Browsing by Subject "Lapland"

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  • Boulanger-Lapointe, Noemie; Järvinen, Antero; Partanen, Rauni; Herrmann, Thora Martina (2017)
    Annual fluctuations in the abundance of wild berries have repercussions on animals and humans who depend on this important resource. Although studies have tried to disentangle the effect of climate and herbivores on inter-annual berry yield, there are still many uncertainties as to which factors are driving productivity. In this research, we evaluated the effect of climate and predation by rodents and moths on the abundance of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) flowers and berries at the Kilpisjarvi Biological Station in northwest Finnish Lapland. The data were collected from 1973 to 2014 in a forest and an alpine site, both undisturbed by human activities. This dataset is unique due to the length of the sampling period, the availability of flower, berry, and rodent abundance data as well as the undisturbed nature of the habitat. Previous summer temperatures, the abundance of rodents, and the presence of a moth outbreak were complementary factors explaining the abundance of flowers. Herbivores had a larger impact on flower production than climate, but both variables were important to understand reproductive effort. Contrary to results from experimental studies, warmer winters did not significantly influence reproductive success. The abundance of fruits was strongly correlated with pollinator activity; the forest site, with a larger pollinator network, had a higher reproductive success and spring conditions were linked to inter-annual variability in fruit production. Our results illustrate the importance of the location of the population within the species distribution range to understand plant sensitivity to climatic fluctuations with fruit production only influenced by current year summer temperatures at the alpine site. Finally, we observed a general increase in flower and fruit production at the alpine site, which was driven by large yields since the early 1990s. Fruit production at the forest site was comparatively stable throughout the study period.
  • Tiira, Timo; Janik, Tomasz; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Grad, Marek; Korja, Annakaisa; Komminaho, Kari; Hegedus, Endre; Kovacs, Csaba Attila; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Bruckl, Ewald (2014)
  • Ingerö, Oula (2005)
    This study evaluates regional information society strategies and their implementation in Western Finland and Lapland in the years 1994-2004. It reviews how these provinces have tried to utilise information and communication technologies (ICTs) in order to create welfare services that are jeopardised by threats such as globalisation and migration. Finland has recently been among the most developed countries when it comes to the information society. Provinces such as Western Finland and especially Lapland aren't, however, generally seen as being as developed as some other areas in Finland. Furthermore, many areas in these provinces suffer from trends that affect their possibilities to create welfare and ICT services. By utilising three analysis dimensions (networks, regional advantages, accessibility and user skills) it is found that these provinces" information society strategies differ from each other and that these strategies take into consideration both national goals as well as local settings. As a conclusion is drawn that that the information society development is taking quite well place in both provinces. Networks such as the Centres of Expertise and Multipolis have balanced regional development in both provinces. There have also been several projects that have increased accessibility and user skills in Western Finland and Lapland. Also regional advantages are to some extent utilised in information society projects. It seems, however, that the development of the information society could be improved with better internal and external communication and overall co-ordination. These provinces" ICT funding has mostly been in line with their information society strategies but also funding could be improved both nationally and internationally.
  • Jokela, Eetu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The Sukseton area is located in the northern part of Kittilä municipality, Central Lapland Greenstone Belt, approximately 15 km N from Suurikuusikko gold mine and 5 km NW from Iso-Kuotko orogenic gold deposit, between several large crustal scale thrust and shear zones. This area is a mix of different volcanic formations of Kittilä suite, felsic intrusion of Vuotso Complex and Paleoproterozoic intrusive rocks in the north. In addition to this, several porphyry dykes cut the Kittilä suite volcanic rocks around the area. Exploration work in this area started in the 1980’s when Outokumpu Oy found two minor gold and gold-copper mineralizations. In 2017, Agnico Eagle Finland Oy continued exploration in this area, intending to define the regional geology and the extent of the mineralizations. As a result of this exploration work, this study investigates more closely the regional geology, geochemistry, metamorphism and structural geology of the Sukseton area, as well as the geochronology of associated porphyry dykes. To understand and define the geology of the area, the following methods were used: geological bedrock and exploration trench mapping, interpretation of drill core loggings and several geophysical surveys, optical studies of polished thin sections and U–Pb dating a porphyry dyke sample. The metamorphic conditions of the area were studied through thorough petrological studies. In addition, an extensive geochemical and geotectonic classification of the rocks in the area was conducted. The Sukseton area composes mainly of different tholeiitic basalts and pyroclastic rocks with minor sulphide rich graphitic volcanic sediment and chert sections. Based on this study, these volcanic rocks originate from island arcs and mid-ocean ridges. With the help of geophysical surveys and field measurements, a couple of large fold structures were identified from the eastern part of the study area as well as a large shear zone in the middle of the area striking NE–SW. Porphyry dykes cut the volcanic rocks all around the area giving the minimum age of 1940±18 Ma for the volcanic rocks. Composition of porphyry dykes vary from rhyolites to basalt and they have similar geochemical characteristics with Nyssäkoski type felsic veins. The peak metamorphic conditions in the area represent high-P amphibolite facies metamorphism. Also, hydrothermal alteration is common in Sukseton and it can be metamorphic and magmatic in origin.
