Browsing by Subject "Latent class analysis"

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  • Heikkala, Eveliina; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Taimela, Simo; Paananen, Markus; Vaaramo, Eeva; Auvinen, Juha; Karppinen, Jaro (2020)
    BackgroundThe relevance of health-related behaviors to exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood remains poorly studied in relation to the magnitude of the problem. We explored whether adolescents' accumulated unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems are associated with later labor market exclusion, and whether multisite musculoskeletal pain (MMSP) impacts these relations.MethodsWe gathered questionnaire data on unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems and MMSP among adolescents aged 15 to 16 belonging to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The findings were combined with registry data on unemployment, employment and permanent work disability during a five-year follow-up between the ages of 25 and 29 (n=6692). In the statistical modeling we used education, family leave and socioeconomic status of childhood family as potential confounders, as well as latent class and logistic regression analyses.ResultsThe Externalizing behavior cluster associated with over one year of unemployment (RR 1.64, CI 1.25-2.14) and permanent work disability (OR 2.49, CI 1.07-5.78) in the follow-up among the men. The Sedentary cluster also associated with over one year (RR 1.41, CI 1.13-1.75) and under one year of unemployment (RR 1.25, CI 1.02-1.52) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.26-2.95) among the men. Obese male participants were at risk of over one year of unemployment (RR 1.50, CI 1.08-2.09) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.07-3.50). Among the women, the Multiple risk behavior cluster related significantly to over one year of unemployment (RR 1.77, CI 1.37-2.28). MMSP had no influence on the associations.ConclusionsUnhealthy behavior patterns and psychosocial problems in adolescence have long-term consequences for exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood, especially among men. Simultaneously supporting psychological well-being and healthy behaviors in adolescence may reduce labor market inclusion difficulties in the early phase of working life.
  • Heikkala, Eveliina; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Taimela, Simo; Paananen, Markus; Vaaramo, Eeva; Auvinen, Juha; Karppinen, Jaro (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background The relevance of health-related behaviors to exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood remains poorly studied in relation to the magnitude of the problem. We explored whether adolescents’ accumulated unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems are associated with later labor market exclusion, and whether multisite musculoskeletal pain (MMSP) impacts these relations. Methods We gathered questionnaire data on unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems and MMSP among adolescents aged 15 to 16 belonging to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The findings were combined with registry data on unemployment, employment and permanent work disability during a five-year follow-up between the ages of 25 and 29 (n = 6692). In the statistical modeling we used education, family leave and socioeconomic status of childhood family as potential confounders, as well as latent class and logistic regression analyses. Results The Externalizing behavior cluster associated with over one year of unemployment (RR 1.64, CI 1.25–2.14) and permanent work disability (OR 2.49, CI 1.07–5.78) in the follow-up among the men. The Sedentary cluster also associated with over one year (RR 1.41, CI 1.13–1.75) and under one year of unemployment (RR 1.25, CI 1.02–1.52) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.26–2.95) among the men. Obese male participants were at risk of over one year of unemployment (RR 1.50, CI 1.08–2.09) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.07–3.50). Among the women, the Multiple risk behavior cluster related significantly to over one year of unemployment (RR 1.77, CI 1.37–2.28). MMSP had no influence on the associations. Conclusions Unhealthy behavior patterns and psychosocial problems in adolescence have long-term consequences for exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood, especially among men. Simultaneously supporting psychological well-being and healthy behaviors in adolescence may reduce labor market inclusion difficulties in the early phase of working life.
  • DIABIMMUNE Study Grp; Schmidt, Felicitas; Hose, Alexander J.; Siljander, Heli; Knip, Mikael; Ege, Markus J. (2019)
    Background: The prevalence of atopy is associated with a Western lifestyle, as shown by studies comparing neighboring regions with different socioeconomic backgrounds. Atopy might reflect various conditions differing in their susceptibility to environmental factors. Objective: We sought to define phenotypes of atopic sensitization in early childhood and examine their association with allergic diseases and hereditary background in Finland and Estonia. Methods: The analysis included 1603 Finnish and 1657 Estonian children from the DIABIMMUNE multicenter young children cohort. Specific IgE levels were measured at age 3, 4, and 5 years, respectively, and categorized into 3 CAP classes. Latent class analysis was performed with the statistical software package poLCA in R software. Results: Both populations differed in terms of socioeconomic status and environmental determinants, such as pet ownership, farm-related exposure, time spent playing outdoors, and prevalence of allergic diseases (all P Conclusion: Despite profound differences in environmental exposures, there might exist genuine patterns of atopic sensitization. The distribution of these patterns might determine the contribution of atopic sensitization to disease onset.
