Browsing by Subject "Legislation"

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  • Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Ghidini, Sergio; Gomez Laguna, Jaime; Langkabel, Nina; Santos, Susana; Maurer, Patric; Meemken, Diana; Alban, Lis; Alvseike, Ole; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena (2022)
    In the EU, a post-mortem inspection of finishing pigs comprises visual inspections of the carcass and offal followed by additional examinations, such as palpation and incision of parts, when needed. Moreover, it can include various laboratory tests. Since European meat inspection is regulated by the EU, one may assume that post-mortem inspection is performed in the same way in the Member States. However, previous studies showed that variations exist. This article shows the results of a survey performed in September 2020 on how visual meat inspection of finishing pigs is applied in Europe. By using a questionnaire, palpations, incisions and other procedures for 10 gross pathological findings and laboratory methods applied by official veterinarians to evaluate the fitness of meat for human consumption were assessed. We received 44 responses from 26 European countries. Most respondents reported that visual meat inspection was a generally applied inspection method. The main reason for not applying visual meat inspection was export requirements. The most important reasons for applying palpations and incisions in addition to visual inspection were findings detected in ante- or post-mortem inspection. There was considerable variation in the use of palpations and incisions, other post-mortem procedures and laboratory tests to assess meat fitness for human consumption. The respondents mentioned some country-specific practices, but we also observed variations within the responding official veterinarians that could not be explained by country of origin or years of work experience. Additional detailed studies on the variation are needed before harmonisation of meat inspection procedures are attempted.
  • Metsäniitty, Mari; Varkkola, Olli; Waltimo-Siren, Janna; Ranta, Helena (2017)
    In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays. Forensic age assessment is always performed by two forensic odontologists. In 2015, the total number of forensic age assessment examinations was 149, and the countries of origin of the asylum seekers were most commonly Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia. The current legislation on forensic age assessment has been well received and approved. Radiological and other examinations can be performed in different parts of Finland, but the forensic odontologist at the University of Helsinki is always involved in the process and ensures joint quality standards for the forensic age assessment.
  • Tiekstra, Sanne; Dopico-Parada, Ana; Koivula, Hanna; Lahti, Johanna; Buntinx, Mieke (2021)
    Market implementation of active and intelligent packaging (AIP) technologies specifically for fiber-based food packaging can be hindered by various factors. This paper highlights those from a social, economic, environmental, and legislative point of view, and elaborates upon the following aspects mainly related to interactions among food packaging value chain stakeholders: (i) market drivers that affect developments, (ii) the gap between science and industry, (iii) the gap between legislation and practice, (iv) cooperation between the producing stakeholders within the value chain, and (v) the gap between the industry and consumers. We perceive these as the most influential aspects in successful market implementation at a socioeconomic level. The findings are supported by results from quantitative studies analyzing consumer buying expectations about active and intelligent packaging (value perception of packaging functions, intentions to purchase AIP, and willingness to pay more) executed in 16 European countries. Finally, in this paper, we discuss approaches that could direct future activities in the field towards industrial implementation.
  • Hyvönen, Eero; Tamper, Minna; Ikkala, Esko; Koho, Mikko; Leal, Rafael; Kesäniemi, Joonas; Oksanen, Arttu; Tuominen, Jouni; Hietanen, Aki (2022)
    This paper argues for the idea of publishing legislation and case law as Linked Open Data (LOD) on the Semantic Web, to cater several user groups, including the general public, legislators, lawyers, researchers of legal informatics, and application developers. To support the argument, the proof-of-concept system LawSampo - Finnish Legislation and Case Law on the Semantic Web is introduced, including a semantic portal and a LOD service. Based on the Sampo Model, the main novelty of LawSampo is the provision of heterogenous distributed legal data through multiple application perspectives for faceted searching and exploring the data and for data analysis in legal informatics.
  • Pettersson, Ante B. V.; Ballardini, Rosa Maria; Mimler, Marc; Li, Phoebe; Salmi, Mika; Minssen, Timo; Gibson, Ian; Mäkitie, Antti (2023)
    Introduction: 3D printing has quickly found many applications in medicine. However, as with any new technology the regulatory landscape is struggling to stay abreast. Unclear legislation or lack of legislation has been suggested as being one hindrance for wide-scale adoption.Methods: A scoping review was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS and Westlaw International to identify articles dealing with legal issues in medical 3D printing.Results: Thirty-four articles fulfilling inclusion criteria were identified in medical/technical databases and fifteen in the legal database. The majority of articles dealt with the USA, while the EU was also prominently represented. Some common unresolved legal issues were identified, among them terminological confusion between custom-made and patient-matched devices, lack of specific legislation for patient-matched products, and the undefined legal role of CAD files both from a liability and from an intellectual property standpoint. Data protection was mentioned only in two papers and seems an underexplored topic.Conclusion: In this scoping review, several relevant articles and several common unresolved legal issues were identified including a need for terminological uniformity in medical 3D printing. The results of this work are planned to inform our own deeper legal analysis of these issues in the future.