  • Merkouriadi, Ioanna; Leppäranta, Matti; Järvinen, Onni (2017)
    The interannual variability of the air temperature, precipitation and snow conditions were examined in the Finnish Arctic region based on data from the period 1946-2012. The purpose of this work was to describe the climatology of the region and to examine long-term variations in the climatic parameters. This information is essential for both environmental and socioeconomic aspects of the Finnish Arctic region. The air temperature, precipitation and snow depth records from nine weather stations were analysed in order to study the evolution of the winter duration (sub-zero temperature days), precipitation, snow cover duration and snow depth. The climatological description was based on the most recent 30-year period record available (1982-2011). Since 1946, air temperature has increased significantly by 0.4 degrees C/decade. Significant precipitation trends reached up to 35 mm/decade. For the most part there were no significant trends in snow depth and snow cover duration.
  • Calandra, Ivan; Labonne, Gaelle; Mathieu, Olivier; Henttonen, Heikki; Leveque, Jean; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Renvoise, Elodie; Montuire, Sophie; Navarro, Nicolas (2015)
    In the Arctic, food limitation is one of the driving factors behind small mammal population fluctuations. Active throughout the year, voles and lemmings (arvicoline rodents) are central prey in arctic food webs. Snow cover, however, makes the estimation of their winter diet challenging. We analyzed the isotopic composition of ever-growing incisors from species of voles and lemmings in northern Finland trapped in the spring and autumn. We found that resources appear to be reasonably partitioned and largely congruent with phylogeny. Our results reveal that winter resource use can be inferred from the tooth isotopic composition of rodents sampled in the spring, when trapping can be conducted, and that resources appear to be partitioned via competition under the snow.
  • Lahti, Tuomas (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The purpose of this master's thesis was to study environmental impacts of nature-based tourism on vegetation, insect communities, birds and soil nitrogen levels in Käsivarsi wilderness area in the Finnish Lapland. Tourism is the largest industry in the world and nature-based tourism is the fastest growing segment of it. Nature-based tourism takes place in areas that holds great nature values. These areas are often protected to preserve significant nature values from negative impacts of human activities. This controversy creates disharmony between nature tourism and nature conservation. Most popular nature tourism destinations in Finland are state owned national parks and wilderness areas. Wilderness areas are not within strict nature conservation. They are areas defined by law for preserving the typical character of the remaining wilderness areas, preserving native Saami culture and for preserving and developing recreational use of these areas. Studies have shown that nature-based tourism has caused changes by erosion and human disturbance to vegetation, mammals and birds. The key study question was to examine if there are changes in the soil nitrogen levels around huts used by hikers. I was also a point of interest to discover what kind of bird, insect and plant communities occur around these huts. Main interest was to see if there are changes in these communities on a gradient from high human impact areas around the huts to more pristine mountainous areas. The study was performed around five huts with three study lines, which had study points 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 480 and 960 meters away from the hut. Birds were observed from the same lines but with 200 meter point counting intervals. It was also studied whether the abundance of graminoids was affected by the soil nitrogen levels and if soil nitrogen levels or the abundance of graminoids influenced changes in insect or bird communities. Results show that nature-based tourism has an impact on soil ammonium and nitrate levels. This impact was visible in increased nitrate and ammonium levels on a 30 meter radius area around the huts. The observed fauna and flora around the huts were typical for the mountainous region in the northern Finland. There were no observed invasive species. No species was discovered to have a negative impact from nature-based tourism. Abundance of graminoids increased near the huts whereas plant species richness and vegetation biomass did not. The insect community was more diverse and abundant near the huts. Especially Amara brunnea ground beetle and rove beetles showed a clear increase in numbers near the huts. Birds were also more abundant and species rich near the huts. Especially insect eating bird species as a group were more abundant close to the hut compared to the surrounding study areas. The increased level of ammonium in the soil correlated with the increased graminoid and insect abundances. The increased graminoid abundance correlated also with the observed insect abundance. The influence between nature-based tourism and the changes in soils nitrogen levels and in the insect communities were scientifically demonstrated for the first time in this study. This thesis provides a comprehensive view of the effects that nature-based tourism has in the northern Finnish nature. The generalization of the result was weakened by the fact that the study was conducted only around five different huts and that the studied plant and animal communities were relatively diverse between these huts. The results are still substantial for the nature tourism in Käsivarsi wilderness area. The results can be useful for developing nature tourism infrastructure for the plausible new national park in the area.
