Browsing by Subject "Lake restoration"

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  • Silvonen, Soila; Niemistö, Juha; Csibrán, Adrián; Jilbert, Tom; Torma, Péter; Krámer, Tamás; Nurminen, Leena; Horppila, Jukka (2021)
    Hypolimnetic withdrawal (HW) is a lake restoration method that is based on the removal of phosphorus (P) along with near-bottom water. While it has often proven to be effective, the method also sets challenges: it is about balancing between effective P removal and maintenance of the thermal stratification of the lake. The success of different HW projects has been reviewed in some studies retrospectively, but scientific literature still lacks studies that use detailed data on the lake biogeochemistry to scale and optimize the method in advance, and to predict the outcomes of the restoration measure. In the current study, we investigated the seasonal biogeochemistry, P stocks and thermal stratification of a eutrophic lake (Lake Kymijarvi/Myllypohja basin, southern Finland) to determine an optimal withdrawal rate, to assess its effects on stratification, and to evaluate the expected success of HW. We found that by adjusting HW with P diffusive fluxes from the sediment (diffusion-adjusted HW), it is possible to remove a notable part of the cycling P without causing major disturbances to the thermal stratification even in a relatively shallow lake. Our results show that HW can have great potential in lake restoration: diffusion-adjusted HW in our study lake could increase the annual P output by 35-46%, shifting the P budget of the lake to negative. We thus propose a novel approach to optimize HW on the basis of the diffusive flux of P from the sediment, with the goal of extracting P continuously at an equivalent rate to the diffusive flux. We finally discuss how this can be achieved more effectively with HW based on a closed-circuit system. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Salminen, Sarianna; Tammelin, Mira; Jilbert, Tom; Fukumoto, Yu; Saarni, Saija (2021)
    The influence of lake restoration efforts on lake bottom-water conditions and varve preservation is not well known. We studied varved sediments deposited during the last 80 years along a water-depth transect in the Enonsaari Deep, a deep-water area of the southernmost Enonselka Basin, Lake Vesijarvi, southern Finland. For the last few decades, the Enonselka Basin has been subject to ongoing restoration efforts. Varve, elemental, and diatom analyses were undertaken to explore how these actions and other human activities affected varve preservation in the Enonsaari Deep. In contrast to most varved Finnish lakes, whose water columns have a natural tendency to stratify, and possess varve records that span thousands of years, varve formation and preservation in Lake Vesijarvi was triggered by relatively recent anthropogenic stressors. The multi-core varve analysis revealed that sediment in the Enonsaari Deep was initially non-varved, but became fully varved in the late 1930s, a time of increasing anthropogenic influence on the lake. The largest spatial extent of varves occurred in the 1970s, which was followed by a period of less distinguishable varves, which coincided with diversion of sewage from the lake. Varve preservation weakened during subsequent decades and was terminated completely by lake aeration in the 2010s. Despite improvements in water quality, hypolimnetic oxygen depletion and varve preservation persisted beyond the reduction in sewage loading, initial aeration, and biomanipulation. These restoration efforts, however, along with other human actions such as harbor construction and dredging, did influence varve characteristics. Varves were also influenced by diatom responses to anthropogenic forcing, because diatoms form a substantial part of the varve structure. Of all the restoration efforts, a second episode of aeration seems to have had the single most dramatic impact on profundal conditions in the basin, resulting in replacement of a sediment accumulation zone by a transport or erosional zone in the Enonsaari Deep. We conclude that human activities in a lake and its catchment can alter lake hypolimnetic conditions, leading to shifts in lake bottom dynamics and changes in varve preservation.
