Browsing by Subject "Learning"

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  • Niemivirta, Markku; Pulkka, Antti-Tuomas; Tapola, Anna; Tuominen, Heta (Cambridge University Press, 2019)
    Cambridge Handbooks in Psychology
    In this chapter, we describe the principles of a person-oriented approach to studying individual differences (and similarities), and how it can be applied to the study of students’ achievement goal orientations. First, we briefly illustrate the approach, which provides a way of looking at the relative emphasis of different achievement goal orientations, thereby explicitly addressing the issue of multiple goals and their associations with important outcomes. Second, we give a comprehensive review of studies that have applied such an approach to investigating students’ achievement goals. The diversity in conceptualizations, methods, and study samples in the studies complicates the interpretation of the findings, but some generalizations can nevertheless be made. Based on the review, we conclude that students with qualitatively different achievement goal orientation profiles can clearly be identified, and that the extracted profiles are rather similar across studies. Further, it seems that such profiles are relatively stable over time and meaningfully associated with learning and various educational outcomes (e.g., academic achievement, self-perceptions, well-being, task-related motivation, and performance). The review also contributes to the debate concerning the advantages of endorsing different goals. Finally, we raise some methodological concerns, discuss implications for learning, and provide suggestions for future research.
  • Rusanen, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study aimed at discovering whether using a Virtual Reality (VR) educational platform can result in better learning outcomes compared to a more traditional form of instructional technology, video. In addition, this study aimed at providing information of VR’s ability to transmit credibility, and especially to transmit trustworthiness, competence, and sense of goodwill. Several studies regarding the use of VR and more traditional technologies in education provided the theoretical foundation for this thesis. Additionally, credibility and affordance related theories were involved in the theoretical background. This experimental study was executed as a quantitative study that employed randomized, controlled crossover experiments within test subjects. Three forestry related contents (1) Harvester head, (2) Tree cell, and (3) Laser scanning point clouds, were exposed to test subjects and questionnaires were used to gather information of the experiment and to measure i.a. credibility, affordances and other variables. Pre- and post-test were used to measure learning. The data consisted of N=100 test subjects of which 49 experienced video treatment and 51 experienced VR treatment. Learning results were not better in VR treatments. Conversely, learning results were significantly better in video treatments. There was a significant difference in learning results between the Harvester head content and the other two contents. In Harvester head content test subjects gained significantly better learning results in VR and video conditions. Credibility of the experts was perceived equally high in both VR and video treatments. However, Competence and Goodwill were perceived higher in VR treatments. The expert in the Harvester head content was perceived least competent in both treatments. Finally, the results indicated the chosen affordances (Opportunities, Multi-sensory, Three-dimensionality, and Commitment and Motivation) were significantly more suitable to VR treatments than video. In the light of the obtained results, adapting a VR technology to educational or training purposes should be done with a careful consideration. VR enables visualization in an immersive way that increases motivation and engagement towards the content taught. However, compelling visuals nor the novel media alone do not necessarily result in better learning results. Focusing on presenting specific contents and tasks in VR will enhance its use for educational and training purposes. In the future studies, attention should be paid to avatar credibility and VR’s ability to transmit sense of Competence and Good-will better than traditional media. Additionally, based on the results of this study, the interactive functions of VR ought to be emphasized when focusing on promoting learning.
  • Viholainen, Noora; Kylkilahti, Eliisa; Autio, Minna; Pöyhönen, Juho; Toppinen, Anne (2021)
    Lowering environmental impacts by material choices is proposed as a way to promote urban sustain ability transition, and one solution is building more wooden multi-storey constructions (WMCs). In the construction industry, however, there is a strong path dependency towards applying well-established construction materials and methods, as well as partnerships. To gain understanding of network-based collaboration, learning and end-user involvement in novel wooden construction business, the study uses qualitative methods and employs business ecosystem approach in the analysis. The studied WMC business case revealed that barriers of collaborative business ecosystem development include both the lack of clarity in the shared goals between actors and weak end-user involvement. Moreover, neither companies nor end-users fully recognize sustainability aspects around WMC. Enabling factors such as smooth communication and building trust among business actors during planning and building were recognised. The study suggests that a broader business ecosystem approach, including the living and use of the building, offers a mindset shift for developing sustainability-driven logic alongside profitable construction business and creating value for consumers. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Österberg, PhD, Peter; Köping Olsson, Bengt (2021)
    Schools are institutions responsible for teaching children new skills and knowledge, the ability to think about future targets, and, when problems become complex, how to apply explorative thinking and inborn creativity to solve them. Even so, scholars point to the fact that school curriculums do not support ways to facilitate explorative learning or creativity for problem-solving. To successfully devise solutions never considered before, children need support with programs enabling them to facilitate openness for experience intellectually. This study suggests that dance activities should become regular in the curriculum as a strategy for maintaining schoolchildren’s cognitive flexibility.