  • Snellman, Hanna (1993)
    While writing my thesis on floating in Finnish Lapland, I was amazed to discover that the first floating workers' dwellings built in Lapland bore very little resemblance to the local rural buildings. Knowing that forestry had been - especially in its early days when virgin resource areas had to be found - an international industry, I started looking for parallels in the camp architecture of other areas. In my paper I will first take a general look at forestry in the northern regions with particular reference to migration, and then debate the question of how the migratory character of the forest industry was reflected in the material culture of forest work, especially the dwellings of forest workers.
  • Hustich, I. (Societas pro fauna et flora Fennica, 1940)
    Acta botanica Fennica; 27
  • Luoto, Tomi P.; Rantala, Marttiina V.; Kivilä, E. Henriikka; Nevalainen, Liisa (2019)
    A key question in aquatic elemental cycling is related to the influence of bottom water oxygen conditions in regulating the burial and release of carbon under climate warming. In this study, we used head capsules of Chironomidae larvae to assess community and diversity change between the past (estimated as Pre-Industrial Period) and present and to reconstruct changes in hypolimnetic oxygen conditions from 30 subarctic ecotonal lakes (northeastern Lapland) using the top-bottom paleolimnological approach applying surface sediment (topmost 0-2 cm) and reference (4-5 cm) samples. Subsequently, we tested the findings against dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration of the sites. We found that the benthic communities were statistically dissimilar between the past and the present with largest changes occurring in the more transparent oligo-mesohumic lakes. However, murky polyhumic lakes displayed uniformly a decrease in diversity. The chironomid-inferred oxygen values showed a general decrease toward the present with largest shifts in low-DOC lakes, whereas no significant changes were found in the hypolimnetic oxygen conditions of high-DOC lakes, which were often located in wet-land areas. These finding suggest that lakes associated with constant organic carbon inputs are more resilient toward climate-induced reductions in hypolimnetic oxygen. (c) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Snellman, Hanna (1999)
    The aim of this article1 is to try to find information on the everyday lives of women accused of prostitution in sparsely inhabited Finnish Lapland. This theme is a part of my research project “Women working their way through logging camps” which examines women in logging communities. Everyday lives of women are examined from three angles: First, their work in isolated homesteads taking care of children and cattle while husbands were away working in the woods for long periods of time; second, as cooks in the isolated camps among men; and third, as women on the loose, selling liquor and their company to lumberjacks. In this article the focus is on the third theme, prostitution.