  • Ek, Ellen; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Velazquez, Regina Garcia; Tolvanen, Asko; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2021)
    Applying social investment theory (SIT), we examined whether employment trajectories until midlife, with differential investments in education and employment, are associated with social investments during early life and with work-related well-being in midlife, with a special reference to potential differences between self-employment and paid work. In the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 6496; 2963 men, 3533 women), life-history calendars from age 16-45 were used to determine the respondents' yearly employment statuses (student, full-time employee, part-time employee, self-employed, unemployed, on parental leave, on sabbatical leave or otherwise not working). Latent class analysis was used to identify the employment trajectories. The associations of these trajectories with indicators of social investments in early life (mother's attitude to financial self-reliance, father's socioeconomic status, own success at school) and work-related well-being at age 46 (job satisfaction, life satisfaction, absence of retirement thoughts, work engagement, work favoring attitude and perceived job control) were studied using regression models and analyses of variance, adjusting for life situation at age 46. We identified five employment trajectories for both genders: 1) traditional full-time, 2) highly educated, 3) self-employed, 4) delayed full-time and 5) floundering employees. In early life, a mother emphasizing self-reliance in earning one's living was associated with both highly educated and self-employed trajectories. A white-collar father and own success at school preceded a highly educated trajectory. A farmer family background preceded self-employed trajectory. At age 46, highly educated and self-employed trajectories were associated with highest well-being at work, while those floundering perceived their work most negatively. Men in the delayed full-time employment trajectory reported better well-being at age 46 than those constantly floundering. Overall, the macroeconomic employment rates were unevenly reflected in the five trajectories. Our findings support SIT by showing that the employment trajectories most favorable for work-related well-being in midlife are long rooted in social investments during early life and characterized by further social investments in employment, such as higher education and self-employment.
  • Bofah, Emmanuel A; Hannula, Markku S. (Springer US, 2017)
    Abstract In large scale international assessment studies, questionnaires are typical used to query students’ home possessions. Composite scores are computed from responses to the home resource questionnaires and are used as a measure of family socioeconomic background in achievement comparison or for statistical control. This paper deals with profiling the socio-economic status (SES) of Ghanaian students’ in the context of the TIMSS 2011 study. Latent class analysis was used to profile students into respective SES classes based on the students’ responses to 11 questions concerning their home resources. The results showed three clearly distinct socio-economic profiles: high-, middle- and low-SES. Moreover, a discriminate analysis was conducted to explore the degree to which the groups are accurately classified. The discriminant analysis was able to correctly classify 92.20% of the individual students into their appropriate SES group. A gender comparison of these classes suggested stable measurement invariance for the latent class indicators. This article contributes to addressing the composition of SES by providing statistical criteria to evaluate SES using empirical data.
  • Niva, Mari; Vainio, Annukka (2021)
    This study investigated consumers' self-reported past changes and future intentions to change the consumption of beef and alternative, plant- or insect-based protein products. A survey of 18-79-year-old consumers in Finland (N = 1000) was analysed with latent class analysis, and five consumer clusters were identified. The largest cluster (37%) consumed beef, but no alternative protein products; three clusters incorporated alternative protein products in their diets in different ways (in total 55%); and one cluster did not consume beef or alternative proteins (8%). In total 27% of the respondents intended to reduce the consumption of beef in the future, whereas 26% planned to increase the consumption of plant-based and 24% planned to increase the use of insect-based protein products. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that the use of alternative proteins was associated with higher health and sustainability motives, and lower food neophobia. The results suggest that demand for new, more sustainable proteins and protein innovations will grow in the future.