of multiple SPCs. Increased risk of ALL after haematological neoplasms may indicate bone marrow dysfunction. These findings may help guide treatment decisions and prognostic assessment.
  • Parri, E; Kuusanmaki, H; Bulanova, D; Mustjoki, S; Wennerberg, K (2021)
    Mature natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms are rare but very aggressive types of cancers. With 3 currently available treatments, they have a very poor prognosis and, as such, are an example of group of cancers in which the development of effective precision therapies is needed. Using both short- and long-term drug sensitivity testing, we explored novel ways to target NK-cell neoplasms by combining the clinically approved JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib with other targeted agents. We profiled 7 malignant NK-cell lines in drug sensitivity screens and identified that these exhibit differential drug sensitivities based on their genetic background. In short-term assays, various classes of drugs combined with ruxolitinib seemed highly potent. Strikingly, resistance to most of these combinations emerged rapidly when explored in long-term assays. However, 4 combinations were identified that selectively eradicated the cancer cells and did not allow for development of resistance: ruxolitinib combined with the mouse double-minute 2 homolog (MDM2) inhibitor idasanutlin in STAT3-mutant, TPS3 wild-type cell lines; ruxolitinib combined with the farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib in TP53-mutant cell lines; and ruxolitinib combined with either the glucocorticoid dexamethasone or the myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1) inhibitor S63845 but both without a clear link to underlying genetic features. In conclusion, using a new drug sensitivity screening approach, we identified drug combinations that selectively target mature NK-cell neoplasms and do not allow for development of resistance, some of which can be applied in a genetically stratified manner.
  • Saellström, S.; Sharif, H.; Jagarlamudi, K. K.; Rönnberg, H.; Wang, L.; Eriksson, S. (2022)
    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), involved in DNA precursor synthesis, is used as a serum biomarker in cancer diagnostics in both human and veterinary medicine. We investigated the utility of serum TK1 protein (TK1p) and TK1 activity (TK1a) determinations for prognosis and monitoring of canine hematological malignancies. The combination of TK1p or TK1a with canine C-reactive protein (CRP) determinations was also investigated. Serum samples from 51 client-owned dogs with naive hematological malignancies and from 149 healthy subjects were included. Serum TK1p levels were determined using a prototype TK1-ELISA, TK1a using the [H-3]- dThd phosphorylation assay, and CRP using an immunoturbidimetric assay. Mean TK1p in sera from dogs with tumors was significantly higher than from healthy dogs (mean +/- SD = 3.9 +/- 5.9 vs. 0.45 +/- 0.15 ng/mL). Similarly, TK1a in hematological malignancies was significantly higher than in healthy dogs (mean + SD = 15.1 +/- 31.3 vs. 0.96 +/- 0.33 pmol/min/mL). The receiver-operating characteristic indicated that a combination of TK1p or TK1a with CRP gave higher sensitivity than either biomarker alone for the prognosis of hematological malignancies. Median pretreatment TK1p and TK1a levels were significantly higher than in dogs in remission and correlated with clinical outcome. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis showed that naive dogs with high TK1p, TK1a, and CRP had significantly shorter survival. This study present two new polyclonal antibodies used in an ELISA system to determine TK1p. The study also show that combining TK1p or TK1a with CRP gave higher sensitivity than either biomarker alone. Monitoring patients in the study while undergoing chemotherapy, suggests that the TK1 + CRP combination could be useful in a biomarker panel, possibly aiding the prognosis and therapy monitoring of hematological malignancies in dogs.
  • ALiCCS study group; Oskarsson, Trausti; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Bautz, Andrea; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura; Falck Winther, Jeanette (2021)
    The dynamic growth of the skeleton during childhood and adolescence renders it vulnerable to adverse effects of cancer treatment. The lifetime risk and patterns of skeletal morbidity have not been described in a population-based cohort of childhood cancer survivors. A cohort of 26 334 1-year cancer survivors diagnosed before 20 years of age was identified from the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Sweden as well as a cohort of 127 531 age- and sex-matched comparison subjects randomly selected from the national population registries in each country. The two cohorts were linked with data from the national hospital registries and the observed numbers of first-time hospital admissions for adverse skeletal outcomes among childhood cancer survivors were compared to the expected numbers derived from the comparison cohort. In total, 1987 childhood cancer survivors had at least one hospital admission with a skeletal adverse event as discharge diagnosis, yielding a rate ratio (RR) of 1.35 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.42). Among the survivors, we observed an increased risk for osteonecrosis with a RR of 25.9 (15.0-44.5), osteoporosis, RR 4.53 (3.28-6.27), fractures, RR 1.27 (1.20-1.34), osteochondropathies, RR 1.57 (1.28-1.92) and osteoarthrosis, RR 1.48 (1.28-1.72). The hospitalization risk for any skeletal adverse event was higher among survivors up to the age of 60 years, but the lifetime pattern was different for each type of skeletal adverse event. Understanding the different lifetime patterns and identification of high-risk groups is crucial for developing strategies to optimize skeletal health in childhood cancer survivors.
  • Andersson, Emma I.; Brück, Oscar; Braun, Till; Mannisto, Susanna; Saikko, Leena; Lagström, Sonja; Ellonen, Pekka; Leppä, Sirpa; Herling, Marco; Kovanen, Panu E.; Mustjoki, Satu (2020)
    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are a heterogeneous, and often aggressive group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Recent advances in the molecular and genetic characterization of PTCLs have helped to delineate differences and similarities between the various subtypes, and the JAK/STAT pathway has been found to play an important oncogenic role. Here, we aimed to characterize the JAK/STAT pathway in PTCL subtypes and investigate whether the activation of the pathway correlates with the frequency of STAT gene mutations. Patient samples from AITL (n = 30), ALCL (n = 21) and PTCL-NOS (n = 12) cases were sequenced for STAT3, STAT5B, JAK1, JAK3, and RHOA mutations using amplicon sequencing and stained immunohistochemically for pSTAT3, pMAPK, and pAKT. We discovered STAT3 mutations in 13% of AITL, 13% of ALK(+) ALCL, 38% of ALK ALCL and 17% of PTCL-NOS cases. However, no STAT5B mutations were found and JAK mutations were only present in ALK(-) ALCL (15%). Concurrent mutations were found in all subgroups except ALK(+) ALCL where STAT3 mutations were always seen alone. High pY-STAT3 expression was observed especially in AITL and ALCL samples. When studying JAK-STAT pathway mutations, pY-STAT3 expression was highest in PTCLs harboring either JAK1 or STAT3 mutations and CD30(+) phenotype representing primarily ALK ALCLs. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of JAK-STAT pathway activation in PTCL.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao; Chattopadhyay, Subhayan; Sud, Amit; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Försti, Asta; Houlston, Richard S.; Hemminki, Akseli; Hemminki, Kari (2019)