  • Lehtonen, Ilari; Venäläinen, Ari; Ikonen, Jaakko; Puttonen, Niina; Gregow, Hilppa (Ilmatieteen laitos, 2013)
    Raportteja -Rapporter - Reports 2013:3
    Tiivistelmä Fennoskandian pohjoisosien talvi-ilmaston ankaruus luo erinomaiset edellytykset erilaisten laitteiden teknisen kestävyyden testaamiseen äärimmäisissä olosuhteissa. Autojen ja talvirenkaiden suorituskyvyn testaus talviolosuhteissa onkin ollut kasvava toimiala alueella. Myös alueen jatkuvasti kasvava matkailuelinkeino on vahvasti riippuvainen talvi-ilmastosta. Tietoa talvi-ilmaston alueellisesta vaihtelusta tarvitaan uusia investointeja suunniteltaessa. Tähän tarpeeseen vastataksemme olemme tutkineet valikoitujen, talven lämpötila- ja lumioloja kuvaavien ilmastollisten muuttujien alueellista vaihtelua Fennoskandian pohjoisosissa. Hilamuotoinen E-OBS aineisto lämpötilalle ja GlobSnow aineisto lumen vesiarvolle osoittautuivat käyttökelpoisiksi muodostettaessa kuvausta nykyilmastosta. Tämän lisäksi esitämme arvioita ilmastonmuutoksen vaikutuksesta termisen talven ja lumipeiteajan pituuteen lähitulevaisuudessa. Pisimpien ja lumisimpien talvien havaitaan esiintyvän Ruotsin luoteisosien vuoristoisilla alueilla, kun taas rannikkoalueilla talvet ovat lauhempia kuin muualla. Kaikkein matalimpia lämpötiloja vuorostaan esiintyy korkeimmilla alueilla vain harvoin. Abstract The harsh winter climate of northern Fennoscandia creates an excellent environment for testing the technical durability of vehicles in extreme conditions. A growing economic activity in the region is testing the performance of cars and snow tyres in these winter conditions. Moreover, the continuallygrowing tourism industry of the region is highly dependent on the winter climate. When new infrastructures are planned, a spatial knowledge of winter climate is needed to determine the most favourable locations for the intended purposes. To respond to this demand, we have examined the spatial variation of selected climatological parameters describing winter temperature and snow conditions in northern Fennoscandia. The gridded high-resolution E-OBS data set for temperature and the GlobSnow data set for snow water equivalent were found to be suitable to construct a description of the present-day winter climate. In addition to presenting a description of the winter climate in the baseline period 1981–2010, we also give estimates of the effect of climate change on the length of the thermal winter and snow season in the near future. The longest and snowiest winters are found to occur in the mountainous areas of north-western Sweden, while in coastal areas winters are milder than elsewhere. In contrast, the lowest temperatures seldom occur in the highest areas.
  • Kiljunen, Niina; Pajunen, Timo; Fukushima, Caroline; Soukainen, Arttu; Kuurne, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tuuli; Saarinen, Joni; Falck, Ilari; Laine, Erkka; Mammola, Stefano; Urbano, Fernando; Macias-Hernandez, Nuria; Cardoso, Pedro (2020)
    Background A spider taxonomy and ecology field course was organised in Kilpisjarvi Biological Station, northern Finland, in July 2019. During the course, four 50 x 50 m plots in mountain birch forest habitat were sampled following a standardised protocol. In addition to teaching and learning about spider identification, behaviour, ecology and sampling, the main aim of the course was to collect comparable data from the Kilpisjarvi area as part of a global project, with the purpose of uncovering global spider diversity patterns. New information A total of 2613 spiders were collected, of which 892 (34%) were adults. Due to uncertainty of juvenile identification, only adults are included in the data presented in this paper. The observed adult spiders belong to 51 species, 40 genera and 11 families, of which the Linyphiidae were the most rich and abundant with 28 (55%) species and 461 (52%) individuals. Lycosidae had six species and 286 individuals, Gnaphosidae five species and 19 individuals, Thomisidae four species and 24 individuals, Theridiidae two species and 23 individuals. All other six families had one species and less than 40 individuals. The most abundant species were the linyphiid Agnyphantes expunctus (204) and the lycosids Pardosa eiseni (164) and Pardosa hyperborea (107).