  • Kiani, Mina; Tammeorg, Priit; Niemistö, Juha; Simojoki, Asko; Tammeorg, Olga (2020)
    Mankind is taking advantage of numerous services by small shallow lakes such as drinking water supply, irrigation, and recreational function; however, many of these lakes suffer from eutrophication. Given the key role of phosphorus (P) in eutrophication process, one of the effective restoration methods especially for small shallow lakes is removal of sediments enriched with nutrients. In our study, we used interannual, seasonal, and spatial data to examine the changes in sediment P mobility after removal of sediments in 2016 from a 1-ha highly eutrophic lake. We measured the sediment redox potential, analyzed soluble reactive P (SRP) in the pore water and P fractional composition of the surface sediments, and calculated the P diffusive flux in three locations in two continuous years (2017 and 2018) after the excavation. Similar measurements were done before sediment removal at central site of the lake in 2015. Removing nutrient-rich sediment also removed 6400 kg of P, and thus the potential for release of P from sediments decreased on a long-term scale. However, a large pool of releasable P was rebuilt soon after the sediment removal due to high external P loading, resulting in extensive anoxia of sediment surface and associated internal P loading as high as 1450 mg m−2 summer−1. Moreover, the Fe-P and labile P fractions were the most important sources of P release, as evidenced by their considerable seasonal and interannual changes after the sediment removal. The sediment total Fe negatively correlated with sediment P diffusive flux, pore water SRP, and near-bottom water total P and SRP concentrations which indicated a strong linkage between sediment P dynamics and Fe after the restoration. Sediment removal could be a beneficial restoration approach, but the effects on lake water quality remain only short-term unless there is an adequate control on external loading to the lake.
  • Ruuhijärvi, Jukka; Malinen, Tommi; Kuoppamäki, Kirsi; Ala-Opas, Pasi; Vinni, Mika (2020)
    We studied the responses of a food web, especially fish and zooplankton, to summertime aeration, pumping of oxygen-rich epilimnetic water to the hypolimnion in Lake Vesijärvi, southern Finland. The aim of hypolimnetic aeration was to reduce internal loading of phosphorus from sediment. The population of smelt (Osmerus eperlanus L.), the main planktivore of the pelagial area, collapsed during the two 1st years of aeration due to increased temperature and low oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion. The population recovered after the 4th year of hypolimnetic aeration, when oxygen conditions were improved. Despite elevated hypolimnetic temperature, smelt reached exceptionally high abundance, which led to a significant reduction in cladoceran body size. The density of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) increased at first, but then decreased when the proportion of smelt and cyprinids increased. Biomasses of Daphnia decreased probably as a result of the disappearance of dark, low-oxygen deep-water refuge against fish predation and low availability of nutritionally high-quality algae. Occasionally filamentous cyanobacteria, such as turbulence tolerant Planktothrix agardhii (Gomont), were abundant, suggesting deteriorated food resources for zooplankton. The responses of food web were controversial with respect to the aim of the management, which was to prevent the occurrence of harmful algal blooms.
  • Rask, Martti; Malinen, Tommi; Olin, Mikko; Peltonen, Heikki; Ruuhijärvi, Jukka; Vesala, Sami; Hietala, Jaana (2020)
    Fish community responses to long-term mass removal of planktivorous fish from eutrophicated Lake Tuusulanjarvi were examined during 1996-2018 by gill net test fishing, hydroacoustics with simultaneous trawling, virtual population analysis (VPA) and fish growth measurements. The gillnet catches of white bream and roach increased first while bream and bleak decreased but recovered in the early 2000s. Perch and pikeperch increased but ruffe decreased and remained low. According to hydroacoustics, pelagic fish biomass decreased. Smelt was the most abundant species at the beginning and the end of the monitoring period but bream dominated the fish biomass in most years. VPA calculations indicated a five- and threefold increase in the biomass of bream and white bream, respectively, during 2005-2011. Significant increases appeared in the growth of perch, bream and roach. Overall, the responses in the fish community structure and fish abundance to the food web management were slight and mostly masked by changes in reproduction and growth of fish and annual variability in environmental conditions such as temperature and water turbidity. Gillnet test fishing and echo sounding complemented each other well in monitoring the effects of management fishing. Where bream is one of the dominant species VPA is also recommended.