  • Roikonen, Mira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Rapid learning or fast mapping reflects the human brain’s ability to form new memory traces to novel words during exposure without the need for a long overnight consolidation period before the word can be used in conversation. This ability to acquire new words almost instantaneously may very well reflect how well-tuned the human language systems are to the phonemes of the native language. However, the neural basis of rapid learning has been largely unknown until recent neuroimaging studies. In this study on adult learners (n = 15), I recorded brain’s event-related potentials elicited by three different types of auditory bi-syllabic stimuli (native words, native pseudowords and pseudowords with unfamiliar phonemes, all acoustically closely matched) in a passive EEG-recording session before and after subjects participated in two types of training conditions. In the attend condition, subjects listened to a flow of stimuli while pressing a button when a target stimulus appeared. In the articulation condition subjects repeated out loud the heard stimuli. An auditory memory recognition test was administered after training to allow the comparison of neural learning effects to observable change in behaviour. Larger evoked responses were expected to correlate with better performance in the recognition task. All analyses were time-locked to the onset of the second syllable (critical disambiguation point/recognition point). A two-peak waveform was observed to all stimuli after both conditions, with the earlier peak appearing circa 40 ms and the later peak circa 140 ms after second syllable onset. Unlike in similar previous studies where responses increased as a result of learning, all responses decreased in magnitude. No statistically significant differences between the conditions were observed. This may have been due to either the small sample size, test subject fatigue or suppression effects due to repetition, masking any possible learning effects. For the late peak, native pseudowords evoked significantly stronger responses than native words or non-native pseudowords. Performance in the memory recognition task was good (above chance for all stimuli in both conditions), and as such learning cannot be excluded even though statistically significant differences in the evoked responses were not found. Further research and re-exploration of the data acquired here utilising source modelling might enable to assess in more detail the effect of attentive listening vs. articulation in rapid learning.
  • Hetemäki, Iivo (2020)
    Voiko työskentelyä, joka tapahtuu ilman oppimistavoitteita sekä -suunnitelmaa ja pahimmillaan myös ilman ohjausta, kutsua koulutukseksi vain sillä perusteella, että se tapahtuu sairaalan seinien sisällä?
  • Caldwell, Hillary; Krinsky, John; Brunila, Mikael; Ranta, Kukka (2019)
    Through a study of a coalition to promote community land trusts in New York City, this article asks how collective learning unfolds in the context of activism against gentrification and displacement. Drawing on Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), we illustrate how the coalition develops as it confronts the contradictory nature of commodified land and housing and navigates the contradictions and other challenges entailed in the process of commoning. Understanding this as a learning process is critical to understanding the politics of urban commoning practice and of particular approaches to it such as community land trusts (CLTs). © 2020, Okanagan University College.
  • Pitkälä, Kaisu; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Immonen, Susanna; Lehti, Tuuli; Tiilikainen, Ida; Vesterinen, Teppo; Saarinen, Esa (2018)
    Helsingin lääketieteellisen perusopetuksen, Aalto-yliopiston ja Helsingin kotihoidon ensimmäinen yhteinen valinnainen kurssi oli rohkaiseva alku uudenlaiselle tiimioppimiselle, joka voi tuottaa hyvää myös -palvelujärjestelmälle ja potilaille. Kurssilaiset oppivat muiden ammattilaisten arvostusta ja ¬potilaslähtöisyyttä.
  • Franks, Victoria R.; Thorogood, Rose (2018)
    Birds use cues when foraging to help relocate food resources, but natural environments provide many potential cues and choosing which to use may depend on previous experience. Young animals have less experience of their environment compared to adults, so may be slower to learn cues or may need to sample the environment more. Whether age influences cue use and learning has, however, received little experimental testing in wild animals. Here we investigate effects of age in a wild population of hihi (Notiomystis cincta), a threatened New Zealand passerine. We manipulated bird feeders using a novel colour cue to indicate a food reward; once hihi learned its location, we rotated the feeder to determine whether the birds followed the colour or returned to the previous location. Both age groups made fewer errors over trials and learned the location of the food reward, but juveniles continued to sample unrewarding locations more than adults. Following a second rotation, more adults preferred to forage from the hole indicated by the colour cue than juveniles, despite this no longer being rewarding. Overall, juveniles spent longer in the feeder arena to reach the same proportion of foraging time as adults. Combined, these results suggest that juveniles and adults may use an “explore and exploit” foraging strategy differently, and this affects how efficiently they forage. Further work is needed to understand how juveniles may compensate for their inexperience in learning and foraging strategies.