  • Hämäläinen, Roosa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The Suurikuusikko orogenic Au-deposit is located in the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt within the Kittilä Group volcano-sedimentary sequence. The deposit is hosted by almost vertically dipping Kiistala Shear Zone (KiSZ). In the Suurikuusikko Au-deposit, gold occurs mainly as refractory gold within the arsenopyrite and the pyrite. The Rimpi orebody is the northernmost orebody of the Suurikuusikko deposit. Pikkurouravaara is a unit located to the northeast of the KiSZ that also has arsenopyrite and pyrite with Au as refractory in the main zone; however, in Pikkurouravaara the Au-content is not significant. The goal of this work was to examine using mineralogical tools as distribution of Au in Rimpi and Pikkurouravaara. Studying the mineralogy of the Rimpi also provides information on whether the Rimpi orebody is similar to the other orebodies in the Suurikuusikko deposit. The methods used were optical- and reflective light microscopy, FE-SEM, EPMA, and LA-SC-ICP-MS. Petrographical observations show that the main minerals, texture, and alteration are the same in Rimpi and Pikkurouravaara. The main sulfides, arsenopyrite and pyrite, are also the same, however, morphology and habit are different. In Pikkurouravaara the sulfide grains are larger and more homogenous, while in Rimpi sulfides are more frequently zoned. Also, the trace element content of the sulfides between the study areas was significantly different. In Pikkurouravaara Se, Ni, and Mo occurrence is elevated in arsenopyrite as are Se, Cr, Ni, and Co in pyrites relative to Rimpi. Most likely, Pikkurouravaara and Rimpi are of different generations and enrichment of Au in Rimpi sulfides reflects the episodic formation of the sulfides. Some of the arsenopyrite and pyrite grains in Rimpi host visible gold between the sulfide grains and in fractures. These visible Au-bearing samples were compared to those Rimpi samples where Au occurs only as refractory. In samples with visible gold, the average Au grade in arsenopyrite and pyrite is relatively higher than in samples where Au is only refractory. Also, the S-content is higher in the former. The As-grades were equally variable in both Rimpi types. The average Au grade in arsenopyrites from Rimpi is 340 - 410 ppm, which is coherent with the previously reported average values of 398 ppm. The average gold content of Rimpi pyrites is 14 – 24 ppm, which is significantly lower than the previously reported average of 235 ppm. The major- and trace element data with mineral morphology suggests that the geological history of Pikkurouravaara has been less episodic than in Rimpi.
  • Kumpulainen, Riitta (2001)
    The present study is historical and comparative by nature. The research problem consists of two domains. The first one deals with the consequences of the proceeding modernisation process in the two peripheral areas of Finnish Lapland and the Western Islands of Scotland. Indicators such as economic development, population development, changes in political and religious atmosphere and spread of public education have been discussed to show that although the modernisation process has proceeded differently in each area, both have remained economically backward and culturally distinct when compared to the rest of the country. This has been interpreted to reflect an institutionalised cultural division of labour, as Michael Hechter's (1975) concept of internal colonialism suggests. Because increasing labour mobility and particularly seasonal mobility is one of the most pronounced consequences of the modernisation process in both areas, it has been studied as the second domain. By studying seasonal mobility, an attempt to grasp the individual experience of a structural change has been made. In Scotland, the East Coast herring industry offered seasonal work for the Islanders between 1850-1939 and in Finland, the developing forest industry for the lumberjacks and road builders from the beginning of the century until the 1960's. By analysing documents and life histories written by the mobile individuals, themes such as what the mobile way of life is like and how the individuals were affected by it have been discussed. To conclude, it is argued that although the modernisation process has produced peripherality on the institutional level in the two areas under study, it has produced also modernity on the individual level. This is due to the various modernising elements that belong to the mobile way of life, such as working in well-organised large job sites and meeting fellow-workers originating from various places. As a result, the simultaneous existence of the modern and traditional on individual and structural levels has become characteristic in both areas.
  • Pohtila, Eljas; Pohjola, Tapani (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1983)
  • Sonck, C. E. (Botanical Museum of the Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, 1991)
    Norrlinia; 3
  • Seitsonen, Oula; Koskinen-Koivisto, Eerika (2018)
    In this paper we discuss the heritage of the WWII evacuation and the so-called burning of Lapland' within a Sami reindeer herding community, and assess how these wartime experiences have moulded, and continue to mould, the ways people memorialise and engage with the WWII material remains. Our focus is on the village of Vuotso, which is home to the southernmost Sami community in Finland. The Nazi German troops established a large military base there in 1941, and the Germans and the villagers lived as close neighbours for several years. In 1944 the villagers were evacuated before the outbreak of the Finno-German Lapland War' of 1944-1945, in which the German troops annihilated their military installations and the civilian infrastructure. Today the ruins of demolished German military installations persist around the village as vivid reminders, and act for the villagers as important active agents in memorising this vital phase in Lapland's recent past. They also appear to facilitate nostalgia for the more independent days before traditional Sami lifeways were ruptured by stronger Finnish State intervention in the post-war decades.