  • Vikman, Taru (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Globalization and education are two key aspects of our time. Education has the power to transform our future, and increasingly it takes place in intercultural contexts. To fulfil the transformative potential of education in intercultural contexts, more cross-cultural understanding on differing approaches to learning is, arguably, required. The aim of this thesis was to increase our understanding of conceptions of learning in two vastly different contexts – in mainland China and in Finland. This aim was approached by analysing learning advice provided in journalistic online media. It was argued in this thesis that these media representations provide one potential window into the socially constructed, shared conceptions of learning in these contexts. This thesis, firstly, sought to discover ‘what is going on’ in each set of material individually – or, in other words, how ‘ideal studying’ is constructed through the advice of the material – and, secondly, compared these constructions with each other. The analysis of the media representations was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a material-driven qualitative content analysis was conducted to build a conceptualization of ‘ideal studying’ from each set of material individually. This phase of the analysis took advantage of several analytic tools from the Grounded Theory “toolbox”. In the second phase, a comparative analysis was conducted to identify and make sense of the similarities and differences in the representations of ‘ideal studying’ in the mainland Chinese and Finnish articles. By using the material-driven analysis, a conceptualization of ‘ideal studying’ was constructed separately based on the material from the mainland Chinese and the Finnish journalistic media contexts. The mainland Chinese conceptualization was constructed around the two main categories of following rigorous preparation process for exam performance and shielding from stress. Whereas the two central categories in the Finnish conceptualization were getting oneself to do the studying and parenting (verb: to parent someone or something) focus for efficient knowledge acquisition. One of the most interesting findings of the comparative analysis – that has according to the knowledge of the author of this thesis not been discussed in previous research – was the nearly extreme focus in the Finnish material on optimizing the conditions around the studying for the purpose of making the study time as efficient as possible – and possibly as minimal as possible. The findings of this thesis are discussed in relation to existing models on the variety of learning conceptions as well as learning strategies related to the framework of self-regulated learning. Practical implications for education exports in the context of Finland to mainland China are derived. The findings are a result of the individual interpretation of the author of this thesis and her best efforts to conduct the study following methodological and ethical guidance from previous literature. The challenges of cross-cultural comparison, the emphasized role of researcher interpretation as well as the author’s personal background and inexperience are discussed in relation to research quality and ethics. The thesis process was conducted between June 2019 and May 2020.
  • Havu, Ninka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Medical Faculty of University of Helsinki desires to improve teaching and learning methods based on simulating techniques. The aim of this study is to describe the development process of a Skills lab and peer-assisted learning. We inquired students' and teachers' opinions and wishes on skills training, and use of the Skills lab by web questionnaires. After analyzing results, we purchased numerous new training phantoms, recruited three peer assistants, expanded opening hours, and started collecting feedback by a web form. 220 students and 52 teachers answered, their wishes for new skills training possibilities were surprisingly similar. In first three months, 66 students' average grade for the expanded Skills lab was 4.5. Both students and teachers consider skills lab training beneficial and worth increasing. A diversely equipped Skills lab attracts students, but continuous advertising is essential. Students should be inspired to train by themselves too, in order to gain enough repetition.
  • Hale, Jo Mhairi; Schneider, Daniel C.; Gampe, Jutta; Mehta, Neil K.; Myrskyla, Mikko (2020)
    Background: Accumulating evidence suggests risk of cognitive impairment is declining in high-income countries. Much of this research uses longitudinal surveys in which learning over repeated tests may bias results. We analyze trends in cognitive impairment in the United States, accounting for prior test experience and selective mortality. Methods: We use the Health and Retirement Study, a population-based, nationally representative panel dataset and include individuals ages 50 years and older in 1996-2014 (n = 32,784). We measure cognitive impairment and dementia using standard cutpoints of the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status. We estimate logistic regression models for any impairment and dementia over time, adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, comparing models with and without adjustment for practice effects and education. We examine heterogeneity in trends by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and education. Results: Models not controlling for test experience suggest that risk of cognitive impairment and dementia decreased over the study period. Controlling for test experience reverses the trend. In our primary models, prevalence of any cognitive impairment increased for women from 18.7% to 21.2% (annual change 0.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%, 1.3%) and for men from 17.6% to 21.0% (annual change 1.0%, CI, 0.5%, 1.4%). For dementia, women's annual increase was 1.7% (CI, 0.8%, 2.6%) and men's 2.0% (CI, 1.0%, 2.9%). If not for education, the increase would have been stronger. Increased risk was particularly rapid for Latinas, the least educated, and older ages. Conclusions: Risk of cognitive impairment increased from 1996 to 2014. Uncovering determinants of increasing cognitive impairment risk should become a research priority. See video abstract:.
  • Hallikainen, Juhana (2016)
  • Almenoksa, Aleksi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    As graduating medical students in Finland wish for more skills training and lack proficiency in some of the core procedures expected by a graduating doctor or a GP, the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Helsinki aims to improve teaching and learning methods based on simulating techniques. The aims of this study were to describe a voluntary skills laboratory course and how students and teachers perceived the experience. We recruited teachers from 11 different specialties to prepare a voluntary skills training session for medical students. The sessions used the faculty skills laboratory equipment and were targeted towards skills that would be needed in clinical rotations and working as substitute for resident doctors at hospitals and as general practitioners in health centers. The sessions were generally open to students from all course levels, and registration was separately carried out for each session. The students could, however, choose to enroll for a voluntary skills course, which required participation in 5 voluntary sessions, 40 hours of independent practice and studying, and a learning diary of the whole experience. We used web-based forms to gather feedback from students and teachers on their perceptions of the sessions. A total of 84/196 (43%) students and 20/21 (95%) teachers were responded. In addition, we analyzed 10 learning diaries from the voluntary course for similarities. Both students and teachers perceived the sessions useful. The average overall rating on a scale of five for a session by the students was 4.27 (IQR: 4-5 n=84). Teachers were motivated in organizing the sessions and felt that the participants were excited, indicating that the sessions were a pleasant experience. The voluntary skills sessions and voluntary skills course were a strong proof of concept and could provide an effective way to promote independent learning in the skills lab.
  • Korhonen, Marie; Luoma, Ilona (2017)
    •Äidin masennus suurentaa lapsen käytösongelmien ja tunne-elämän oireiden riskiä. •Etenkin raskausaikana tai synnytyksen jälkeen ilmenevät masennusoireet voivat vaikuttaa sikiön ja imeväisen aivojen kehitykseen ja siten myöhemmin lapsen stressinsietokykyyn, oppimiseen sekä käytöksen ja tunne-elämän säätelyyn. •Masennuksen negatiivisia vaikutuksia voivat lisätä tai välittää geneettinen alttius ja herkkyys, kiintymys¬suhteen laatu, lapsen ja vanhemman vuorovaikutussuhde, lapsen yksilölliset ominaisuudet, sukupuoli ja -riskitekijöiden kumuloituminen. •Interventiot tulisi kohdistaa ennaltaehkäisevästi koko perheeseen.
  • Hilppö, Jaakko; Stevens, Reed (2020)
    In an era of high-stakes testing and performance demands that regulate future educational opportunities and affect how schools are managed and funded, failure can easily become stigmatized in the practices of schooling. In turn, it can lead students to avoid activities in which they can be evaluated as failing. As researchers, if we wish to help students recognize the value of failure in the process of learning and to capitalize on failures as significant learning opportunities, we must find ways in which failure at school can be reframed as something productive, rather than punitive. In this study, we investigated how student experience in a FUSE Studio—an alternative infrastructure for learning in schools organized around principles of student choice and interest (Stevens et al., 2016)— support a different, more productive ‘use’ of failure. Our study is an investigation of how failure was framed in the FUSE Studio by students and teachers and whether these participants recognized learning from failure as a productive part of their FUSE Studio experience. Our analysis, which was based on a year-long video ethnography conducted in a typical FUSE Studio, revealed two distinct ways in which failure was framed. In addition, an analysis of participant interviews highlighted that the students and a facilitator viewed failure as a significant and productive part of their FUSE Studio experience. In sum, the study contributes to the existing literature on the value of failure for learning, by highlighting a way that failure can be framed as being productive for both students and teachers.